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Beverages, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2018)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Beverages in 2017
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 7; doi:10.3390/beverages4010007
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Beverages maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...]
Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Craftwashing in the U.S. Beer Industry
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/beverages4010001
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Big brewers, which have experienced declining sales for their beer brands in the last decade, have been accused of “craftwashing” by some craft brewers and their aficionados—they define craftwashing as big brewers (>6 million barrels per year) taking advantage of the
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(1) Background: Big brewers, which have experienced declining sales for their beer brands in the last decade, have been accused of “craftwashing” by some craft brewers and their aficionados—they define craftwashing as big brewers (>6 million barrels per year) taking advantage of the increasing sales of craft beer by emulating these products or by acquiring craft breweries, while also obscuring their ownership from consumers; (2) Methods: To estimate the prevalence of these practices, the ownership of U.S. mainstream and craft beer brands was decoded and visualized. In addition, an exploratory case study analyzed how these ownership relations are represented in the craft sections of selected retailers (n = 16) in the Lansing, Michigan metropolitan area; (3) Results: By October 2017 in the U.S., all but one big brewer had either acquired a craft brewery, or formed a distribution alliance with one—without disclosing these relationships on the packaging. In the study area, 30% of 4- and 6-pack facings recorded in craft beer sections (n = 1145) had ownership ties to big brewers; (4) Conclusions: Craftwashing is common in the U.S. beer industry, and this suggests consumers must exert substantial effort to become aware of their own role in reinforcing these practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Market)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Carrier Quantity and Drying Method on the Physical Properties of Apple Juice Powders
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 2; doi:10.3390/beverages4010002
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
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Abstract
The study aimed at the evaluation of the physical properties of apple juice powders mixed with different concentration of maltodextrin obtained by freeze-, vacuum and spray drying methods. Due to the chemical composition of apple juice there was a possibility to obtain apple
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The study aimed at the evaluation of the physical properties of apple juice powders mixed with different concentration of maltodextrin obtained by freeze-, vacuum and spray drying methods. Due to the chemical composition of apple juice there was a possibility to obtain apple juice powders by freeze-, spray and vacuum drying, excluding vacuum drying at 40 °C when 15% and 20% of maltodextrin were added. The moisture content of powders was more dependent on the drying method than on the quantity of maltodextrin added. The spray drying process in the context of an increase in maltodextrin quantity resulted in a decrease in the water activity of apple powders, whereas low temperature processes increased its values. Lower values of true density were observed after spray drying in comparison to freeze- and vacuum drying processes. The application of selected drying methods resulted in the formation of different particles’ size of apple powders influencing the bulk density of the products. The highest values of bulk density were indicated for powders obtained by vacuum drying due to the bigger size of the particles (crystalized structure). The porosity of apple juice powders was strictly related to the bulk density. Colour parameters of powders were more influenced by drying techniques than the quantity of maltodextrin (15% up to 35%) added. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Powder)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Different Glass Shapes and Size on the Time Course of Dissolved Oxygen in Wines during Simulated Tasting
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 3; doi:10.3390/beverages4010003
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
The different shapes and sizes of wine glass are claimed to balance the different wine aromas in the headspace, enhancing the olfactory perception and providing an adequate level of oxygenation. Although the measurement of dissolved oxygen in winemaking has recently received much focus,
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The different shapes and sizes of wine glass are claimed to balance the different wine aromas in the headspace, enhancing the olfactory perception and providing an adequate level of oxygenation. Although the measurement of dissolved oxygen in winemaking has recently received much focus, the role of oxygen in wine tasting needs to be further disclosed. This preliminary study aims to explore, for the first time, the effect of swirling glasses of different shapes and sizes on the oxygen content of wine. Experimental trials were designed to simulate real wine tasting conditions. The O2 content after glass swirling was affected to a considerable extent by both the type of wine and the glass shape. A lack of correlation between the shape parameters of five glasses and the O2 content in wine was found which suggests that the nonequilibrium condition can occur during wine tasting. The International Standard Organisation (ISO) glass—considered to be optimal for the wine tasting—allowed less wine oxygenation than any other glass shapes; and the apparent superiority of the ISO glass is tentatively attributed to the more stable oxygen content with time; i.e., less variability in oxygen content than any other glass shape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Sensory Modification)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of an Antioxidant-Enriched Beverage from Grape Musts and Extracts of Winery and Grapevine By-Products
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 4; doi:10.3390/beverages4010004
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 8 January 2018
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Abstract
