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Healthcare, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Despite the fact that Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause of dementia worldwide, there is no [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle “Found Performance”: Towards a Musical Methodology for Exploring the Aesthetics of Care
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
Concepts of performance in fine art reflect key processes in music therapy. Music therapy enables practitioners to reframe patients as performers, producing new meanings around the clinical knowledge attached to medical histories and constructs. In this paper, music therapy practices are considered in
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Concepts of performance in fine art reflect key processes in music therapy. Music therapy enables practitioners to reframe patients as performers, producing new meanings around the clinical knowledge attached to medical histories and constructs. In this paper, music therapy practices are considered in the wider context of art history, with reference to allied theories from social research. Tracing a century in art that has revised the performativity of found objects (starting with Duchamp’s “Fountain”), and of found sound (crystallised by Cage’s 4′ 33) this paper proposes that music therapy might be a pioneer methodology of “found performance”. Examples from music therapy and contemporary socially engaged art practices are brought as potential links between artistic methodologies and medical humanities research, with specific reference to notions of Aesthetics of Care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humanities and Healthcare)
Open AccessPerspective Force and Presence in the World of Medicine
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Medicine can not only be read with a poetic imagination, but also configured as a poetic practice, moving beyond the instrumental. The poet Wallace Stevens made a distinction between ‘Force’ and ‘Presence’—the former can be read as combative, the latter as pacific. Modern
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Medicine can not only be read with a poetic imagination, but also configured as a poetic practice, moving beyond the instrumental. The poet Wallace Stevens made a distinction between ‘Force’ and ‘Presence’—the former can be read as combative, the latter as pacific. Modern medicine has been shaped historically by the combative metaphor of a ‘war against disease’, turning medicine into a quasi-militaristic culture fond of hierarchy. This is supplemented by the metaphor of the ‘body as machine’, reducing the complex and unpredictable body to a linear, if complicated, apparatus. The two metaphors align medicine with the modern industrial–military complex that is masculine, heroic, and controlling in character. In an era in which medicine is feminising and expected to be patient-centred, collaborative (inter-professional) and transparent to the public as a democratic gesture, the industrial–military metaphor complex should no longer be shaping medicine—yet its influence is still keenly felt, especially in surgery. This continuing dominance of Force over Presence matters because it is a style running counter to the collaborative, team-based medicine needed for high levels of patient safety. Medicine will authentically democratise only as new, pacific shaping metaphors emerge: those of ‘Presence’, such as ‘hospitality’. Hospitals can once again become places of hospitality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humanities and Healthcare)
Open AccessConcept Paper Performable Case Studies in Ethics Education
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
Bioethics education often includes the study of short stories, novels, plays, and films, because such materials present case examples that can highlight relevant issues and questions especially vividly for a wide range of students. In addition, creative writing is widely used in the
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Bioethics education often includes the study of short stories, novels, plays, and films, because such materials present case examples that can highlight relevant issues and questions especially vividly for a wide range of students. In addition, creative writing is widely used in the education of health professional students and in continuing education settings for health professionals. There are very few academic or professional disciplines that do not use case studies, but the case study in dialogic form has not been standard practice for thousands of years. Dramatic arts casuistry—the creation and performance of short case studies designed specifically to raise bioethics issues for discussion—represents an application of literature and the medical humanities that is both unique and uniquely valuable. This essay describes the development and history of a course that has been successfully taught to medical students and graduate bioethics students, in which the class researches, writes, and performs a case study designed to elicit reflection and discussion about a topic and set of bioethics issues of current interest to both academic and general audiences. The model is also suited to the presentation and discussion of existing case studies, both live and via on-demand audio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humanities and Healthcare)
Open AccessReview Reducing the Shared Burden of Chronic Conditions among Persons Aging with Disability and Older Adults in the United States through Bridging Aging and Disability
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
