Next Article in Journal
Competitive Stereocomplexation and Homocrystallization Behaviors in the Poly(lactide) Blends of PLLA and PDLA-PEG-PDLA with Controlled Block Length
Previous Article in Journal
Microwave Assisted Reduction of Pt-Catalyst by N-Phenyl-p-Phenylenediamine for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Polymers 2017, 9(3), 106; doi:10.3390/polym9030106

Preparation and Characterization of Epoxy Resin Cross-Linked with High Wood Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Substitution by Acetone Pretreatment

1
MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
3
MOE Engineering Research Center of Forestry Biomass Materials and Bioenergy, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
4
Forest Products Development Center, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
5
School of Life Sciences, Zaozhuang University, Zaozhuang 277160, China
6
Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
7
Department of Biosystems Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Pizzi and Alexander Böker
Received: 16 February 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2356 KB, uploaded 15 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

The use of cost effective solvents may be necessary to store wood pyrolysis bio-oil in order to stabilize and control its viscosity, but this part of the production system has not been explored. Conversely, any rise in viscosity during storage, that would occur without a solvent, will add variance to the production system and render it cost ineffective. The purpose of this study was to modify bio-oil with a common solvent and then react the bio-oil with an epoxy for bonding of wood without any loss in properties. The acetone pretreatment of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture was found to improve the cross-linking potential and substitution rate based on its mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. Specifically, the bio-oil was blended with epoxy resin at weight ratios ranging from 2:1 to 1:5 and were then cured. A higher bio-oil substitution rate was found to lower the shear bond strength of the bio-oil/epoxy resins. However, when an acetone pretreatment was used, it was possible to replace the bio-oil by as much as 50% while satisfying usage requirements. Extraction of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture with four different solvents demonstrated an improvement in cross-linking after acetone pretreatment. ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed that the polymer achieved a higher cross-linked structure. DSC and TGA curves showed improved thermal stability with the addition of the acetone pretreatment. UV-Vis characterization showed that some functional groups of the bio-oil to epoxy system were unreacted. Finally, when the resin mixture was utilized to bond wood, the acetone pretreatment coupled with precise tuning of the bio-oil:epoxy ratio was an effective method to control cross-linking while ensuring acceptable bond strength. View Full-Text
Keywords: wood pyrolysis bio-oil; epoxy; acetone pretreatment; cross-linking; substitution wood pyrolysis bio-oil; epoxy; acetone pretreatment; cross-linking; substitution
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Via, B.K.; Pan, Y.; Cheng, Q.; Guo, H.; Auad, M.L.; Taylor, S. Preparation and Characterization of Epoxy Resin Cross-Linked with High Wood Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Substitution by Acetone Pretreatment. Polymers 2017, 9, 106.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top