The recovery of antioxidants from complex winery and grapevine by-products into Vitis vinifera must offers new opportunities for wine grapes by the development of a new, enriched fruit juice. However, this demands the search for new valorization methods to get hold of additional
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The recovery of antioxidants from complex winery and grapevine by-products into Vitis vinifera must offers new opportunities for wine grapes by the development of a new, enriched fruit juice. However, this demands the search for new valorization methods to get hold of additional antioxidant compounds. The objective of this study was to find a novel functionality for grape pomace, grapevine leaves, and canes by its reuse as a functional matrix for the extraction of antioxidants into grape must. After thermomaceration, 22 polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Grape pomace was a good source of anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside), while flavonols (quercetin-3-hexoside) and phenolic acids (caftaric acid) were the main phenolic compounds in leaf extracts. Catechin dimer was the only polyphenol compound present in all of the matrices. Enriched grape juice comprised by 40:20:40 (v/v/v) of pomace, leaf, and cane extracts, yielded an oxygen radical absorbance capacity of pirogallol red and fluorescein ratio of 0.70, indicating that the reactivity of antioxidants present in enriched grape juice was at least as efficient as other polyphenol-rich beverages. Thus, pomace, leaves and canes supply additional polyphenols to grape must that results into a beverage with promissory antioxidant activity and potential health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages)
Open AccessArticle Development and Examination of Sweet Potato Flour Fortified with Indigenous Underutilized Seasonal Vegetables
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 5; doi:10.3390/beverages4010005
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 8 January 2018
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Abstract
Developing nutrient-rich vegetable flour using locally under-utilized food crops in Africa would improve rural house-hold nutrition. This study seeks to develop nutrient-dense vegetable flour from different proportions of Sweet potato (Sp) 40–100%, Avocado pear (Avo) 10–40%, and Turkey berry (Tor) 10–40%, using completely
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Developing nutrient-rich vegetable flour using locally under-utilized food crops in Africa would improve rural house-hold nutrition. This study seeks to develop nutrient-dense vegetable flour from different proportions of Sweet potato (Sp) 40–100%, Avocado pear (Avo) 10–40%, and Turkey berry (Tor) 10–40%, using completely randomized design (CRD) with 14 treatment combinations and three replications. The proximate composition, mineral composition, and functional properties were investigated on the composite flour. The results showed significant differences in all the parameters analyzed for the various composite flours. As the amount of Avo and Tor was added to the Sp, the proximate composition was enhanced except for the percentage carbohydrate, which decreased from 83.92 to 54.59 g/100 g. The mineral composition was also improved by the incorporation of Avo and Tor. Favourable functional properties were also obtained. The optimal composite flour was made up of 40% Sp, 35% Avo, and 25% Tor. The functional properties of the composite flours were better than the control (Sweet potato flour). Fortifying Sp flour with Avo and Tor is feasible and could be an easy and affordable means to improve rural nutrition, as it requires simple logistics for the ordinary rural household to produce the composite of the desired choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Powder)
Open AccessArticle Structural Changes in the Consumption of Beer, Wine and Spirits in OECD Countries from 1961 to 2014
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 8; doi:10.3390/beverages4010008
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Alcohol consumption is usually measured as the simple sum of the per capita consumption of beer, wine and spirits in alcohol equivalents, i.e., assuming the specific beverages to be perfect substitutes. Alternatively, total alcohol consumption can be represented by a vector in the
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Alcohol consumption is usually measured as the simple sum of the per capita consumption of beer, wine and spirits in alcohol equivalents, i.e., assuming the specific beverages to be perfect substitutes. Alternatively, total alcohol consumption can be represented by a vector in the three-dimensional space of beer, wine and spirits, and the concept of angular separation is used to give a structural measurement of the beverage composition. Applying such a methodology, the aim of this paper is to analyse and explain structural changes in alcohol consumption among 21 OECD countries over the period from 1961 to 2014. Overall, the analyses suggest that convergence has taken place in the structural composition of alcohol consumption in the OECD countries. Income, the alcohol consumption level, trade openness and demographic factors are found to be drivers of this development during the last decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages Market)
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Open AccessArticle Volatile Compound Profiles in Mezcal Spirits as Influenced by Agave Species and Production Processes
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 9; doi:10.3390/beverages4010009
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
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Abstract
Mezcal is a traditional Mexican spirit produced by distilling fermented Agave. The effects of Agave species, origin, and season on the volatile compound profile were studied in mezcal from Oaxaca, Mexico. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to isolate volatile compounds from mezcals made
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Mezcal is a traditional Mexican spirit produced by distilling fermented Agave. The effects of Agave species, origin, and season on the volatile compound profile were studied in mezcal from Oaxaca, Mexico. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to isolate volatile compounds from mezcals made from Agave angustifolia Haw. and Agave potatorum Zucc. These compounds were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four volatile compounds were identified, including alcohols, esters, fatty acids, ketones, furans, and others. Using variance analysis, it was possible to observe significant differences for the 26, 24, and 10 compounds in mezcal samples that differed based on Agave species, origin, and season. 3-Ethyl-phenol was identified only in samples of mezcal from A. angustifolia, and this volatile compound could be used as an authentic marker of mezcal from A. angustifolia (p ≤ 0.01). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volatile Composition of Drinks)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Macerating Pectinase Enzyme Activity under Various Temperature, pH and Ethanol Regimes
