Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2012), Pages 225-463

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-15
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Properties of Newly-Synthesized Cationic Semi-Interpenetrating Hydrogels Containing Either Hyaluronan or Chondroitin Sulfate in a Methacrylic Matrix
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 225-238; doi:10.3390/jfb3020225
Received: 2 December 2011 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 23 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Extracellular matrix components such as hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were combined with a synthetic matrix of p(HEMA-co-METAC) (poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-2-methacryloxyethyltrimethylammonium)) at 1% and 2% w/w concentration following a previously developed procedure. The resulting semi-interpenetrating hydrogels were able to extensively swell in water [...] Read more.
Extracellular matrix components such as hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were combined with a synthetic matrix of p(HEMA-co-METAC) (poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-2-methacryloxyethyltrimethylammonium)) at 1% and 2% w/w concentration following a previously developed procedure. The resulting semi-interpenetrating hydrogels were able to extensively swell in water incrementing their dry weight up to 13 fold depending on the glycosamminoglycan content and nature. When swollen in physiological solution, materials water uptake significantly decreased, and the differences in swelling capability became negligible. In physiological conditions, HA was released from the materials up to 38%w/w while CS was found almost fully retained. Materials were not cytotoxic and a biological evaluation, performed using 3T3 fibroblasts and an original time lapse videomicroscopy station, revealed their appropriateness for cell adhesion and proliferation. Slight differences observed in the morphology of adherent cells suggested a better performance of CS containing hydrogels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Soft Polymers for Building up Small and Smallest Blood Supplying Systems by Stereolithography
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 257-268; doi:10.3390/jfb3020257
Received: 16 February 2012 / Revised: 16 March 2012 / Accepted: 20 March 2012 / Published: 29 March 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (541 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Synthesis of a homologous series of photo-polymerizable α,w-polytetrahydrofuranether-diacrylate (PTHF-DA) resins is described with characterization by NMR, GPC, DSC, soaking and rheometrical measurements. The curing speeds of the resins are determined under UV light exposure. Young’s modulus and tensile strength of fully cured [...] Read more.
Synthesis of a homologous series of photo-polymerizable α,w-polytetrahydrofuranether-diacrylate (PTHF-DA) resins is described with characterization by NMR, GPC, DSC, soaking and rheometrical measurements. The curing speeds of the resins are determined under UV light exposure. Young’s modulus and tensile strength of fully cured resins show flexible to soft material attributes dependent on the molar mass of the used linear PTHF-diacrylates. Structuring the materials by stereo lithography (SL) and multiphoton polymerization (MPP) leads to tubes and bifurcated tube systems with a diameter smaller than 2 mm aimed at small to smallest supplying systems with capillary dimensions. WST-1 biocompatibility tests ofm polymer extracts show nontoxic characteristics of the adapted polymers after a washing process. Some polymers show shape memory effect (SME). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Quercetin-Imprinted Nanospheres as Novel Drug Delivery Devices
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 269-282; doi:10.3390/jfb3020269
Received: 29 February 2012 / Revised: 21 March 2012 / Accepted: 22 March 2012 / Published: 29 March 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, molecularly imprinted nanospheres for controlled/sustained release of quercetin were synthesized employing methacrylic acid and ethylene glycoldymethacrylate as functional monomer and crosslinking agent, respectively. One pot precipitation polymerization was chosen as polymerization technique to obtain nanosized materials with spherical shape. [...] Read more.
In this work, molecularly imprinted nanospheres for controlled/sustained release of quercetin were synthesized employing methacrylic acid and ethylene glycoldymethacrylate as functional monomer and crosslinking agent, respectively. One pot precipitation polymerization was chosen as polymerization technique to obtain nanosized materials with spherical shape. Morphological and hydrophilic properties by scanning electron microscopy and water content measurements were determined, and recognition and selectivity properties of the imprinted materials were tested using the template quercetin and its structural analogue, the flavonoid catechin. Finally, the applicability of the obtained materials as drug delivery devices was evaluated by performing in vitro release studies in plasma simulating fluids and cytotoxicity testson HeLa cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
Open AccessArticle Hemocompatibility of Inorganic Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Coatings on Thermoplastic Polyurethane Polymers
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 283-297; doi:10.3390/jfb3020283
Received: 9 March 2012 / Revised: 10 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 April 2012 / Published: 17 April 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biocompatibility improvements for blood contacting materials are of increasing interest for implanted devices and interventional tools. The current study focuses on inorganic (titanium, titanium nitride, titanium oxide) as well as diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating materials on polymer surfaces (thermoplastic polyurethane), deposited by [...] Read more.
