Next Article in Journal
Exolysin Shapes the Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clonal Outliers
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Lonomia obliqua Venom on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Contribution of NADPH Oxidase-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species
Previous Article in Special Issue
Report from the 1st MYCOKEY International Conference Global Mycotoxin Reduction in the Food and Feed Chain Held in Ghent, Belgium, 11–14 September 2017
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2017, 9(11), 363; doi:10.3390/toxins9110363

Awareness and Prevalence of Mycotoxin Contamination in Selected Nigerian Fermented Foods

1
Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa
2
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta 2240, Nigeria
3
Laboratory of Food Analysis, Department of Bioanalysis, Ghent University, Ghent B-9000, Belgium
4
Department of Botany, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laura Anfossi
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [614 KB, uploaded 8 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Fermented food samples (n = 191) including maize gruel (ogi), sorghum gruel (ogi-baba), melon seed (ogiri), locust bean (iru) and African oil bean seed (ugba) from Southwest Nigeria were quantified for 23 mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and sterigmatocystin (STE) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The practices, perceived understanding and health risks related to fungal and mycotoxin contamination amongst fermented food sellers was also established. Data obtained revealed that 82% of the samples had mycotoxins occurring singly or in combination. FB1 was present in 83% of ogi-baba samples, whereas 20% of ugba samples contained AFB1 (range: 3 to 36 µg/kg) and STE was present in 29% of the ogi samples. In terms of multi-mycotoxin contamination, FB1 + FB2 + FB3 + STE + AFB1 + alternariol + HT-2 co-occurred within one sample. The awareness study revealed that 98% of respondents were unaware of mycotoxin contamination, and their education level slightly correlated with their level of awareness (p < 0.01, r = 0.308). The extent to which the analyzed mycotoxins contaminated these food commodities, coupled with the poor perception of the population under study on fungi and mycotoxins, justifies the need to enact fungal and mycotoxin mitigation strategies along the food chain. View Full-Text
Keywords: fermented foods; mycotoxins; awareness; food safety; LC-MS/MS fermented foods; mycotoxins; awareness; food safety; LC-MS/MS
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Adekoya, I.; Njobeh, P.; Obadina, A.; Chilaka, C.; Okoth, S.; De Boevre, M.; De Saeger, S. Awareness and Prevalence of Mycotoxin Contamination in Selected Nigerian Fermented Foods. Toxins 2017, 9, 363.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top