Persons aging with long-term disabilities such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis and older adults share similar chronic conditions in mid and later life in the United States. The rising general interest and more prevalent federal requirements for use of evidence-based practices
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Persons aging with long-term disabilities such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis and older adults share similar chronic conditions in mid and later life in the United States. The rising general interest and more prevalent federal requirements for use of evidence-based practices (EBP) in health promotion and chronic condition interventions highlight the gap between demand and the availability of EBPs for persons aging with disability in particular. Addressing this gap will require focused efforts that will benefit substantially by bridging the fields of aging and disability/rehabilitation to develop new EBPs, translate existing EBPs across populations, and borrow best practices across fields where there are few current EBPs. Understanding distinctions between disability-related secondary conditions and age-related chronic conditions is a first step in identifying shared conditions that are important to address for both mid-life and older adults with disabilities. This review articulates these distinctions, describes shared conditions, and discusses the current lack of EBPs for both populations. It also provides recommendations for bridging activities in the United States by researchers, professionals, and consumer advocates. We argue that these can more efficiently move research and practice than if activities were undertaken separately in each field (aging and disability/rehabilitation). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
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Open AccessCommunication Attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination in the Latin American Andean Region
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
This commentary explores the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) and HPV-related diseases, and factors affecting attitudes towards HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination in the Latin American Andean region. Lack of knowledge of HPV, known negative attitudes or incorrect assumptions about HPV,
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This commentary explores the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) and HPV-related diseases, and factors affecting attitudes towards HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination in the Latin American Andean region. Lack of knowledge of HPV, known negative attitudes or incorrect assumptions about HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination provide a basis upon which to develop targeted HPV awareness and preventive health media campaigns. For maximal effect, media campaigns should use the internet, radio, and television to address health care providers, parents, and students. Additional programming can be developed for clinics to use in-house with their clients. Ministries of Education, Finance, and Health all have roles to play to increase national HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination awareness. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report Decrease in Healthcare Utilization and Costs for Opioid Users Following Residential Integrated Treatment for Co-Occurring Disorders
Received: 10 June 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: Opioid use results in higher healthcare utilization and costs, particularly among those with co-occurring mental health disorders. Presumably, effective treatment would result in a reduction in healthcare utilization and costs. To date, research has not examined this question. As such, the purpose
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Background: Opioid use results in higher healthcare utilization and costs, particularly among those with co-occurring mental health disorders. Presumably, effective treatment would result in a reduction in healthcare utilization and costs. To date, research has not examined this question. As such, the purpose of this study was to estimate and compare pre- and post-treatment healthcare utilization and costs for individuals receiving residential integrated treatment for co-occurring mental health and opioid use disorders. Methods: A single-group, repeated measures design was used to examine changes in pre- and post-treatment healthcare utilization and costs among a sample of individuals with co-occurring mental health and opioid use disorders who received residential, integrated treatment. Results: Significant reductions in emergency rooms visits, inpatient admissions, and resulting costs were observed in the six months following treatment. Conclusions: Residential, integrated treatment of co-occurring mental health and opioid use disorders can significantly decrease both utilization and cost of healthcare among opioid users with co-occurring mental health disorders. Full article
Open AccessArticle Paint it Black: Using Change-Point Analysis to Investigate Increasing Vulnerability to Depression towards the End of Vincent van Gogh’s Life
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
This study investigated whether Vincent van Gogh became increasingly self-focused—and thus vulnerable to depression—towards the end of his life, through a quantitative analysis of his written pronoun use over time. A change-point analysis was conducted on the time series formed by the pronoun
