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Sci. Pharm., Volume 85, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Development of RP-HPLC, Stability Indicating Method for Degradation Products of Linagliptin in Presence of Metformin HCl by Applying 2 Level Factorial Design; and Identification of Impurity-VII, VIII and IX and Synthesis of Impurity-VII
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(3), 25; doi:10.3390/scipharm85030025
Received: 21 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
The novel reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), stability indicating method was developed for determination of linagliptin (LGP) and its related substances in linagliptin and metformin HCl (MET HCl) tablets by implementing design of experiment to understand the critical method parameters and their
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The novel reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), stability indicating method was developed for determination of linagliptin (LGP) and its related substances in linagliptin and metformin HCl (MET HCl) tablets by implementing design of experiment to understand the critical method parameters and their relation with critical method attributes; to ensure robustness of the method. The separation of nine specified impurities was achieved with a Zorbax SB-Aq 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column, using gradient elution and a detector wavelength of 225 nm, and validated in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and found to be accurate, precise, reproducible, robust, and specific. The drug was found to be degrading extensively in heat, humidity, basic, and oxidation conditions and was forming degradation products during stability studies. After slight modification in the buffer and the column, the same method was used for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography -time-of-flight/mass spectrometry UPLC-TOF/MS analysis, to identify m/z and fragmentation of maximum unspecified degradation products i.e., Impurity-VII (7), Impurity-VIII (8), and Impurity-IX (9) formed during stability studies. Based on the results, a degradation pathway for the drug has been proposed and synthesis of Impurity-VII (7) is also discussed to ensure an in-depth understanding of LGP and its related degradation products and optimum performance during the lifetime of the product. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reversed-Phase UHPLC Enantiomeric Separation of Rasagiline Salts Using a Chiralpak® AGP Column
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(3), 26; doi:10.3390/scipharm85030026
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
We report the first rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) enantiomeric reversed-phase separation of rasagiline mesylate and its tartrate salts using a Chiralpak® AGP column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) as a stationary phase. This method was developed as an
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We report the first rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) enantiomeric reversed-phase separation of rasagiline mesylate and its tartrate salts using a Chiralpak® AGP column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) as a stationary phase. This method was developed as an alternative to the usage of previously reported normal-phase chiral LC columns for isomer separation. Our method is based on an isocratic approach using a mixture of ammonium acetate and isopropyl alcohol (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase (0.6 mL/min flow rate). The detection limit (at a detection wavelength of 210 nm) and quantification limit for the rasagiline enantiomers were 0.06 and 0.2 μg/mL, respectively. This method is compatible with the UHPLC-MS technique. The successful separation of rasagiline and its enantiomer was confirmed by determining the corresponding specific optical rotation values. Our method will be applicable for detecting rasagiline enantiomers during the control of manufacturing processes, and for use in rapid analysis for quality control in pharmaceutical industry to obtain optically pure pharmaceutical substances. This method was validated in terms of its precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, robustness, ruggedness, specificity, forced degradation, and solution stability, according to International Council on Harmonization Validation Guidelines Q2 (R1). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Regressions of Breast Carcinoma Syngraft Following Treatment with Piperine in Combination with Thymoquinone
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(3), 27; doi:10.3390/scipharm85030027
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Thymoquinone (TQ) and piperine, the active ingredients in cumin (Nigella sativa) and black pepper (Piper longum), respectively, exhibit various bioactivities including anticancer effects. The aim of the present study is to investigate the antineoplastic activity of a combination of