Biocompatibility improvements for blood contacting materials are of increasing interest for implanted devices and interventional tools. The current study focuses on inorganic (titanium, titanium nitride, titanium oxide) as well as diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating materials on polymer surfaces (thermoplastic polyurethane), deposited by magnetron sputtering und pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. DLC was used pure (a-C:H) as well as doped with silicon, titanium, and nitrogen + titanium (a-C:H:Si, a-C:H:Ti, a-C:H:N:Ti). In-vitro testing of the hemocompatibility requires mandatory dynamic test conditions to simulate in-vivo conditions, e.g., realized by a cone-and-plate analyzer. In such tests, titanium- and nitrogen-doped DLC and titanium nitride were found to be optimally anti-thrombotic and better than state-of-the-art polyurethane polymers. This is mainly due to the low tendency to platelet microparticle formation, a high content of remaining platelets in the whole blood after testing and low concentration of platelet activation and aggregation markers. Comparing this result to shear-flow induced cell motility tests with e.g., Dictostelium discoideum cell model organism reveals similar tendencies for the investigated materials. Full article
Open AccessArticle Increasing the Detection Limit of the Parkinson Disorder through a Specific Surface Chemistry Applied onto Inner Surface of the Titration Well
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 298-312; doi:10.3390/jfb3020298
Received: 9 March 2012 / Revised: 4 April 2012 / Accepted: 9 April 2012 / Published: 18 April 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of this paper was to illustrate the enhancement of the sensitivity of ELISA titration for neurodegenerative proteins by reducing nonspecific adsorptions that could lead to false positives. This goal was obtained thanks to the association of plasma and wet [...] Read more.
The main objective of this paper was to illustrate the enhancement of the sensitivity of ELISA titration for neurodegenerative proteins by reducing nonspecific adsorptions that could lead to false positives. This goal was obtained thanks to the association of plasma and wet chemistries applied to the inner surface of the titration well. The polypropylene surface was plasma-activated and then, dip-coated with different amphiphilic molecules. These molecules have more or less long hydrocarbon chains and may be charged. The modified surfaces were characterized in terms of hydrophilic—phobic character, surface chemical groups and topography. Finally, the coated wells were tested during the ELISA titration of the specific antibody capture of the α-synuclein protein. The highest sensitivity is obtained with polar (Θ = 35°), negatively charged and smooth inner surface. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bone Substitute Effect on Vascularization and Bone Remodeling after Application of phVEGF165 Transfected BMSC
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 313-326; doi:10.3390/jfb3020313
Received: 6 March 2012 / Revised: 10 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 April 2012 / Published: 19 April 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) promotes vascularization and remodeling of bone substitutes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of distinct resorbable ceramic carriers on bone forming capacities of VEGF transfected bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). A critical size [...] Read more.
VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) promotes vascularization and remodeling of bone substitutes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of distinct resorbable ceramic carriers on bone forming capacities of VEGF transfected bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). A critical size defect of the radius in rabbits was filled either by a low surface scaffold called beta-TCP (tricalciumphsphate) or the high surface scaffold CDHA (calcium deficient hydroxy-apatite) loaded with autologous BMSC, which were either transfected with a control plasmid or a plasmid coding for phVEGF165. They were compared to unloaded scaffolds. Thus, six treatment groups (n = 6 in each group) were followed by X-ray over 16 weeks. After probe retrieval, the volume of new bone was measured by micro-CT scans and vascularization was assessed in histology. While only minor bone formation was found in both carriers when implanted alone, BMSC led to increased osteogenesis in both carriers. VEGF promoted vascularization of the scaffolds significantly in contrast to BMSC alone. Bone formation was increased in the beta-TCP group, whereas it was inhibited in the CDHA group that showed faster scaffold degradation. The results indicate that the interaction of VEGF transfected BMSC with resorbable ceramic carrier influences the ability to promote bone healing. Full article
Open AccessArticle Calcium Phosphate Growth at Electropolished Titanium Surfaces
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 327-348; doi:10.3390/jfb3020327
Received: 7 February 2012 / Revised: 21 March 2012 / Accepted: 11 April 2012 / Published: 25 April 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This work investigated the ability of electropolished Ti surface to induce Hydroxyapatite (HA) nucleation and growth in vitro via a biomimetic method in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The HA induction ability of Ti surface upon electropolishing was compared to that of Ti [...] Read more.
