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Toxins 2017, 9(5), 149; doi:10.3390/toxins9050149

Assessing the Efficacy of First-Aid Measures in Physalia sp. Envenomation, Using Solution- and Blood Agarose-Based Models

1
Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
2
Discipline of Zoology, School of Natural Sciences, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway H91 W5P7, Ireland
3
Békésy Laboratory of Neurobiology, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Meg Daly
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2868 KB, uploaded 26 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Stings from the hydrozoan species in the genus Physalia cause intense, immediate skin pain and elicit serious systemic effects. There has been much scientific debate about the most appropriate first aid for these stings, particularly with regard to whether vinegar use is appropriate (most current recommendations recommend against vinegar). We found that only a small percentage (≤1.0%) of tentacle cnidae discharge during a sting event using an ex vivo tissue model which elicits spontaneous stinging from live cnidarian tentacles. We then tested a variety of rinse solutions on both Atlantic and Pacific Physalia species to determine if they elicit cnidae discharge, further investigating any that did not cause immediate significant discharge to determine if they are able to inhibit cnidae discharge in response to chemical and physical stimuli. We found commercially available vinegars, as well as the recently developed Sting No More® Spray, were the most effective rinse solutions, as they irreversibly inhibited cnidae discharge. However, even slight dilution of vinegar reduced its protective effects. Alcohols and folk remedies, such as urine, baking soda and shaving cream, caused varying amounts of immediate cnidae discharge and failed to inhibit further discharge, and thus likely worsen stings. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine envenomation; Portuguese man o’ war; bluebottle; cnidaria; hydrozoa; first aid; jellyfish; sting marine envenomation; Portuguese man o’ war; bluebottle; cnidaria; hydrozoa; first aid; jellyfish; sting
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wilcox, C.L.; Headlam, J.L.; Doyle, T.K.; Yanagihara, A.A. Assessing the Efficacy of First-Aid Measures in Physalia sp. Envenomation, Using Solution- and Blood Agarose-Based Models. Toxins 2017, 9, 149.

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