Next Article in Journal
Structural Performance Optimization and Verification of an Improved Thin-Walled Storage Tank for a Pico-Satellite
Previous Article in Journal
Simulation of Magnetically-Actuated Functional Gradient Nanocomposites
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(11), 1169; doi:10.3390/app7111169

Energy-Neutral Data Collection Rate Control for IoT Animal Behavior Monitors

1
Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
2
Cellular Tracking Technologies, 1021 Route 47 South, Rio Grande, NJ 08242, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [13030 KB, uploaded 16 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Energy-neutral operation (ENO) is a major concern for Internet of things (IoT) sensor systems. Animals can be tagged with IoT sensors to monitor their movement and behavior. These sensors wirelessly upload collected data and can receive parameters to change their operation. Typically, the behavior monitors are powered by a battery where the system relies upon harvesting solar radiation for sustainable operation. Solar panels typically are used as the harvesting mechanism and can have a level of uncertainty regarding consistent energy delivery due to factors such as adverse weather, foliage, time of day, and individual animal behavior. The variability of available energy inevitably creates a trade-off in the rate at which data can be collected with respect to incoming and stored energy. The objective of this research was to investigate and simulate methods and parameters that can control the data collection rate of an IoT behavior monitor to achieve sustained operation with unknown and random energy harvesting. Analysis and development of a control system were performed by creating a software model of energy consumption and then simulating using different initial conditions and random energy harvesting rates for evaluation. The contribution of this effort was the exploration into the usage of a discrete-time gain scheduled Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) that was tuned to a specific device configuration, using battery state of charge as an input, and found to maintain a battery level set-point, reject small solar harvesting energy disturbances, and maintain a consistent data collection rate throughout the day. View Full-Text
Keywords: IoT; wildlife monitoring; energy neutral operation IoT; wildlife monitoring; energy neutral operation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wilhelm, J.; Blackshire, S.; Lanzone, M. Energy-Neutral Data Collection Rate Control for IoT Animal Behavior Monitors. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1169.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top