This work investigated the ability of electropolished Ti surface to induce Hydroxyapatite (HA) nucleation and growth in vitro via a biomimetic method in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The HA induction ability of Ti surface upon electropolishing was compared to that of Ti substrates modified with common chemical methods including alkali, acidic and hydrogen peroxide treatments. Our results revealed the excellent ability of electropolished Ti surfaces in inducing the formation of bone-like HA at the Ti/SBF interface. The chemical composition, crystallinity and thickness of the HA coating obtained on the electropolished Ti surface was found to be comparable to that achieved on the surface of alkali treated Ti substrate, one of the most effective and popular chemical treatments. The surface characteristics of electropolished Ti contributing to HA growth were discussed thoroughly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Biomaterials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Characterization of Porous TiO2 Surfaces Formed on 316L Stainless Steel by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Stent Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 349-360; doi:10.3390/jfb3020349
Received: 20 March 2012 / Revised: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 27 April 2012 / Published: 11 May 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a porous oxide layer was formed on the surface of 316L stainless steel (SS) by combining Ti magnetron sputtering and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with the aim to produce a polymer-free drug carrier for drug eluting stent (DES) applications. [...] Read more.
In this study, a porous oxide layer was formed on the surface of 316L stainless steel (SS) by combining Ti magnetron sputtering and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with the aim to produce a polymer-free drug carrier for drug eluting stent (DES) applications. The oxidation was performed galvanostatically in Na3PO4 electrolyte. The surface porosity, average pore size and roughness varied with PEO treatment duration, and under optimum conditions, the surface showed a porosity of 7.43%, an average pore size of 0.44 µm and a roughness (Ra) of 0.34 µm. The EDS analyses revealed that the porous layer consisted of Ti, O and P. The cross-sectional morphology evidenced a double-layer structure, with a porous titania surface and an un-oxidized dense Ti film towards the interface with 316L SS. After the PEO treatment, wettability and surface free energy increased significantly. The results of the present study confirm the feasibility of forming a porous TiO2 layer on stainless steel by combining sputtering technology and PEO. Further, the resultant porous oxide layer has the potential to be used as a drug carrier for DES, thus avoiding the complications associated with the polymer based carriers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ciprofloxacin-Collagen Conjugate in the Wound Healing Treatment
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 361-371; doi:10.3390/jfb3020361
Received: 22 March 2012 / Revised: 7 May 2012 / Accepted: 7 May 2012 / Published: 15 May 2012
PDF Full-text (307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synthesis of a novel functional biomaterial for wound healing treatment was carried out by adopting a free-radical grafting procedure in aqueous media. With this aim, ciprofloxacin (CFX) was covalently incorporated into collagen (T1C) chains employing an ascorbic acid/hydrogen peroxide redox pair [...] Read more.
The synthesis of a novel functional biomaterial for wound healing treatment was carried out by adopting a free-radical grafting procedure in aqueous media. With this aim, ciprofloxacin (CFX) was covalently incorporated into collagen (T1C) chains employing an ascorbic acid/hydrogen peroxide redox pair as biocompatible initiator system. The covalent insertion of CFX in the polymeric chains was confirmed by FT-IR and UV analyses, while an antibacterial assay demonstrated the activity of the synthesized conjugate against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, microorganisms that commonly infect wounds. A catechin blended conjugate was also tested in order to evaluate the ability to influence fibroblast cell growth. The observed antibacterial activity and stimulation of fibroblast growth support the applicability of CFX-T1C conjugate in wound treatment encouraging the healing process. Full article
Figures

Open AccessCommunication Time-Dependent Effects of Pre-Aging 3D Polymer Scaffolds in Cell Culture Medium on Cell Proliferation
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 372-381; doi:10.3390/jfb3020372
Received: 20 March 2012 / Revised: 24 April 2012 / Accepted: 15 May 2012 / Published: 22 May 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein adsorption is known to direct biological response to biomaterials and is important in determining cellular response in tissue scaffolds. In this study we investigated the effect of the duration of protein adsorption to 3D polymer scaffolds on cell attachment and proliferation. [...] Read more.
