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Cosmetics, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2018)

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Open AccessCommunication Chemical Stability Analysis of Hair Cleansing Conditioners under High-Heat Conditions Experienced during Hair Styling Processes
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
Chemical stability is a key component of ensuring that a cosmetic product is safe for consumer use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of commercially available hair cleansing conditioners subjected to high heat stresses from the styling processes
[...] Read more.
Chemical stability is a key component of ensuring that a cosmetic product is safe for consumer use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of commercially available hair cleansing conditioners subjected to high heat stresses from the styling processes of blow drying or straightening. Two hair cleansing conditioners were subjected to temperatures of 60 °C and 185 °C to simulate the use of a blow dryer or flatiron hair straightener, respectively and analyzed via Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV (HPLC) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to capture a chemical profile of the samples. The resulting spectra from matched heated and unheated samples were compared to identify any changes in chemical composition. Overall, no differences in the spectra were observed between the heated and unheated samples at both temperatures evaluated. Specifically, no new peaks were observed during analysis, indicating that no degradation products were formed. In addition, all chemicals identified during GC-MS analysis were known listed ingredients of the products. In summary, no measurable changes in chemical composition were observed in the hair cleansing conditioner samples under high-heat stress conditions. The presented analytical methods can serve as an initial screening tool to evaluate the chemical stability of a cosmetic product under conditions of anticipated use. Full article
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Open AccessReview Labeling of Cosmetic Products
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper
[...] Read more.
The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and food)
Open AccessReview Bioactive Peptides: Applications and Relevance for Cosmeceuticals
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
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Abstract
Peptides found in skin can act by different mechanisms of action, being able to function as epidermal or nervous growth factors or even as neurotransmitters. Due to the vast functionality of these compounds, there is growing research on bioactive peptides aimed at investigating
[...] Read more.
Peptides found in skin can act by different mechanisms of action, being able to function as epidermal or nervous growth factors or even as neurotransmitters. Due to the vast functionality of these compounds, there is growing research on bioactive peptides aimed at investigating their uses in products developed for stimulating collagen and elastin synthesis and improving skin healing. Thus, a literature search on applications of the most common bioactive peptides used in cosmeceuticals was carried out. There is a lack of proper reviews concerning this topic in scientific literature. Nine peptides with specific actions on body and facial dysfunctions were described. It could be noted while searching scientific literature that studies aimed at investigating peptides which prevent aging of the skin are overrepresented. This makes searching for peptides designed for treating other skin dysfunctions more difficult. The use of biomimetic peptides in cosmetic formulations aimed at attenuating or preventing different types of skin dysfunctions is a topic where information is still lackluster. Even though research on these compounds is relatively common, there is still a need for more studies concerning their practical uses so their mechanisms of action can be fully elucidated, as they tend to be quite complex. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cosmeceutical Properties of Two Cultivars of Red Raspberry Grown under Different Conditions
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 25 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
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Abstract
Plant selection, input, and field management are proven strategies that produce high yields of crops bearing selected desirable characteristics for the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industry. This study reports on the effect of substrate and light on selected quantitative and qualitative bioactive properties of
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Plant selection, input, and field management are proven strategies that produce high yields of crops bearing selected desirable characteristics for the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industry. This study reports on the effect of substrate and light on selected quantitative and qualitative bioactive properties of two cultivars of Rubus idaeus L (‘Ruvi’ and ‘Cayuga’). Our results demonstrated that the quantitative and qualitative fruit characteristics (yield, fruit dimensions, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids contents), plant growth, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and total antioxidant capacity, are significantly affected by genotype, light intensity, and substrate type. Fruits from ‘Ruvi’ plants cultivated under low light conditions, on soil/peat substrate exhibited high levels of antioxidant capacity, phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and high inhibitory potency towards the skin-regulating enzymes tyrosinase and elastase. Extract derived from these fruits was formulated into a topical skin care cream. This cream exhibited excellent compatibility and stability characteristics. Our research concluded that quantity and quality of Rubus idaeus L. fruits could be efficiently managed through conventional agronomic practices. Our project determined the optimal agronomic management practices to produce desirable characteristics and maximize bioactive content that determine the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical quality of the red raspberry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Used in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessReview Cosmetic Functional Ingredients from Botanical Sources for Anti-Pollution Skincare Products
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Air pollution is a rising problem in many metropolitan areas around the world. Airborne contaminants are predominantly derived from anthropogenic activities, and include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone and particulate matter (PM; a mixture of solid and liquid
[...] Read more.
