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Plants, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Pollen Grain Preservation and Fertility in Valuable Commercial Rose Cultivars
Plants 2017, 6(2), 17; doi:10.3390/plants6020017
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the cut flower market, traditional breeding is still the best way to achieve new rose cultivars. The geographical delocalization of cultivar constitution (generally made in Europe and North America) and plant cultivation (large areas in Africa and South America) represents a limit
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In the cut flower market, traditional breeding is still the best way to achieve new rose cultivars. The geographical delocalization of cultivar constitution (generally made in Europe and North America) and plant cultivation (large areas in Africa and South America) represents a limit point for crossing and selection. Rose breeders often need to overcome geographical distances, resulting in asynchrony in flowering among crossing parents, by storing and sending pollen. Hence, a key aspect in breeding programs is linked to pollen availability and conservation, jointly with the identification of parameters related to pollen fertility. In this study we present the results of three different trials. In the first, pollen diameter and pollen viability were chosen as fertility predictors of 10 Rosa hybrida commercial cultivars. In the second trial, aliquots of dried pollen grains of six R. hybrida cultivar were stored under two different temperatures (freezer at T = −20 °C and deep freezer at T = −80 °C) and after a wide range of conservation period, their viability was measured. In the third trial, the effective fertilization capacity of frozen pollen of 19 pollen donor cultivars was evaluated during 2015 crossing breeding plan, performing 44 hybridizations and correlating the number of seeds and the ratio seeds/crossing, obtained by each cultivar, with in vitro pollen germination ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen Tube Growth 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Gamma Irradiation on 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline Content, GABA Content and Volatile Compounds of Germinated Rice (Thai Upland Rice)
Plants 2017, 6(2), 18; doi:10.3390/plants6020018
Received: 18 December 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Aroma intensity in rice is related to the level of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). The accumulation of 2AP in rice has been synthesized via l-proline metabolism by inactive betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme (BADH2), which activates 2AP accumulation. Meanwhile, active BADH2 inhibits 2AP accumulation but
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Aroma intensity in rice is related to the level of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). The accumulation of 2AP in rice has been synthesized via l-proline metabolism by inactive betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme (BADH2), which activates 2AP accumulation. Meanwhile, active BADH2 inhibits 2AP accumulation but activates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation. The improvement of 2AP content in rice has been reported under certain conditions, such as high salinity, water treatment, and reduction of high intensity solar exposure. In this study, we conducted the effects of gamma irradiation on 2AP content, GABA content and volatile compounds of germinated rice (Thai upland rice). Our results showed that the GABA content was highest when rice seeds germinated within a 24-h. The 2AP content of irradiated rice (germinated within a 24-h duration) was higher than non-irradiated rice for all gamma doses, particularly at 20 Gy, which showed a 23-fold higher level of 2AP than non-irradiated rice. On the other hand, the reduction of the GABA content of irradiated rice was caused by an increase in the gamma dose. At 300 Gy, irradiated rice had a GABA content approximately 2.6-fold lower than non-irradiated rice. Moreover, we observed that a reduction of volatile compounds occurred when increasing gamma dose. However, some volatile compounds appeared in the irradiated rice at gamma doses of 60 Gy, 80 Gy, 100 Gy and 300 Gy. Furthermore, we observed that the level of Octanal, which is the compound most related to aroma intensity, of irradiated rice was stronger than that of non-irradiated rice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that 2AP and GABA contents are sensitive to gamma irradiation conditions. Moreover, the results indicate that the gamma irradiation technique can be used to improve the aroma intensity of rice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pastoralism versus Agriculturalism—How Do Altered Land-Use Forms Affect the Spread of Invasive Plants in the Degraded Mutara Rangelands of North-Eastern Rwanda?