Protein adsorption is known to direct biological response to biomaterials and is important in determining cellular response in tissue scaffolds. In this study we investigated the effect of the duration of protein adsorption to 3D polymer scaffolds on cell attachment and proliferation. 3D macro-porous polymer scaffolds were pre-aged in serum-containing culture medium for 5 min, 1 d or 7 d prior to seeding osteoblasts. The total amount of protein adsorbed was found to increase with pre-ageing time. Cell attachment and proliferation were measured 1 d and 14 d, respectively, after cell seeding. Osteoblast proliferation, but not attachment, increased with scaffold pre-ageing time and amount of adsorbed serum protein. These results demonstrate that the amount of time that scaffolds are exposed to serum-containing medium can affect cell proliferation and suggest that these effects are mediated by differences in the amount of protein adsorption. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Ceramic Identity Contributes to Mechanical Properties and Osteoblast Behavior on Macroporous Composite Scaffolds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 382-397; doi:10.3390/jfb3020382
Received: 16 March 2012 / Revised: 27 April 2012 / Accepted: 17 May 2012 / Published: 23 May 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Implants formed of metals, bioceramics, or polymers may provide an alternative to autografts for treating large bone defects. However, limitations to each material motivate the examination of composites to capitalize on the beneficial aspects of individual components and to address the need [...] Read more.
Implants formed of metals, bioceramics, or polymers may provide an alternative to autografts for treating large bone defects. However, limitations to each material motivate the examination of composites to capitalize on the beneficial aspects of individual components and to address the need for conferring bioactive behavior to the polymer matrix. We hypothesized that the inclusion of different bioceramics in a ceramic-polymer composite would alter the physical properties of the implant and the cellular osteogenic response. To test this, composite scaffolds formed from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) and either hydroxyapatite (HA), β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), or bioactive glass (Bioglass 45S®, BG) were fabricated, and the physical properties of each scaffold were examined. We quantified cell proliferation by DNA content, osteogenic response of human osteoblasts (NHOsts) to composite scaffolds by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and changes in gene expression by qPCR. Compared to BG-PLG scaffolds, HA-PLG and TCP-PLG composite scaffolds possessed greater compressive moduli. NHOsts on BG-PLG substrates exhibited higher ALP activity than those on control, HA-, or TCP-PLG scaffolds after 21 days, and cells on composites exhibited a 3-fold increase in ALP activity between 7 and 21 days versus a minimal increase on control scaffolds. Compared to cells on PLG controls, RUNX2 expression in NHOsts on composite scaffolds was lower at both 7 and 21 days, while expression of genes encoding for bone matrix proteins (COL1A1 and SPARC) was higher on BG-PLG scaffolds at both time points. These data demonstrate the importance of selecting a ceramic when fabricating composites applied for bone healing. Full article
Open AccessArticle Altered Cell Mechanics from the Inside: Dispersed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Integrate with and Restructure Actin
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 398-417; doi:10.3390/jfb3020398
Received: 23 March 2012 / Revised: 1 May 2012 / Accepted: 15 May 2012 / Published: 23 May 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
With a range of desirable mechanical and optical properties, single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a promising material for nanobiotechnologies. SWCNTs also have potential as biomaterials for modulation of cellular structures. Previously, we showed that highly purified, dispersed SWCNTs grossly alter F-actin [...] Read more.