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 10; doi:10.3390/beverages4010010
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
The polygalacturonase (PGU), hemicellulase (mannanase) and protease enzyme activities in commercial macerating, pectinase-enzyme preparations commonly used by wineries in Ontario (Scottzyme Color X and Color Pro) were measured under various simulated process conditions (temperature, pH, and ethanol concentration). Treatments included three temperatures (15,
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The polygalacturonase (PGU), hemicellulase (mannanase) and protease enzyme activities in commercial macerating, pectinase-enzyme preparations commonly used by wineries in Ontario (Scottzyme Color X and Color Pro) were measured under various simulated process conditions (temperature, pH, and ethanol concentration). Treatments included three temperatures (15, 20 and 30 °C; pH = 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0; ethanol = 0%), four pH levels (3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0; temperature = 15, 20, 30 and 50 °C; ethanol = 0%), and four ethanol concentrations ((2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%); temperature = 20 °C and pH = 3.5.) Polygalacturonase enzyme activity in Color X increased linearly with temperature at all pH levels, and increased with pH at all temperature regimes. Polygalacturonase activity decreased with increasing ethanol. Color X mannanase activity increased with temperatures between 15 and 40 °C, and decreased with increased pH between 3.0 and 5.0. Response of mannanase to ethanol was cubic with a sharp decrease between 8 and 10% ethanol. Protease activity increased linearly with temperatures between 20 and 40 °C. These data suggest that the PGU, mannanase and protease components in these enzyme products provide sufficient activities within the ranges of pH, temperature, and ethanol common during the initial stages of red wine fermentations, although low must temperatures (<20 °C) and presence of ethanol would likely lead to sub-optimal enzyme activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes in Beverages Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Application of a Pivot Profile Variant Using CATA Questions in the Development of a Whey-Based Fermented Beverage
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 11; doi:10.3390/beverages4010011
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
During the development of a food product, the application of rapid descriptive sensory methodologies is very useful to determine the influence of different variables on the sensory characteristics of the product under development. The Pivot profile (PP) and a variant of the technique
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During the development of a food product, the application of rapid descriptive sensory methodologies is very useful to determine the influence of different variables on the sensory characteristics of the product under development. The Pivot profile (PP) and a variant of the technique that includes check-all-that-apply questions (PP + CATA) were used for the development of a milk drink fermented from demineralised sweet whey. Starting from a base formula of partially demineralised sweet whey and gelatin, nine samples were elaborated, to which various concentrations of commercial sucrose, modified cassava starch, and whole milk powder were added. Differences in sucrose content affected the sample texture and flavour and the modified starch was able to decrease the fluidity and increase the texture of creaminess and firmness, of the samples. The two applied sensory methodologies achieved good discrimination between the samples and very similar results, although the data analysis was clearly simplified in relation to the difficulty and time consumed in the PP + CATA variant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Sensory Modification)
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Open AccessCommunication Bittersweet Findings: Round Cups Fail to Induce Sweeter Taste
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 12; doi:10.3390/beverages4010012
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
An increasing body of literature demonstrates that consumers associate visual information with specific gustatory elements. This phenomenon is better known as cross-modal correspondence. A specific correspondence that has received attention of late is the one between round forms and sweet taste. Research indicates
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An increasing body of literature demonstrates that consumers associate visual information with specific gustatory elements. This phenomenon is better known as cross-modal correspondence. A specific correspondence that has received attention of late is the one between round forms and sweet taste. Research indicates that roundness (as opposed to angularity) is consistently associated with an increased sweetness perception. Focusing on two different cup forms (round versus angular), two studies tested this association for a butter milk drink and a mate-based soft drink. Results, however, were not able to corroborate the frequently suggested correspondence effect, but a correspondence was found between the angular cup and a more bitter taste for the soft drink. These results are discussed in light of previous findings matching sweetness with roundness and bitterness with angularity, hopefully aiding researchers in this field in conducting future experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Sensory Modification)
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Open AccessArticle Wine and Cheese: Two Products or One Association? A New Method for Assessing Wine-Cheese Pairing
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 13; doi:10.3390/beverages4010013
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais) and three cheeses (