Plants 2017, 6(2), 19; doi:10.3390/plants6020019
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly
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Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats. The dispersal of L. camara is facilitated by birds and other animals consuming its drupes (endozoochory), and so both wild and domestic ungulates could contribute to its spread. In our study, we investigated the distribution of L. camara in the Mutara rangelands of north-eastern Rwanda, an area that faced dramatic landscape changes in recent decades. We assessed 23 ecological factors and factors related to land-use and conservation-political history. Major effects on the local abundance of L. camara were found in that the relative canopy cover of L. camara was negatively correlated with the occurrence of other shrubs (suggesting competition for space and nutrients), while encounter rates of houses, ‘living fences’ (Euphorbia tirucalli L.) and cattle tracks were positively correlated with L. camara cover. Hence, the spread of non-native L. camara in the Mutara rangelands appears to be linked to landscape alterations arising from the transformation of rangelands supporting traditional pastoralist communities to other agricultural land-use forms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Attenuation of Drought Stress in Brassica Seedlings with Exogenous Application of Ca2+ and H2O2
Plants 2017, 6(2), 20; doi:10.3390/plants6020020
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Drought is one of the most common abiotic stresses, affecting the growth and productivity of crop plants globally, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Different strategies are used to mitigate the impact of drought among crop plants. Exogenous application of different substances are
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Drought is one of the most common abiotic stresses, affecting the growth and productivity of crop plants globally, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Different strategies are used to mitigate the impact of drought among crop plants. Exogenous application of different substances are known to decrease the effects of various abiotic stresses, including drought stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ca2+ and H2O2 in developing drought stress tolerance in Brassica napus “Bulbul-98” seedlings. Brassica napus “Bulbul-98” seedlings were exposed to 5, 10 and 15 mM Ca2+ and 2, 5 and 10 μM H2O2 concentrations twice at an interval of two days for up to 20 days after germination. Drought stress decreased relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content and increased proline, H2O2, soluble protein and electrolyte leakage in Brassica seedlings. Exogenous Ca2+ (5, 10,15 mM) and H2O2 (2, 5, 10 μM) supplementations, during drought stress induction, showed a significant increase in RWC by 5.4%, 18.06%, 26.2% and 6.87%, 13.9%, 18.3% respectively. Similarly, with the exogenous application of Ca2+ (5, 10, 15 mM) and H2O2 (2, 5, 10 μM), chlorophyll content was increased by 15.03%, 22.2%, and 28.4%, and 9.6%, 23.3%, and 27.5% respectively. It was confirmed that the seedlings under drought stress that were supplemented with Ca2+ and H2O2 recovered from water content reduction and chlorosis, and were able to grow normally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Environmental Stress Responses of Plants)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolomic Profiling of Soybeans (Glycine max L.) Reveals the Importance of Sugar and Nitrogen Metabolism under Drought and Heat Stress
Plants 2017, 6(2), 21; doi:10.3390/plants6020021
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5096 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Soybean is an important crop that is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially drought and heat stress. At molecular levels, reduced yields due to drought and heat stress can be seen as a result of alterations in metabolic homeostasis of vegetative tissues. At
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Soybean is an important crop that is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially drought and heat stress. At molecular levels, reduced yields due to drought and heat stress can be seen as a result of alterations in metabolic homeostasis of vegetative tissues. At present an incomplete understanding of abiotic stress-associated metabolism and identification of associated metabolites remains a major gap in soybean stress research. A study with a goal to profile leaf metabolites under control conditions (28/24 °C), drought [28/24 °C, 10% volumetric water content (VWC)], and heat stress (43/35 °C) was conducted in a controlled environment. Analyses of non-targeted metabolomic data showed that in response to drought and heat stress, key metabolites (carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, cofactors, nucleotides, peptides and secondary metabolites) were differentially accumulated in soybean leaves. The metabolites for various cellular processes, such as glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, and starch biosynthesis, that regulate carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, peptide metabolism, and purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, were found to be affected by drought as well as heat stress. Computationally based regulatory networks predicted additional compounds that address the possibility of other metabolites and metabolic pathways that could also be important for soybean under drought and heat stress conditions. Metabolomic profiling demonstrated that in soybeans, keeping up with sugar and nitrogen metabolism is of prime significance, along with phytochemical metabolism under drought and heat stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Environmental Stress Responses of Plants)
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Open AccessCommunication FLOWERING LOCUS T Triggers Early and Fertile Flowering in Glasshouse Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)
Plants 2017, 6(2), 22; doi:10.3390/plants6020022
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
Accelerated breeding of plant species has the potential to help challenge environmental and biochemical cues to support global crop security. We demonstrate the over-expression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T in Agrobacterium-mediated transformed cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz; cultivar 60444) to trigger early
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Accelerated breeding of plant species has the potential to help challenge environmental and biochemical cues to support global crop security. We demonstrate the over-expression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T in Agrobacterium-mediated transformed cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz; cultivar 60444) to trigger early flowering in glasshouse-grown plants. An event seldom seen in a glasshouse environment, precocious flowering and mature inflorescence were obtained within 4–5 months from planting of stem cuttings. Manual pollination using pistillate and staminate flowers from clonal propagants gave rise to viable seeds that germinated into morphologically typical progeny. This strategy comes at a time when accelerated crop breeding is of increasing importance to complement progressive genome editing techniques. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Phenotypical and Molecular Analyses of Arabidopsis Grown under Fluorescent and LED Light
Plants 2017, 6(2), 24; doi:10.3390/plants6020024