With a range of desirable mechanical and optical properties, single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a promising material for nanobiotechnologies. SWCNTs also have potential as biomaterials for modulation of cellular structures. Previously, we showed that highly purified, dispersed SWCNTs grossly alter F-actin inside cells. F-actin plays critical roles in the maintenance of cell structure, force transduction, transport and cytokinesis. Thus, quantification of SWCNT-actin interactions ranging from molecular, sub-cellular and cellular levels with both structure and function is critical for developing SWCNT-based biotechnologies. Further, this interaction can be exploited, using SWCNTs as a unique actin-altering material. Here, we utilized molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interactions of SWCNTs with actin filaments. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy confirmed that SWCNTs were located within ~5 nm of F-actin in cells but did not interact with G-actin. SWCNTs did not alter myosin II sub-cellular localization, and SWCNT treatment in cells led to significantly shorter actin filaments. Functionally, cells with internalized SWCNTs had greatly reduced cell traction force. Combined, these results demonstrate direct, specific SWCNT alteration of F-actin structures which can be exploited for SWCNT-based biotechnologies and utilized as a new method to probe fundamental actin-related cellular processes and biophysics. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Method for Quantitative Determination of Biofilm Viability
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 418-431; doi:10.3390/jfb3020418
Received: 19 March 2012 / Revised: 12 May 2012 / Accepted: 22 May 2012 / Published: 1 June 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (635 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study we present a scheme for quantitative determination of biofilm viability offering significant improvement over existing methods with metabolic assays. Existing metabolic assays for quantifying viable bacteria in biofilms usually utilize calibration curves derived from planktonic bacteria, which can introduce [...] Read more.
In this study we present a scheme for quantitative determination of biofilm viability offering significant improvement over existing methods with metabolic assays. Existing metabolic assays for quantifying viable bacteria in biofilms usually utilize calibration curves derived from planktonic bacteria, which can introduce large errors due to significant differences in the metabolic and/or growth rates of biofilm bacteria in the assay media compared to their planktonic counterparts. In the presented method we derive the specific growth rate of Streptococcus mutans bacteria biofilm from a series of metabolic assays using the pH indicator phenol red, and show that this information could be used to more accurately quantify the relative number of viable bacteria in a biofilm. We found that the specific growth rate of S. mutans in biofilm mode of growth was 0.70 h−1, compared to 1.09 h−1 in planktonic growth. This method should be applicable to other bacteria types, as well as other metabolic assays, and, for example, to quantify the effect of antibacterial treatments or the performance of bactericidal implant surfaces. Full article
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Brushes for Flow Control through Nanopores
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 239-256; doi:10.3390/jfb3020239
Received: 31 December 2011 / Revised: 16 March 2012 / Accepted: 19 March 2012 / Published: 26 March 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Responsive polymers attached to the inside of nano/micro-pores have attracted great interest owing to the prospect of designing flow-control devices and signal responsive delivery systems. An intriguing possibility involves functionalizing nanoporous materials with smart polymers to modulate biomolecular transport in response to [...] Read more.
Responsive polymers attached to the inside of nano/micro-pores have attracted great interest owing to the prospect of designing flow-control devices and signal responsive delivery systems. An intriguing possibility involves functionalizing nanoporous materials with smart polymers to modulate biomolecular transport in response to pH, temperature, ionic concentration, light or electric field. These efforts open up avenues to develop smart medical devices that respond to specific physiological conditions. In this work, an overview of nanoporous materials functionalized with responsive polymers is given. Various examples of pH, temperature and solvent responsive polymers are discussed. A theoretical treatment that accounts for polymer conformational change in response to a stimulus and the associated flow-control effect is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli Responsive Biomaterials)
Open AccessReview Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 432-463; doi:10.3390/jfb3020432
Received: 24 April 2012 / Revised: 9 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 20 June 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Strategies for bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and act as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Of particular interest are nanocomposites and organic-inorganic (O/I) hybrid biomaterials based on selective [...] Read more.
Strategies for bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and act as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Of particular interest are nanocomposites and organic-inorganic (O/I) hybrid biomaterials based on selective combinations of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic materials. In this paper, we review the current state of bioactive and biodegradable nanocomposite and O/I hybrid biomaterials and their applications in bone regeneration. We focus specifically on nanocomposites based on nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioactive glass (BG) fillers in combination with biodegradable polyesters and their hybrid counterparts. Topics include 3D scaffold design, materials that are widely used in bone regeneration, and recent trends in next generation biomaterials. We conclude with a perspective on the future application of nanocomposites and O/I hybrid biomaterials for regeneration of bone. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
JFB Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
jfb@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to JFB
Back to Top