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Genes 2017, 8(3), 98; doi:10.3390/genes8030098

Regulation of DNA Replication through Natural  Impediments in the Eukaryotic Genome

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo Cinelli
Received: 10 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Replication Controls)
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Abstract

All living organisms need to duplicate their genetic information while protecting it from unwanted mutations, which can lead to genetic disorders and cancer development. Inaccuracies during DNA replication are the major cause of genomic instability, as replication forks are prone to stalling and collapse, resulting in DNA damage. The presence of exogenous DNA damaging agents as well as endogenous difficult‐to‐replicate DNA regions containing DNA–protein complexes, repetitive DNA, secondary DNA structures, or transcribing RNA polymerases, increases the risk of genomic instability and thus threatens cell survival. Therefore, understanding the cellular mechanisms required to preserve the genetic information during S phase is of paramount importance. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of how cells cope with these natural impediments in order to prevent DNA damage and genomic instability during DNA replication. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA  replication;  replication  fork;  difficult‐to‐replicate;  replication  machinery;  replisome; natural impediments; DNA damage; repetitive DNA; secondary structures; genomic  instability DNA  replication;  replication  fork;  difficult‐to‐replicate;  replication  machinery;  replisome; natural impediments; DNA damage; repetitive DNA; secondary structures; genomic  instability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gadaleta, M.C.; Noguchi, E. Regulation of DNA Replication through Natural  Impediments in the Eukaryotic Genome. Genes 2017, 8, 98.

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