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Appl. Sci., Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2013), Pages 559-655

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Research

Open AccessArticle Laser-Plasma Acceleration with FLAME and ILIL Ultraintense Lasers
Appl. Sci. 2013, 3(3), 559-580; doi:10.3390/app3030559
Received: 22 April 2013 / Revised: 23 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (6455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on the development of radiation and electron sources based on laser-plasma acceleration for biomedical and nuclear applications, using both the table top TW laser at ILIL and the 220 TW FLAME laser system at LNF. We use the ILIL laser [...] Read more.
We report on the development of radiation and electron sources based on laser-plasma acceleration for biomedical and nuclear applications, using both the table top TW laser at ILIL and the 220 TW FLAME laser system at LNF. We use the ILIL laser to produce wakefield electrons in a self-focusing dominated regime in a mm scale gas-jet to generate large, uniform beams of MeV electrons for electron radiography and radiobiology applications. This acceleration regime is described in detail and key parameters are given to establish reproducible and reliable operation of this source. We use the FLAME laser to drive laser-plasma acceleration in a cm-scale gas target to obtain stable production of >100 MeV range electrons to drive a Thomson scattering ɣ-ray source for nuclear applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultraintense Ultrashort Pulse Lasers)
Open AccessArticle X-ray Chirped Pulse Amplification: towards GW Soft X-ray Lasers
Appl. Sci. 2013, 3(3), 581-592; doi:10.3390/app3030581
Received: 16 May 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1058 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extensive modeling of the seeding of plasma-based soft X-ray lasers is reported in this article. Seminal experiments on amplification in plasmas created from solids have been studied in detail and explained. Using a transient collisional excitation scheme, we show that a 18 [...] Read more.
Extensive modeling of the seeding of plasma-based soft X-ray lasers is reported in this article. Seminal experiments on amplification in plasmas created from solids have been studied in detail and explained. Using a transient collisional excitation scheme, we show that a 18 µJ, 80 fs fully coherent pulse is achievable by using plasmas pumped by a compact 10 Hz laser. We demonstrate that direct seeding of plasmas created by nanosecond lasers is not efficient. Therefore, we propose and fully study the transposition to soft X-rays of the Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) technique. Soft X-ray pulses with energy of 6 mJ and 200 fs duration are reachable by seeding plasmas pumped by compact 100 J, sub-ns, 1 shot/min lasers. These soft X-ray lasers would reach GW power, corresponding to an increase of 100 times as compared to the highest peak power achievable nowadays in the soft X-ray region (30 eV–1 keV). X-ray CPA is opening new horizon for soft x-ray ultra-intense sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultraintense Ultrashort Pulse Lasers)
Open AccessArticle Routine Production of 89Zr Using an Automated Module
Appl. Sci. 2013, 3(3), 593-613; doi:10.3390/app3030593
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 12 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
89Zr has emerged as a useful radioisotope for targeted molecular imaging via positron emission tomography (PET) in both animal models and humans. This isotope is particularly attractive for cancer research because its half-life (t1/2 = 3.27 days) is well-suited [...] Read more.
89Zr has emerged as a useful radioisotope for targeted molecular imaging via positron emission tomography (PET) in both animal models and humans. This isotope is particularly attractive for cancer research because its half-life (t1/2 = 3.27 days) is well-suited for in vivo targeting of macromolecules and nanoparticles to cell surface antigens expressed by cancer cells. Furthermore, 89Zr emits a low-energy positron (Eβ+,mean = 0.40 MeV), which is favorable for high spatial resolution in PET, with an adequate branching ratio for positron emission (BR = 23%). The demand for 89Zr for research purposes is increasing; however, 89Zr also emits significant gamma radiation (Γ15 keV = 6.6 R×cm2/mCi×h), which makes producing large amounts of this isotope by hand unrealistic from a radiation safety standpoint. Fortunately, a straightforward method exists for production of 89Zr by bombarding a natural Y target in a biomedical cyclotron and then separation of 89Zr from the target material by column chromatography. The chemical separation in this method lends itself to remote processing using an automated module placed inside a hot cell. In this work, we have designed, built and commissioned a module that has performed the chemical separation of 89Zr safely and routinely, at activities in excess of 50 mCi, with radionuclidic purity > 99.9% and satisfactory effective specific activity (ESA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radioisotope Production and Applications)
Open AccessCommunication Aqueous Microwave-Assisted Solid-Phase Synthesis Using Boc-Amino Acid Nanoparticles
Appl. Sci. 2013, 3(3), 614-623; doi:10.3390/app3030614
Received: 13 May 2013 / Revised: 26 June 2013 / Accepted: 5 July 2013 / Published: 24 July 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have previously developed water-based microwave (MW)-assisted peptide synthesis using Fmoc-amino acid nanopaticles. It is an organic solvent-free, environmentally friendly method for peptide synthesis. Here we describe water-based MW-assisted solid-phase synthesis using Boc-amino acid nanoparticles. The microwave irradiation allowed rapid solid-phase reaction [...] Read more.