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Thymoquinone (TQ) and piperine, the active ingredients in cumin (Nigella sativa) and black pepper (Piper longum), respectively, exhibit various bioactivities including anticancer effects. The aim of the present study is to investigate the antineoplastic activity of a combination of TQ and piperine against breast cancer implanted in mice. The antiproliferative effects of TQ, piperine, and a combination of both agents were tested against mouse epithelial breast cancer cell line (EMT6/P) using MTT assay. The isobolographic method was used to calculate the combination index (CI). Degree of angiogenesis inhibition was detected by measuring vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in tissue culture for all treatments. EMT6/P cells were inoculated in Balb/C mice and the antitumor effect of TQ, piperine, and their combination was assessed. Changes in tumor size were calculated for all treatments. Tumor histology was examined using the hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) colorimetric assay and caspase-3 activity assays were used to detect apoptosis. Serum levels of interferon (INF)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-2, and IL-10 were measured using ELISA and treatment toxicity was evaluated by measuring serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and creatinine. A clear synergistic antiproliferative interaction between TQ and piperine was observed with CI value of 0.788. The combination therapy resulted in significant reduction in tumor size with percentage cure of 60% and percentage death of 0%. High degrees of apoptosis and geographical necrosis were induced in tumors treated with the combination therapy. Combination therapy caused significant decrease in VEGF expression and increased serum INF-γ levels. Normal serum levels of AST, ALT, and creatinine were observed in tumor-bearing mice treated with the combination therapy. The combination of TQ and piperine acts synergistically to target breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. This novel combination exerts its effect by angiogenesis inhibition, apoptosis induction, and shifting the immune response toward T helper1 response. This combination therapy deserves further investigation (including measurement of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α to be used in clinical studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Growth Control Properties of Nonoscale Structure Produced from Aloe vera var. littoralis Extract on Clinical Isolates of Salmonella
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(3), 28; doi:10.3390/scipharm85030028
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to examine antibacterial properties of microemulsion structure produced from Aloe vera var. littoralis extract as a new tool of nanoscale drug-like materials. Aloe vera var. littoralis (A. littoralis) extract was prepared by distillation method. A
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The aim of the study was to examine antibacterial properties of microemulsion structure produced from Aloe vera var. littoralis extract as a new tool of nanoscale drug-like materials. Aloe vera var. littoralis (A. littoralis) extract was prepared by distillation method. A nonocarrier structure in the microemulsion system was prepared from the extract. Serial concentrations were prepared from 8 mg/mL extract and the nonocarrier containing 0.1 mg/mL pure extract and were evaluated by a disk diffusion method for 35 Salmonella clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microbroth dilution assay using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) Microplate Reader apparatus. Antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. From 35 clinical isolates of Salmonella, 17 isolates—including resistant isolates of S.E.1103 and S.E.49—had a zone of inhibition (ZI) of 7 to 32 mm in 0.007 mg/mL of the extract. S.E.76 isolate exposed to 30 µg/mL ceftazidime disk had a ZI of 12 mm but had 10 mm in 7µg/mL of A. littoralis extract. The inhibitory effect of a nanocarrier at a concentration of 25 µg/mL by 20 mm ZI was comparable by the ceftazidime (30 µg/mL) effect. MIC50 was 0.25 mg/mL and MBC50 was 0.5 mg/mL by MTT method for the extract. It was shown that A.littoralis extract had antioxidant activity of 31.67 µM/mg that could be increased based on concentration. It was concluded that the nanocarrier had a significant effect on the studied isolates in comparison with ordinary antibiotics and had potential for use as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial material in complementary medicine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity Induced by Ethanolic Extract of Marsdenia tenacissima Leaves in Experimental Rats
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(3), 29; doi:10.3390/scipharm85030029
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Marsdenia tenacissima (MTE) leaves (family: Asclepiadaceae) in albino rats. The acute toxicity was performed where the limit dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight used. Observations
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The objective of this study is to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Marsdenia tenacissima (MTE) leaves (family: Asclepiadaceae) in albino rats. The acute toxicity was performed where the limit dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight used. Observations were made and recorded for 24 h, and once daily further for a period of 14 days. The rats were weighed and various observations, like mortality, behavior, injury, or any signs of illness were conducted once daily during the period. For subacute study, four groups of 10 animals (female rats) received 10% Tween 20 in distilled water (control), and 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg of freshly-prepared extracts, respectively, every 24 h orally for 28 days. At the end of each study, hematological analysis and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Histopathological examination of vital organs of the animals were taken for gross findings, compared to controls. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) observed in the relative organs, body weights, hematological, biochemical parameters, and gross abnormalities, compared to the control. No mortality was recorded. Therefore, analysis of results may lead to the conclusion that the medium-term oral administration of the MTE leaves for 28 days does not cause toxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structural and Dynamics Perspectives on the Binding of Substrate and Inhibitors in Mycobacterium tuberculosis DHFR