Air pollution is a rising problem in many metropolitan areas around the world. Airborne contaminants are predominantly derived from anthropogenic activities, and include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone and particulate matter (PM; a mixture of solid and liquid particles of variable size and composition, able to absorb and delivery a large number of pollutants). The exposure to these air pollutants is associated to detrimental effects on human skin, such as premature aging, pigment spot formation, skin rashes and eczema, and can worsen some skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. A cosmetic approach to this problem involves the topical application of skincare products containing functional ingredients able to counteract pollution-induced skin damage. Considering that the demand for natural actives is growing in all segments of global cosmetic market, the aim of this review is to describe some commercial cosmetic ingredients obtained from botanical sources able to reduce the impact of air pollutants on human skin with different mechanisms, providing a scientific rationale for their use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Used in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessArticle PGC-1α-Derived Peptide Influences Energy in Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 4 February 2018
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Abstract
Mitochondrial energy metabolism declines during aging. PGC-1α is a transcription coactivator that plays a key role in the regulation of energetic metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the cells. The aim of this study was to compare the PPARGC1A gene expression level in normal
[...] Read more.
Mitochondrial energy metabolism declines during aging. PGC-1α is a transcription coactivator that plays a key role in the regulation of energetic metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the cells. The aim of this study was to compare the PPARGC1A gene expression level in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) derived from young and old donors. A PGC-1α-derived peptide was then synthetized and its ability to affect the PPARGC1A gene expression and mitochondrial function was tested. We assessed changes in PPARGC1A gene expression using quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of the PGC-1α-derived peptide on energy production was determined using an ATP bioluminescent assay kit. We also studied changes in mitochondrial membrane potential using JC-1 fluorescent dye and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using DCFH-DA dye in NHDF cells after UVA/B irradiation alone and in combination with a peptide treatment. The PPARGC1A gene expression decreased in an aged human dermal fibroblast. The PGC-1α-derived peptide was synthetized and increased the PPARGC1A gene expression and ATP levels in cells. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential in UVA/B irradiated cells treated with the tested PGC-1α-derived peptide was increased compared to irradiated controls. Moreover, the ROS levels in UVA/B irradiated cells treated with the PGC-1α-derived peptide decreased. On the basis of our results, PGC-1α emerges as an interesting target to combat decreasing energetic metabolism in aging skin cells. Indeed, the PGC-1α-derived peptide increasing the PPARGC1A gene expression improved the mitochondrial function and increased energy production in the cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair
[...] Read more.
Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing), protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer), can provide effective protection against such hair damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antipollution Cosmetics: Trends, Test and Issues)
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Open AccessReview Equol’s Anti-Aging Effects Protect against Environmental Assaults by Increasing Skin Antioxidant Defense and ECM Proteins While Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental pollutants represent a major problem worldwide that cannot be passively avoided. It is known that skin sensitivities can result from environmental assaults, such as toxins and pollutants in air and water. Additionally, dermal assaults from wind and exposure to seasonal cold temperatures
[...] Read more.
Environmental pollutants represent a major problem worldwide that cannot be passively avoided. It is known that skin sensitivities can result from environmental assaults, such as toxins and pollutants in air and water. Additionally, dermal assaults from wind and exposure to seasonal cold temperatures are known. All of these environmental assaults are associated with oxidative stress and the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damage DNA, lipids, proteins and mitochondrial function. Additionally, the influence of diet on dermal health and, especially, antioxidant defense in skin function are well established. In this regard, environmental pollution worldwide has generated a high demand for anti-pollution personal care products to protect the skin against the daily exposure of airborne toxins and various other assaults. Major cosmetic companies have anti-pollution personal care products but, in general, the products are formulated with commonly used active ingredients that have been retooled with market strategies to address current environmental pollution treatments. Equol is a new botanical active ingredient compound for skin applications. It has a polyphenolic chemical structure found in plant and food products, and is also classified as an isoflavonoid. Moreover, equol appears to address the need for an active ingredient in personal care products to protect against pollution assaults by increasing antioxidant defense, while inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. Separate sections covering equol’s enhanced (a) delivery mechanism into human skin; (b) antioxidant effects via Nrf2 activation; (c) effects on extracellular matrix proteins like collagen and elastin and; (d) protection against oxidative stress and inflammation are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antipollution Cosmetics: Trends, Test and Issues)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Natural Anti-Age Ingredient Based on Quercus pubescens Willd. Leaves Extract—A Case Study
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
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Abstract
Consumers pay more and more attention not just to the safety and health aspects of ingredients entering their cosmetics’ formulations, but also to their potency, origin, processing, ethical value and environmental footprint. Sustainability of the supply chain, preservation of biodiversity, as well as
[...] Read more.
