Next Article in Journal
Recovery of N and P from Urine by Struvite Precipitation Followed by Combined Stripping with Digester Sludge Liquid at Full Scale
Next Article in Special Issue
Rex, J., et al. Mountain Pine Beetles, Salvage Logging, and Hydrologic Change: Predicting Wet Ground Areas. Water 2013, 5, 443–461
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Moisture and the Scale Variability of Its Influencing Factors: A Case Study in the Loess Plateau of China
Water 2013, 5(3), 1243-1261; doi:10.3390/w5031243

Impacts of Hydrologic Change on Sandbar Nesting Availability for Riverine Turtles in Eastern Minnesota, USA

1,* , 2
1 Ecological Engineering Group, Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 303 BAE Hall, 1390 Eckles Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA 2 Emmons and Olivier Resources, Inc., Hale Ave. N., Oakdale, MN 55128, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2013 / Revised: 16 August 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1065 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |   Browse Figures


There have been significant increases in stream flow in many rivers of the Upper Midwestern United States since 1980. Increased summer flows may negatively impact ecological processes, including aquatic organisms’ life cycles. The smooth softshell (Apalone mutica) and wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) are threatened by alteration of stream flow regime and other changes to river ecosystems in the Upper Midwest. We hypothesized that prolonged duration of high summer flows would reduce time available for nesting. We assessed hydrologic change using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration program and stream gauge data, characterized physical properties of sandbars, surveyed turtle nesting sites and assessed historical channel change using aerial photos in GIS on five Upper Midwest rivers. A river stage-sandbar area relationship was developed to determine the effect of prolonged summer flow duration on turtle nesting opportunity for the 1940–2009 time period. Suitable water levels have declined since 1980 in the agricultural watersheds of southern Minnesota likely delaying hatching and reducing survival, particularly for aquatic turtles such as A. mutica. In contrast to the agricultural watersheds, there was no significant change in the northern forested rivers’ stream flow and sandbar availability during the nesting season. Management to reduce summer stream flow in agricultural watersheds and protection of known nest sites could benefit threatened aquatic turtle populations.
Keywords: hydrologic alteration; Apalone mutica; Glyptemys insculpta; nesting; sandbar; Minnesota hydrologic alteration; Apalone mutica; Glyptemys insculpta; nesting; sandbar; Minnesota
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Lenhart, C.F.; Naber, J.R.; Nieber, J.L. Impacts of Hydrologic Change on Sandbar Nesting Availability for Riverine Turtles in Eastern Minnesota, USA. Water 2013, 5, 1243-1261.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert