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Bioengineering 2014, 1(1), 22-46; doi:10.3390/bioengineering1010022

Numerical Optimal Control of Turbo Dynamic Ventricular Assist Devices

1
Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092, Switzerland
2
Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, Bern University Hospital (Inselspital) and University of Bern, Bern 3012, Switzerland
3
Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich 8091, Switzerland
4
ARTORG Center for Biomedical Research, University of Bern, Bern 3012, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2013 / Revised: 29 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
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Abstract

The current paper presents a methodology for the derivation of optimal operating strategies for turbo dynamic ventricular assist devices (tVADs). In current clinical practice, tVADs are typically operated at a constant rotational speed, resulting in a blood flow with a low pulsatility. Recent research in the field has aimed at optimizing the interaction between the tVAD and the cardiovascular system by using predefined periodic speed profiles. In the current paper, we avoid the limitation of using predefined profiles by formulating an optimal-control problem based on a mathematical model of the cardiovascular system and the tVAD. The optimal-control problem is solved numerically, leading to cycle-synchronized speed profiles, which are optimal with respect to an arbitrary objective. Here, an adjustable trade-off between the maximization of the flow through the aortic valve and the minimization of the left-ventricular stroke work is chosen. The optimal solutions perform better than constant-speed or sinusoidal-speed profiles for all cases studied. The analysis of optimized solutions provides insight into the optimized interaction between the tVAD and the cardiovascular system. The numerical approach to the optimization of this interaction represents a powerful tool with applications in research related to tVAD control. Furthermore, patient-specific, optimized VAD actuation strategies can potentially be derived from this approach.
Keywords: numerical optimal control; turbo dynamic blood pump; ventricular assist device; cardiovascular system; speed modulation numerical optimal control; turbo dynamic blood pump; ventricular assist device; cardiovascular system; speed modulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Amacher, R.; Asprion, J.; Ochsner, G.; Tevaearai, H.; Wilhelm, M.J.; Plass, A.; Amstutz, A.; Vandenberghe, S.; Daners, M.S. Numerical Optimal Control of Turbo Dynamic Ventricular Assist Devices. Bioengineering 2014, 1, 22-46.

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