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Genes 2018, 9(8), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9080405

Sequencing of Supernumerary Chromosomes of Red Fox and Raccoon Dog Confirms a Non-Random Gene Acquisition by B Chromosomes

1
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
2
Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
3
Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, Saint-Petersburg State University, 199004 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
4
Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
5
Wellcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK
6
Cambridge Resource Centre for Comparative Genomics, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution, Composition and Regulation of Supernumerary B Chromosomes)
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Abstract

B chromosomes (Bs) represent a variable addition to the main karyotype in some lineages of animals and plants. Bs accumulate through non-Mendelian inheritance and become widespread in populations. Despite the presence of multiple genes, most Bs lack specific phenotypic effects, although their influence on host genome epigenetic status and gene expression are recorded. Previously, using sequencing of isolated Bs of ruminants and rodents, we demonstrated that Bs originate as segmental duplications of specific genomic regions, and subsequently experience pseudogenization and repeat accumulation. Here, we used a similar approach to characterize Bs of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes L.) and the Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides Gray). We confirm the previous findings of the KIT gene on Bs of both species, but demostrate an independent origin of Bs in these species, with two reused regions. Comparison of gene ensembles in Bs of canids, ruminants, and rodents once again indicates enrichment with cell-cycle genes, development-related genes, and genes functioning in the neuron synapse. The presence of B-chromosomal copies of genes involved in cell-cycle regulation and tissue differentiation may indicate importance of these genes for B chromosome establishment. View Full-Text
Keywords: supernumerary chromosomes; karyotype evolution; genome instability supernumerary chromosomes; karyotype evolution; genome instability
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Makunin, A.I.; Romanenko, S.A.; Beklemisheva, V.R.; Perelman, P.L.; Druzhkova, A.S.; Petrova, K.O.; Prokopov, D.Y.; Chernyaeva, E.N.; Johnson, J.L.; Kukekova, A.V.; Yang, F.; Ferguson-Smith, M.A.; Graphodatsky, A.S.; Trifonov, V.A. Sequencing of Supernumerary Chromosomes of Red Fox and Raccoon Dog Confirms a Non-Random Gene Acquisition by B Chromosomes. Genes 2018, 9, 405.

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