Consumers pay more and more attention not just to the safety and health aspects of ingredients entering their cosmetics’ formulations, but also to their potency, origin, processing, ethical value and environmental footprint. Sustainability of the supply chain, preservation of biodiversity, as well as greener extraction techniques are hence very popular with consumers. Consumers are primarily concerned by the efficacy of the cosmetic products they use and continuously scrutinize product labels, so marketing arguments need to be based on rigorous testing and reliable results to support claims (anti-age, anti-pollution, etc.) displayed on the product’s packaging. As a result, the increasing demand for natural ingredients with assessed bioactivities has profoundly modified the strategies adopted by cosmetic professionals to innovate in terms of actives. Sourcing and developing new natural cosmetic actives is a long-term procedure that is thoroughly described in the present paper, via the example of the design of both liquid and solid ingredients based on Quercus pubescens Willd. leaves extract, for which anti-age properties were assessed by a combination of in vitro assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants Used in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Ultraviolet Radiation Wavelengths Causing Hardening and Reduced Elasticity of Collagen Gels In Vitro
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Regular exposure of facial skin to sunlight promotes wrinkle formation; ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes the skin to harden and lose its elasticity. To study UV damage to the skin in vitro, a short-term in vitro photoaging model is required. Hence, the UV transmittance
[...] Read more.
Regular exposure of facial skin to sunlight promotes wrinkle formation; ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes the skin to harden and lose its elasticity. To study UV damage to the skin in vitro, a short-term in vitro photoaging model is required. Hence, the UV transmittance of excised human skin was measured. Changes in elasticity in the cheeks of humans of different ages were investigated. Moreover, changes in the hardness and elasticity of collagen gels following UV exposure were investigated. UV rays penetrated the upper layer of the dermis and UVA (330 nm) rays penetrated approximately 1.6 times farther than UVB (310 nm) rays. A correlation between age and lower cheek elasticity was observed. Upon exposure to UV rays, collagen gels hardened and their elasticity decreased; UVA rays exhibited a stronger effect than UVB rays. Wavelengths of 300–340 nm caused hardening and reduced elasticity of collagen gels; 330-nm radiation showed the most pronounced effect. These effects were not observed upon exposure to UV wavelengths over 350 nm. Investigating the UV-hardening mechanism of collagen showed increased tyrosine crosslinks (dityrosines) in the in vitro model of photodamage to collagen, suggesting that dityrosine formation contributes to hardening and reduced elasticity of collagen in photoaged skin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Personal-Care Products Formulated with Natural Antioxidant Extracts
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of some vegetal raw materials in personal-care products. Four ethanolic extracts (grape pomace, Pinus pinaster wood chips, Acacia dealbata flowers, and Lentinus edodes) were prepared and total phenolics, monomeric sugars, and
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of some vegetal raw materials in personal-care products. Four ethanolic extracts (grape pomace, Pinus pinaster wood chips, Acacia dealbata flowers, and Lentinus edodes) were prepared and total phenolics, monomeric sugars, and antioxidant capacity were determined on alcoholic extracts. Six of the most important groups of cosmetics products (hand cream, body oil, shampoo, clay mask, body exfoliating cream, and skin cleanser) were formulated. Participants evaluated some sensory attributes and overall acceptance by a 10-point scale; the results showed differences among age-intervals, but not between males and females. The results confirmed that all extracts presented characteristics appropriate for their use in cosmetic formulations and their good acceptability by consumers into all cosmetic products. Texture/appearance, spreadability, and skin feeling are important attributes among consumer expectations, but odor and color were the primary drivers and helped differentiate the natural extracts added into all personal-care products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in 2017
Received: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Cosmetics maintains high quality standards for its published papers. In 2017, a total of 57 papers were published in the journal.[...] Full article
Open AccessReview Essential Oils and Their Single Compounds in Cosmetics—A Critical Review
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Essential oils are widely incorporated in cosmetic products, perfumes and related household products due to the variety of their properties but mainly due to their pleasant odour. The composition of these volatile natural complex mixtures may vary depending on the quality of plant
[...] Read more.