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This study investigated whether Vincent van Gogh became increasingly self-focused—and thus vulnerable to depression—towards the end of his life, through a quantitative analysis of his written pronoun use over time. A change-point analysis was conducted on the time series formed by the pronoun use in Van Gogh’s letters. We used time as a predictor to see whether there was evidence for increased self-focus towards the end of Van Gogh’s life, and we compared this to the pattern in the letters written before his move to Arles. Specifically, we examined Van Gogh’s use of first person singular pronouns (FPSP) and first person plural pronouns (FPPP) in the 415 letters he wrote while working as an artist before his move to Arles, and in the next 248 letters he wrote after his move to Arles until his death in Auvers-sur-Oise. During the latter period, Van Gogh’s use of FPSP showed an annual increase of 0.68% (SE = 0.15, p < 0.001) and his use of FPPP showed an annual decrease of 0.23% (SE = 0.04, p < 0.001), indicating increasing self-focus and vulnerability to depression. This trend differed from Van Gogh’s pronoun use in the former period (which showed no significant trend in FPSP, and an annual increase of FPPP of 0.03%, SE = 0.02, p = 0.04). This study suggests that Van Gogh’s death was preceded by a gradually increasing self-focus and vulnerability to depression. It also illustrates how existing methods (i.e., quantitative linguistic analysis and change-point analysis) can be combined to study specific research questions in innovative ways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humanities and Healthcare)
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Open AccessReview The Impact of Hemodialysis Frequency and Duration on Blood Pressure Management and Quality of Life in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
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Abstract
Cardiovascular complications are the most prominent causes of morbidity and mortality among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing standard hemodialysis (HD) therapy. Cardiovascular disease risk is increased significantly through persistent hypertension and blood pressure (BP) fluctuation, which are
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Cardiovascular complications are the most prominent causes of morbidity and mortality among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing standard hemodialysis (HD) therapy. Cardiovascular disease risk is increased significantly through persistent hypertension and blood pressure (BP) fluctuation, which are the most common complications of CKD. It was hypothesized that an extended approach with lengthier and more frequent dialysis sessions, referred to in this paper as “extended hemodialysis” (EHD), can potentially lower and stabilize blood pressure, and consequently reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality. A greater reduction of volume (salt and water) with higher frequency can improve patient quality of life (QOL). Eleven papers, including clinical trials and systematic reviews were chosen and analyzed. The extracted data was used to evaluate the change in blood pressure levels between standard HD and EHD. Overall, the studies showed that EHD resulted in improved blood pressure management; therefore, we concluded that there will be a decrease in cardiovascular disease risk, stroke, and morbidity and mortality rate. There will be also an improvement in patient QOL due to beneficial effects of the EHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Socio-Economic Impact of End Stage Kidney Disease)
Open AccessCase Report Telemonitoring via Self-Report and Video Review in Community Palliative Care: A Case Report
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
Continuous monitoring and management of a person’s symptoms and performance status are critical for the delivery of effective palliative care. This monitoring occurs routinely in inpatient settings; however, such close evaluation in the community has remained elusive. Patient self-reporting using telehealth offers opportunities
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Continuous monitoring and management of a person’s symptoms and performance status are critical for the delivery of effective palliative care. This monitoring occurs routinely in inpatient settings; however, such close evaluation in the community has remained elusive. Patient self-reporting using telehealth offers opportunities to identify symptom escalation and functional decline in real time, and facilitate timely proactive management. We report the case of a 57­year-old man with advanced non-small cell lung cancer who participated in a telehealth trial run by a community palliative care service. This gentleman was able to complete self-reporting of function and symptoms via iPad although at times he was reticent to do so. Self-reporting was perceived as a means to communicate his clinical needs without being a bother to the community palliative care team. He also participated in a videoconference with clinical staff from the community palliative care service and his General Practitioner. Videoconferencing with the nurse and GP was highly valued as an effective way to communicate and also because it eliminated the need for travel. This case report provides important information about the feasibility and acceptability of palliative care telehealth as a way to better manage clinical care in a community setting. Full article
Open AccessArticle Nurse Perceptions of Artists as Collaborators in Interprofessional Care Teams
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
Increased attention is being given to interprofessional collaboration in healthcare, which has been shown to improve patient satisfaction, patient safety, healthcare processes, and health outcomes. As the arts and artists are being more widely incorporated into healthcare settings throughout the world, professional artists