We have previously developed water-based microwave (MW)-assisted peptide synthesis using Fmoc-amino acid nanopaticles. It is an organic solvent-free, environmentally friendly method for peptide synthesis. Here we describe water-based MW-assisted solid-phase synthesis using Boc-amino acid nanoparticles. The microwave irradiation allowed rapid solid-phase reaction of nanoparticle reactants on the resin in water. We also demonstrated the syntheses of Leu-enkephalin, Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH, and difficult sequence model peptide, Val-Ala-Val-Ala-Gly-OH, using our water-based MW-assisted protocol with Boc-amino acid nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greener and Sustainable Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID™) Reader System for Analysis and Documentation of RSID™ Tests
Appl. Sci. 2013, 3(3), 624-635; doi:10.3390/app3030624
Received: 14 June 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 29 July 2013 / Published: 5 August 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (779 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability to detect the presence of body fluids is a crucial first step in documenting and processing forensic evidence. The Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID™) tests for blood, saliva, semen and urine are lateral flow immunochromatographic strip tests specifically designed for forensic [...] Read more.
The ability to detect the presence of body fluids is a crucial first step in documenting and processing forensic evidence. The Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID™) tests for blood, saliva, semen and urine are lateral flow immunochromatographic strip tests specifically designed for forensic use. Like most lateral flow strips, the membrane components of the test are enclosed in a molded plastic cassette with a sample well and an observation window. No specialized equipment is required to use these tests or to score the results seen in the observation window; however, the utility of these tests can be enhanced if an electronic record of the test results can be obtained, preferably by a small hand-held device that could be used in the field under low light conditions. Such a device should also be able to “read” the lateral flow strips and accurately record the results of the test as either positive, i.e., the body fluid was detected, or negative, i.e., the body fluid was not detected. Here we describe the RSID™ Reader System—a ruggedized strip test reader unit that allows analysis and documentation of RSID™ lateral flow strip tests using pre-configured settings, and show that the RSID™ Reader can accurately and reproducibly report and record correct results from RSID™ blood, saliva, semen, and urine tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Detection Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Wet Chemistry Method for Isolation of Cyclotron Produced [211At]Astatine
Appl. Sci. 2013, 3(3), 636-655; doi:10.3390/app3030636
Received: 24 July 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A “wet chemistry” approach for isolation of 211At from an irradiated bismuth target is described. The approach involves five steps: (1) dissolution of bismuth target in conc. HNO3; (2) removal of the HNO3 by distillation; (3) dissolution of [...] Read more.
A “wet chemistry” approach for isolation of 211At from an irradiated bismuth target is described. The approach involves five steps: (1) dissolution of bismuth target in conc. HNO3; (2) removal of the HNO3 by distillation; (3) dissolution of residue in 8 M HCl; (4) extraction of 211At from 8 M HCl into DIPE; and (5) extraction of 211At from DIPE into NaOH. Results from 55 “optimized” 211At isolation runs gave recovery yields of approximately 78% after decay and attenuation corrections. An attenuation-corrected average of 26 ± 3 mCi in the target provided isolated (actual) yields of 16 ± 3 mCi of 211At. A sixth step, used for purification of 211At from trace metals, was evaluated in seven runs. In those runs, isolated 211At was distilled under reductive conditions to provide an average 71 ± 8% recovery. RadioHPLC analyses of the isolated 211At solutions, both initial and after distillation, were obtained to examine the 211At species present. The primary species of 211At present was astatide, but astatate and unidentified species were also observed. Studies to determine the effect of bismuth attenuation on 211At were conducted to estimate an attenuation factor (~1.33) for adjustment of 211At readings in the bismuth target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radioisotope Production and Applications)
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