Essential oils are widely incorporated in cosmetic products, perfumes and related household products due to the variety of their properties but mainly due to their pleasant odour. The composition of these volatile natural complex mixtures may vary depending on the quality of plant material from which they were obtained and the extraction method by which they were derived. These factors are also important in ensuring the safe use of essential oils in personal care products. As they contain compounds with varied chemical structure and effects, skin sensitivity and irritations as well as other symptoms may arise after their application. Although essential oils are considered as safe and nontoxic when used at low concentrations, available scientific literature indicates that essential oils and their compounds may possess a strong allergy potential. This review focuses on side effects and allergy contact dermatitis caused by selected essential oils and their single compounds in cosmetic products, summarizing data from the most recent scientific literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Critical View on Natural Substances in Personal Care Products)
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Open AccessArticle Significance of Ubiad1 for Epidermal Keratinocytes Involves More Than CoQ10 Synthesis: Implications for Skin Aging
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
The significance of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as an anti-oxidant barrier of the skin, as well as a key component in anti-aging strategies for skin care products, has been firmly established. Biosynthesis of CoQ10 in the mitochondria is well known, but there is only
[...] Read more.
The significance of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as an anti-oxidant barrier of the skin, as well as a key component in anti-aging strategies for skin care products, has been firmly established. Biosynthesis of CoQ10 in the mitochondria is well known, but there is only limited information on the non-mitochondrial synthesis of CoQ10 in the skin. Recent findings in zebrafish identified that a tumor suppressor, Ubiad1, is also a key enzyme in the non-mitochondrial synthesis of CoQ10. The purpose of this study was to investigate expression of Ubiad1 in human skin, and its implication in the skin’s cutaneous response to oxidative stress. We observed Ubiad1 localization in the epidermis, particularly a subcellular localization in the Golgi apparatus. Ubiad1 modulation by a pentapeptide was associated with an observed reduction in ROS/RNS stresses (−44%/−19% respectively), lipid peroxidation (−25%) and preservation of membrane fluidity under stress conditions. Electron microscopy of keratinocytes revealed a significant degree of stimulation of the Golgi complex, as well as significantly improved mitochondrial morphology. Given the importance of CoQ10 in mitigating the visible signs of skin aging, our findings identify Ubiad1 as an essential component of the defensive barriers of the epidermis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Personal Care Products Are Only One of Many Exposure Routes of Natural Toxic Substances to Humans and the Environment
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
The special issue “A Critical View on Natural Substances in Personal Care Products” is dedicated to addressing the multidisciplinary special challenges of natural ingredients in personal care products (PCP) and addresses also environmental exposure. In this perspective article, we argue that environmental exposure
[...] Read more.
The special issue “A Critical View on Natural Substances in Personal Care Products” is dedicated to addressing the multidisciplinary special challenges of natural ingredients in personal care products (PCP) and addresses also environmental exposure. In this perspective article, we argue that environmental exposure is probably not so much dominated by PCP use, but in many cases by direct emission from natural or anthropogenically managed vegetation, including agriculture. In support of this hypothesis, we provide examples of environmental fate and behaviour studies for compound classes that are either listed in the International Nomenclature of Cosmetics Ingredients (INCI) or have been discussed in a wider context of PCP applications and have been classified as potentially harmful to humans and the environment. Specifically, these include estrogenic isoflavones, the carcinogenic ptaquiloside and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, terpenes and terpenoids, such as artemisinin, and mycotoxins. Research gaps and challenges in the domains of human and environmental exposure assessment of natural products common to our currently rather separated research communities are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Critical View on Natural Substances in Personal Care Products)
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Open AccessReview Potential Use of Spin Traps to Control ROS in Antipollution Cosmetics—A Review
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 7 January 2018
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Abstract
Pollution from air and sunlight has adverse effects on human health, particularly skin health. It creates oxidative stress, which results in skin diseases, including skin cancer and aging. Different types of antioxidants are used as preventative actives in skin-care products. However, they have
[...] Read more.
