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Metabolites 2013, 3(4), 993-1010; doi:10.3390/metabo3040993

2-Hydrazinoquinoline as a Derivatization Agent for LC-MS-Based Metabolomic Investigation of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2013 / Revised: 21 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Response to Environment and Stress Metabolism)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [730 KB, uploaded 31 October 2013]   |  


Short-chain carboxylic acids, aldehydes and ketones are products and regulators of many important metabolic pathways. Their levels in biofluids and tissues reflect the status of specific metabolic reactions, the homeostasis of the whole metabolic system and the wellbeing of a biological entity. In this study, the use of 2-hydrazinoquinoline (HQ) as a novel derivatization agent was explored and optimized for simultaneous liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of carboxylic acids, aldehydes and ketones in biological samples. The formation of carboxylic acid derivative is attributed to the esterification reaction between HQ and a carboxyl group, while the production of aldehyde and ketone derivatives is through the formation of Schiff bases between HQ and a carbonyl group. The compatibility of HQ with biological samples was demonstrated by derivatizing urine, serum and liver extract samples. Using this HQ-based approach, the kinetics of type 1 diabetes-induced metabolic changes was characterized by the LC-MS-based metabolomic analysis of urine samples from streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. Subsequently, carboxylic acid, aldehyde and ketone metabolites associated with STZ-elicited disruption of nutrient and energy metabolism were conveniently identified and elucidated. Overall, HQ derivatization of carboxylic acids, aldehydes and ketones could serve as a useful tool for the LC-MS-based metabolomic investigation of endogenous metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2-hydrazinoquinoline; LC-MS; chemical derivatization; metabolomics; ketoacidosis; diabetes 2-hydrazinoquinoline; LC-MS; chemical derivatization; metabolomics; ketoacidosis; diabetes

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, Y.; Yao, D.; Chen, C. 2-Hydrazinoquinoline as a Derivatization Agent for LC-MS-Based Metabolomic Investigation of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Metabolites 2013, 3, 993-1010.

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