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Increased attention is being given to interprofessional collaboration in healthcare, which has been shown to improve patient satisfaction, patient safety, healthcare processes, and health outcomes. As the arts and artists are being more widely incorporated into healthcare settings throughout the world, professional artists are contributing to interprofessional care teams. A secondary directed content analysis of interviews with 31 nurses on a medical-surgical care unit investigated the roles and impacts of professional artists on the interprofessional care team. The investigation utilized established domains of interprofessional care, including values and ethics, roles and responsibilities, interprofessional communication, and teams and teamwork, and created the domain of quality of care. Findings suggest that artists are valued by nurses as members of the interprofessional care team, that they enhance the provision of patient-centered care, and that they improve quality of care by providing holistic dimensions of caring, including cognitive and social engagement, and meaningful interaction. The presence of artists on interprofessional teams provides a cost-effective and welcome resource for clinical staff and builds a culture in which creativity and interdisciplinary collaboration are more highly valued and activated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humanities and Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle Breakfast Cereal Consumption and Obesity Risk amongst the Mid-Age Cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
Obesity affects 27.5% of Australian women. Breakfast cereal consumption has been proposed to be protective against obesity. This study investigated the association of breakfast cereal consumption with the risk of developing obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2) over 12
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Obesity affects 27.5% of Australian women. Breakfast cereal consumption has been proposed to be protective against obesity. This study investigated the association of breakfast cereal consumption with the risk of developing obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2) over 12 years among mid-age participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Dietary data were obtained at S3 and obesity incidence at S4–S7. Women were excluded if: dietary data were incomplete, energy intake was <4500 or >20,000 kJ/day, or they reported being overweight or obese at S3. Logistic regressions with discrete time survival analysis investigated the association between breakfast cereal intake and incident obesity and were adjusted for: area of residency, income, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, dietary intakes and a discrete measure of time. There were 308 incident cases of obesity. Any breakfast cereal intake was not associated with incident obesity (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.92; p = 0.68). Oat-based cereal (OR: 0.71; p = 0.01), muesli (OR: 0.57; p = 0.00) and All-Bran (OR: 0.62; p = 0.01) intakes were associated with a significant reduction in obesity risk. Among this cohort, muesli on its own, or as part of oat-based cereals, and All-Bran, were associated with a reduction in obesity. This effect may be due to particular characteristics of these cereal eaters, but the relationship warrants further investigation. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Collaborative Payer Provider Model Enhances Primary Care, Producing Triple Aim Plus One Outcomes: A Cohort Study
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 27 August 2017
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Abstract
Rising health care costs are threatening the fiscal solvency of patients, employers, payers, and governments. The Collaborative Payer Provider Model (CPPM) addresses this challenge by reinventing the role of the payer into a full-service collaborative ally of the physician. From 2010 through 2014,
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Rising health care costs are threatening the fiscal solvency of patients, employers, payers, and governments. The Collaborative Payer Provider Model (CPPM) addresses this challenge by reinventing the role of the payer into a full-service collaborative ally of the physician. From 2010 through 2014, a Medicare Advantage plan prospectively deployed the CPPM, averaging 30,561 members with costs that were 73.6% of fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare (p < 0.001). The health plan was not part of an integrated delivery system. After allocating $80 per member per month (PMPM) for primary care costs, the health plan had medical cost ratios averaging 75.1% before surplus distribution. Member benefits were the best in the market. The health plan was rated 4.5 Stars by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for years 1–4, and 5 Stars in study year 5 for quality, patient experience, access to care, and care process metrics. Primary care and specialist satisfaction were significantly better than national benchmarks. Savings resulted from shifts in spending from inpatient to outpatient settings, and from specialists to primary care physicians when appropriate. The CPPM is a scalable model that enables a win-win-win system for patients, providers, and payers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Content Analysis of Student Essays after Attending a Problem-Based Learning Course: Facilitating the Development of Critical Thinking and Communication Skills in Japanese Nursing Students