Pollution from air and sunlight has adverse effects on human health, particularly skin health. It creates oxidative stress, which results in skin diseases, including skin cancer and aging. Different types of antioxidants are used as preventative actives in skin-care products. However, they have some limitations as they also scavenge oxygen. Recently, spin traps are being explored to trap free radicals before these radicals generating more free radicals (cascading effect) and not the oxygen molecules. However, not all spin traps can be used in the topical cosmetic skin-care products due to their toxicity and regulatory issues. The present review focuses on the different pathways of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation due to pollution and the potential use of spin traps in anti-pollution cosmetics to control ROS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antipollution Cosmetics: Trends, Test and Issues)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Multi-Response Optimization in the Formulation of a Topical Cream from Natural Ingredients
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this research was to study the effect of local raw materials on the formulation of a base cream formulation and determine the optimum proportion of each material that gives the required properties. Physicochemical properties of cream formulations can be affected
[...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to study the effect of local raw materials on the formulation of a base cream formulation and determine the optimum proportion of each material that gives the required properties. Physicochemical properties of cream formulations can be affected by their viscosity, spreadability, and particle size. The quality of the base cream is directly linked to the basic material used in the formulation. Screening of independent factors, namely oil phase (sesame oil, soybean oil, and liquid paraffin), aqueous phase (Aloe vera gel, propylene glycol, and glycerol), and surfactant (soy lecithin, tween, and soy lecithin/tween) was done to choose the best raw material required for the preparation of the base cream. Based on the screening criteria, sesame oil, Aloe vera gel, and soy lecithin were chosen as the best local raw materials. Using a multi-response optimization, the mixing fractions of sesame oil, Aloe vera gel, and soy lecithin were found to be 24%, 28%, and 10%, respectively. This base cream can be used as a suitable matrix for formulation in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle New Oils for Cosmetic O/W Emulsions: In Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to design new cosmetic formulations containing oils from catolé, licuri and spent coffee grounds, and to evaluate their immediate and long-term effects on skin barrier function and skin hydration. Nonionic oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions were prepared and physicochemically
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to design new cosmetic formulations containing oils from catolé, licuri and spent coffee grounds, and to evaluate their immediate and long-term effects on skin barrier function and skin hydration. Nonionic oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions were prepared and physicochemically characterized. The effects of the formulations were assessed by volunteers and by measuring the water content of the epidermis (WCE) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) both two hours and 20 days after daily application. The irritation potential was evaluated using three different methods: the Hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane test (HET-CAM); the observation of undesirable effects after skin formulation application, and by using the L*a*b* system to verify changes in skin coloring. The results obtained showed that the formulations containing 10% of these oils presented promising characteristics in the improvement of hydration and skin barrier function when compared to the baseline values and with the placebo cream. According to the sensory evaluation performed, all creams were found to have great acceptability. Full article
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Open AccessReview Coffee Silverskin: A Review on Potential Cosmetic Applications
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
Coffee silverskin, the major coffee-roasting by-product, is currently used as fuel and for soil fertilization. However, there are several studies reporting silverskin as a good source of bioactive compounds that can be extracted and further used by cosmetic industry. Its high antioxidant potential
[...] Read more.
Coffee silverskin, the major coffee-roasting by-product, is currently used as fuel and for soil fertilization. However, there are several studies reporting silverskin as a good source of bioactive compounds that can be extracted and further used by cosmetic industry. Its high antioxidant potential may be due to the synergistic interaction of chlorogenic acids (1–6%), caffeine (0.8–1.25%), and melanoidins (17–23%), among other antioxidant compounds. The bioactive compounds of silverskin can answer to the new fields of cosmetic industry on natural active ingredient resources that improve health skin appearance, counteract skin aging and related diseases, in an environmentally friendly approach. Skin aging is a complex process associated with oxidative metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. ROS production increase matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as well as pro-inflammatory mediators, resulting in consequent skin damage and aging. To counteract this process, cosmetic industry is looking for compounds able to increase MMP inhibitory activities, hyaluronidase inhibitory activity, expression of collagen and elastase inhibitory activity, as potential bioactive ingredients with anti-aging purposes. This review focuses on skin aging factors and the potential anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-cellulite and anti-hair loss activity, as well as protection against UV damage, of coffee silverskin and their bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products)
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Open AccessReview The Impact of Pollution on Skin and Proper Efficacy Testing for Anti-Pollution Claims
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
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Abstract
Exposure to pollution can cause oxidative stress, premature ageing, inflammation, and diseases. Since most of us are exposed to pollution, protection is important. This can be achieved through skin protection or through protection with respect to food and food supplements. There is a
[...] Read more.