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 11 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Comparative analyses of phenotypic and molecular traits of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under standardised conditions is still a challenge using climatic devices supplied with common light sources. These are in most cases fluorescent lights, which have several disadvantages such as heat production at higher
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Comparative analyses of phenotypic and molecular traits of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under standardised conditions is still a challenge using climatic devices supplied with common light sources. These are in most cases fluorescent lights, which have several disadvantages such as heat production at higher light intensities, an invariable spectral output, and relatively rapid “ageing”. This results in non-desired variations of growth conditions and lowers the comparability of data acquired over extended time periods. In this study, we investigated the growth behaviour of Arabidopsis Col0 under different light conditions, applying fluorescent compared to LED lamps, and we conducted physiological as well as gene expression analyses. By changing the spectral composition and/or light intensity of LEDs we can clearly influence the growth behaviour of Arabidopsis and thereby study phenotypic attributes under very specific light conditions that are stable and reproducible, which is not necessarily given for fluorescent lamps. By using LED lights, we can also roughly mimic the sun light emission spectrum, enabling us to study plant growth in a more natural-like light set-up. We observed distinct growth behaviour under the different light regimes which was reflected by physiological properties of the plants. In conclusion, LEDs provide variable emission spectra for studying plant growth under defined, stable light conditions. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Lipid Raft, Regulator of Plasmodesmal Callose Homeostasis
Plants 2017, 6(2), 15; doi:10.3390/plants6020015
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 3 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Abstract: The specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts are enriched by sterols and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts facilitate cellular signal transduction by controlling the assembly of signaling molecules and membrane protein trafficking. Another specialized compartment of plant cells, the plasmodesmata (PD),
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Abstract: The specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts are enriched by sterols and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts facilitate cellular signal transduction by controlling the assembly of signaling molecules and membrane protein trafficking. Another specialized compartment of plant cells, the plasmodesmata (PD), which regulates the symplasmic intercellular movement of certain molecules between adjacent cells, also contains a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The dynamic permeability of plasmodesmata (PDs) is highly controlled by plasmodesmata callose (PDC), which is synthesized by callose synthases (CalS) and degraded by β-1,3-glucanases (BGs). In recent studies, remarkable observations regarding the correlation between lipid raft formation and symplasmic intracellular trafficking have been reported, and the PDC has been suggested to be the regulator of the size exclusion limit of PDs. It has been suggested that the alteration of lipid raft substances impairs PDC homeostasis, subsequently affecting PD functions. In this review, we discuss the substantial role of membrane lipid rafts in PDC homeostasis and provide avenues for understanding the fundamental behavior of the lipid raft–processed PDC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmodesmata and Intercellular Movement)
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Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Resistance and the Alternative Resources with Special Emphasis on Plant-Based Antimicrobials—A Review
Plants 2017, 6(2), 16; doi:10.3390/plants6020016
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics has created an unprecedented challenge for human civilization due to microbe’s development of antimicrobial resistance. It is difficult to treat bacterial infection due to bacteria’s ability to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial agents are categorized according
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Indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics has created an unprecedented challenge for human civilization due to microbe’s development of antimicrobial resistance. It is difficult to treat bacterial infection due to bacteria’s ability to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial agents are categorized according to their mechanism of action, i.e., interference with cell wall synthesis, DNA and RNA synthesis, lysis of the bacterial membrane, inhibition of protein synthesis, inhibition of metabolic pathways, etc. Bacteria may become resistant by antibiotic inactivation, target modification, efflux pump and plasmidic efflux. Currently, the clinically available treatment is not effective against the antibiotic resistance developed by some bacterial species. However, plant-based antimicrobials have immense potential to combat bacterial, fungal, protozoal and viral diseases without any known side effects. Such plant metabolites include quinines, alkaloids, lectins, polypeptides, flavones, flavonoids, flavonols, coumarin, terpenoids, essential oils and tannins. The present review focuses on antibiotic resistance, the resistance mechanism in bacteria against antibiotics and the role of plant-active secondary metabolites against microorganisms, which might be useful as an alternative and effective strategy to break the resistance among microbes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Natural Product Research)
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Open AccessReview The Unique Role of the ECERIFERUM2-LIKE Clade of the BAHD Acyltransferase Superfamily in Cuticular Wax Metabolism
Plants 2017, 6(2), 23; doi:10.3390/plants6020023
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 27 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2643 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids is a conserved process used for the production of many metabolites, including plant cuticular waxes. The elongation of precursors of the most abundant cuticular wax components of some plants, however, is unique in requiring ECERIFERUM2-LIKE (CER2-LIKE) proteins.
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The elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids is a conserved process used for the production of many metabolites, including plant cuticular waxes. The elongation of precursors of the most abundant cuticular wax components of some plants, however, is unique in requiring ECERIFERUM2-LIKE (CER2-LIKE) proteins. CER2-LIKEs are a clade within the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases. They are known to be required for cuticular wax production in both Arabidopsis and maize based on mutant studies. Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis and rice CER2-LIKEs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has demonstrated that they modify the chain-length specificity of elongation when paired with particular condensing enzymes. Despite sequence homology, CER2-LIKEs are distinct from the BAHD superfamily in that they do not appear to use acyl transfer activity to fulfill their biological function. Here, we review the discovery and characterization of CER2-LIKEs, propose several models to explain their function, and explore the importance of CER2-LIKE proteins for the evolution of plant cuticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Plant Cuticle)
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