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Cancers 2012, 4(4), 969-988; doi:10.3390/cancers4040969

Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 25 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormones and Carcinogenesis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [190 KB, uploaded 25 September 2012]


Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy.
Keywords: lung cancer; estrogen; progesterone; aromatase; hormone receptors lung cancer; estrogen; progesterone; aromatase; hormone receptors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Baik, C.S.; Eaton, K.D. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy. Cancers 2012, 4, 969-988.

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