Exposure to pollution can cause oxidative stress, premature ageing, inflammation, and diseases. Since most of us are exposed to pollution, protection is important. This can be achieved through skin protection or through protection with respect to food and food supplements. There is a wide range of products on the market with anti-pollution claims. However, it is important that these claims are thoroughly validated by proper efficacy testing. When skin cells are exposed to pollution factors, changes in a number of skin properties can be observed, such as lipid composition, lipid and protein oxidation, pH, sebum secretion rate, oxidative stress, inflammation markers, and collagen and elastin levels. These can be measured and used as markers to verify anti-pollution claims. In the present review, we summarize some of the most important in vitro and in vivo tests that are used to determine if an ingredient or formulation has anti-pollution efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antipollution Cosmetics: Trends, Test and Issues)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle What Makes Indian Women Look Older—An Exploratory Study on Facial Skin Features
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 25 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2894 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
It remains important to investigate skin ageing signs across different skin types for targeted solutions. Limited data is available on Indian skin changes throughout ageing, hence three fields were investigated: skin features during the ageing process, their relationship with perceived age and self-declared
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It remains important to investigate skin ageing signs across different skin types for targeted solutions. Limited data is available on Indian skin changes throughout ageing, hence three fields were investigated: skin features during the ageing process, their relationship with perceived age and self-declared skin ageing concerns. Photographs, skin topography, colour and biophysical measurements of 202 Indian female volunteers, 30–65 years old, were collected. Another panel of 693 naïve graders, 20–65 years old, estimated the age of photographs previously collected. Associations between 28 skin features and real/perceived age were assessed using linear correlation coefficients. Skin feature scores of an older perceived group were compared versus the scores of a younger perceived group, to establish skin features that lead to an older appearance. Additionally, the naïve graders were asked to rank 12 skin ageing concerns by importance. Twenty-four features correlated with real and perceived age. The ages of the volunteers were overestimated, especially those in their 30s. Skin features related to skin brightness suggested an older look for volunteers in their 30s. From the 40s onwards, wrinkles around the eye area, glabellar and corner of the mouth were also drivers for looking older. In the 50s, features such as upper lip wrinkles, hydration and roughness on the crow’s feet were worse in the older perceived group, while nasolabial folds suggested an older appearance in the 60s. By having identified skin features that worsen with age and contribute to an older perceived face, this research will facilitate the creation of tailored products and communication for Indian women to look after their skin concerns throughout the ageing process. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Macroalgae-Derived Ingredients for Cosmetic Industry—An Update
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
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Abstract
Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of
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Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of its natural functions. With the new societal paradigms regarding youth and beauty have emerged new concerns about appearance, encouraging millions of consumers to use cosmetic/personal care products as part of their daily routine. Hence, cosmetics have become a global and highly competitive market in a constant state of evolution. This industry is highly committed to finding natural sources of functional/bioactive-rich compounds, preferably from sustainable and cheap raw materials, to deliver innovative products and solutions that meet consumers’ expectations. Macroalgae are an excellent example of a natural resource that can fit these requirements. The incorporation of macroalgae-derived ingredients in cosmetics has been growing, as more and more scientific evidence reports their skin health-promoting effects. This review provides an overview on the possible applications of macroalgae as active ingredients for the cosmetic field, highlighting the main compounds responsible for their bioactivity on skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products)
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Open AccessReview Cutaneous Permeation and Penetration of Sunscreens: Formulation Strategies and In Vitro Methods
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
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Abstract
Sunscreens are the most common products used for skin protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. However, as frequent application is recommended, the use of large amount of sunscreens could reflect in possible systemic absorption and since these preparations are often applied
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Sunscreens are the most common products used for skin protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. However, as frequent application is recommended, the use of large amount of sunscreens could reflect in possible systemic absorption and since these preparations are often applied on large skin areas, even low penetration rates can cause a significant amount of sunscreen to enter the body. An ideal sunscreen should have a high substantivity and should neither penetrate the viable epidermis, the dermis and the systemic circulation, nor in hair follicle. The research of methods to assess the degree of penetration of solar filters into the skin is nowadays even more important than in the past, due to the widespread use of nanomaterials and the new discoveries in cosmetic formulation technology. In the present paper, different in vitro studies, published in the last five years, have been reviewed, in order to focus the attention on the different methodological approaches employed to effectively assess the skin permeation and retention of sunscreens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sunscreens: Efficacy and Safety—An Overview and Update)
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