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(3), 31; doi:10.3390/scipharm85030031
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an essential enzyme in the folate pathway, is a potential target for new anti-tuberculosis drugs. Fifteen crystal structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DHFR complexed with NADPH and various inhibitors are available in the RCSB Protein Data Bank, but none of them
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Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an essential enzyme in the folate pathway, is a potential target for new anti-tuberculosis drugs. Fifteen crystal structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DHFR complexed with NADPH and various inhibitors are available in the RCSB Protein Data Bank, but none of them is a substrate binding structure. Therefore, we performed molecular dynamics simulations on ternary complexes of M. tuberculosis DHFR:NADPH with a substrate (dihydrofolate) and each of three competitive inhibitors in 2,4-diaminopyrimidine series (P1, P157, and P169), in order to gain insight into the inhibition-mechanism of DHFR in the folate pathway. The binding energy and thermodynamics values of each system were calculated by the Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) method. The dynamics of the enzyme and the motion of each amino acid residue at the active site were examined. The key factors that promote the binding of P157 and P169 on M. tuberculosis DHFR (mtbDHFR) reveal opportunities for using these compounds as novel anti-tuberculosis drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Activities of Enantiopure and Racemic 1′-Acetoxychavicol Acetate against Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(3), 32; doi:10.3390/scipharm85030032
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
In the process of evaluating the effect of several plant extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA), an extract of Thai herb Alpinia galanga rhizome and its major component, 1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), exhibited marked anti-tuberculosis activity. The minimal inhibition
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In the process of evaluating the effect of several plant extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA), an extract of Thai herb Alpinia galanga rhizome and its major component, 1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), exhibited marked anti-tuberculosis activity. The minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) of the S-enantiomer of ACA (S-ACA) against M. tuberculosis H37Ra ATCC 25177 and H37Rv ATCC 27294 strains were 0.2 µg/mL and 0.7 µg/mL, respectively. More than 95% of 100 drug-sensitive and 50 drug-resistant mycobacterial clinical isolates were inhibited by extracted S-ACA at 1.0 µg/mL. All of the remaining isolates were inhibited at 2.0 µg/mL. In contrast to the S-enantiomer, synthetic racemic 1′-R,S-ACA (rac-ACA) showed MICs of 0.5 µg/mL and 2.7 µg/mL for M. tuberculosis H37Ra ATCC 25177 and H37Rv ATCC 27294, respectively, suggesting that the anti-tuberculosis effect might be primarily due to the S-form. These observations were in line with the MICs of rac-ACA against 98% of 93 drug-resistant clinical isolates, which showed the effective inhibitory dose at 2.0 µg/mL. After exposure to 2.7 µg/mL of rac-ACA for at least 3 h, the tubercle bacilli were completely killed. These demonstrated that ACA had potent anti-TB activity. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Review of the Composition of the Essential Oils and Biological Activities of Angelica Species
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(3), 33; doi:10.3390/scipharm85030033
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
A number of Angelica species have been used in traditional systems of medicine to treat many ailments. Especially, essential oils (EOs) from the Angelica species have been used for the treatment of various health problems, including malaria, gynecological diseases, fever, anemia, and arthritis.
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A number of Angelica species have been used in traditional systems of medicine to treat many ailments. Especially, essential oils (EOs) from the Angelica species have been used for the treatment of various health problems, including malaria, gynecological diseases, fever, anemia, and arthritis. EOs are complex mixtures of low molecular weight compounds, especially terpenoids and their oxygenated compounds. These components deliver specific fragrance and biological properties to essential oils. In this review, we summarized the chemical composition and biological activities of EOs from different species of Angelica. For this purpose, a literature search was carried out to obtain information about the EOs of Angelica species and their bioactivities from electronic databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley, Springer, ACS, Google, and other journal publications. There has been a lot of variation in the EO composition among different Angelica species. EOs from Angelica species were reported for different kinds of biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immunotoxic, and insecticidal activities. The present review is an attempt to consolidate the available data for different Angelica species on the basis of major constituents in the EOs and their biological activities. Full article
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