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
The importance of active learning has continued to increase in Japan. The authors conducted classes for first-year students who entered the nursing program using the problem-based learning method which is a kind of active learning. Students discussed social topics in classes. The purposes
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The importance of active learning has continued to increase in Japan. The authors conducted classes for first-year students who entered the nursing program using the problem-based learning method which is a kind of active learning. Students discussed social topics in classes. The purposes of this study were to analyze the post-class essay, describe logical and critical thinking after attended a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) course. The authors used Mayring’s methodology for qualitative content analysis and text mining. In the description about the skills required to resolve social issues, seven categories were extracted: (recognition of diverse social issues), (attitudes about resolving social issues), (discerning the root cause), (multi-lateral information processing skills), (making a path to resolve issues), (processivity in dealing with issues), and (reflecting). In the description about communication, five categories were extracted: (simple statement), (robust theories), (respecting the opponent), (communication skills), and (attractive presentations). As the result of text mining, the words extracted more than 100 times included “issue,” “society,” “resolve,” “myself,” “ability,” “opinion,” and “information.” Education using PBL could be an effective means of improving skills that students described, and communication in general. Some students felt difficulty of communication resulting from characteristics of Japanese. Full article
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Open AccessReview Nature Versus Nurture: Does Proteostasis Imbalance Underlie the Genetic, Environmental, and Age-Related Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease?
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Aging is a risk factor for a number of “age-related diseases”, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD affects more than a third of all people over the age of 85, and is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Symptoms include forgetfulness, memory loss, and
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Aging is a risk factor for a number of “age-related diseases”, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD affects more than a third of all people over the age of 85, and is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Symptoms include forgetfulness, memory loss, and cognitive decline, ultimately resulting in the need for full-time care. While there is no cure for AD, pharmacological approaches to alleviate symptoms and target underlying causes of the disease have been developed, albeit with limited success. This review presents the age-related, genetic, and environmental risk factors for AD and proposes a hypothesis for the mechanistic link between genetics and the environment. In short, much is known about the genetics of early-onset familial AD (EO-FAD) and the central role played by the Aβ peptide and protein misfolding, but late-onset AD (LOAD) is not thought to have direct genetic causes. Nonetheless, genetic risk factors such as isoforms of the protein ApoE have been identified. Additional findings suggest that air pollution caused by the combustion of fossil fuels may be an important environmental risk factor for AD. A hypothesis suggesting that poor air quality might act by disrupting protein folding homeostasis (proteostasis) is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
Open AccessArticle Healthy Ageing in People with Intellectual Disabilities from Managers’ Perspective: A Qualitative Study
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
An increasing number of people with intellectual disability (ID) are reaching older ages today although they experience more health problems than the older population without ID. Leaders in intellectual disability services can greatly influence the conditions for a healthy ageing, and the aim
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An increasing number of people with intellectual disability (ID) are reaching older ages today although they experience more health problems than the older population without ID. Leaders in intellectual disability services can greatly influence the conditions for a healthy ageing, and the aim of the present study was to explore healthy ageing in this group from the perspective of the leaders. Interviews with 20 leaders were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The findings gave rise to the overall theme ageing in dependence, which emerged from the following six categories: Supporting self-determination; Inaccessible activities after retirement; Signs of decline; Increased and specific needs for support and care; A non-question of gender; Aspects concerning the end of life and death. A prerequisite for healthy ageing in the case of people with ID is, according to the leaders, that they can live the life according to their preferences and make independent choices whilst at the same time receiving adequate support. With the shrinking of their social network after retirement, they become increasingly dependent on staff and leaders in the group home, who need to know what healthy ageing implies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing with Chronic Disease and Disability)
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