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The aim of this study was to identify which attributes impacted the dynamic liking of cheese and wine individually, as well as when consumed together. Three wines (one white, Pouilly Loché; and two red, Maranges and Beaujolais) and three cheeses (Comté, Époisses, Chaource) were individually evaluated by a group of 60 consumers using mono-intake Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) with simultaneous hedonic ratings. The same data acquisition screen was used for all products showing a unique list of 14 descriptors (covering cheese and wine perception) and a hedonic scale for dynamical rating of liking. The dynamic hedonic data were associated with the TDS profiles obtaining Temporal Drivers of Liking (TDL). Furthermore, the nine associations that resulted from combining each wine with each cheese were evaluated by multi-bite and multi-sip TDS. Individually, Chaource had practically no TDL; for Comté, mushroom flavor was a positive TDL, and in Époisses, salty was a negative TDL. As for wines, negative TDL were only found in the red wines: bitter, sour and astringent. Positive TDL for wines were: fruity, spicy and woody. Changes in the dynamic perception had a bigger impact on liking of wine compared to cheese. For the associations, the negative TDL were only three and mostly wine related: sour (for seven out of nine combinations), bitter (six out of nine) and astringent (five out of nine). Positive TDL were more varied (a total of 10 descriptors) and were related either to wine or cheese. As opposed to what was found in cheese alone, salty was a positive TDL in two of the combinations. It was observed that the dynamic sensory perception had a more important impact on liking in wine-cheese combinations than when consumed separately. TDS and TDL have a big potential in the study of food pairing, which should be further exploited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Wine Pairing)
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Open AccessArticle Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Bags: Comparison of Black, Green, Red Rooibos, Chamomile and Peppermint over Different Steep Times
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 15; doi:10.3390/beverages4010015
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
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Abstract
Globally, traditional and herbal teas are a prominent dietary source of polyphenols, and represent a class of bioactive molecules that are closely associated with a variety of health benefits. Most consumers prepare tea using tea bags, although there is little information about whether
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Globally, traditional and herbal teas are a prominent dietary source of polyphenols, and represent a class of bioactive molecules that are closely associated with a variety of health benefits. Most consumers prepare tea using tea bags, although there is little information about whether this production step alters the content of the final product. The study purpose was to investigate the effect of steep time and tea type on the polyphenol content and predicted antioxidant capacity of commercially available tea bag products, including Green, Orange Pekoe, Red Roiboos, Peppermint, and Chamomile. Total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition), and total predicted antioxidant capacity were measured in aliquots sampled every minute for 10 min. Polyphenols were extracted into solution in a nonlinear fashion, with ~80–90% of the TPC appearing within 5 min of tea bag immersion. Moreover, a significant range in TPC values was observed between products, with true teas containing at least two-fold greater polyphenol content than the herbal varieties. Our results are consistent with previous work using loose-leaf tea products and demonstrates that tea bag products are an effective source of polyphenols that may offer health benefits relating to their constituent antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant Derived Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Regression Models for Description of Roasted Ground Coffee Powder Color Change during Secondary Shelf-Life as Related to Storage Conditions and Packaging Material
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 16; doi:10.3390/beverages4010016
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
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Abstract
Besides sensory attributes, color is a parameter affecting consumers’ perception of the powdered coffee product or brew. The aim of this study was to develop and compare non-linear and linear regression models for the description of experimentally determined color changes during 6 months
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Besides sensory attributes, color is a parameter affecting consumers’ perception of the powdered coffee product or brew. The aim of this study was to develop and compare non-linear and linear regression models for the description of experimentally determined color changes during 6 months of storage in two different packaging materials. Model parameters were estimated using two software packages: Eureqa Formulize (Nutonian, Inc., Boston, MA, USA) and Statistica 10.0 (StatSoft, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and compared based on their R2 goodness of fit. Both non-linear and linear models used in this study pointed to a significant influence of intrinsic (sample moisture content) and external (relative humidity (RH) and temperature) factors on ground roasted coffee color change. Non-linear model was the most suitable for description of color changes during storage. Based on lower moisture sorption of the sample packed in triplex bag, triplex packaging is proposed as the more suitable one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Powder)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Fining Agents, Reverse Osmosis and Wine Age on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys) Taint in Wine
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 17; doi:10.3390/beverages4010017
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
Trans-2-decenal and tridecane are compounds found in wine made from brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB)-contaminated grapes. The effectiveness of post-fermentation processes on reducing their concentration in finished wine and their longevity during wine aging was evaluated. Red wines containing trans-2-decenal were
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Trans-2-decenal and tridecane are compounds found in wine made from brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB)-contaminated grapes. The effectiveness of post-fermentation processes on reducing their concentration in finished wine and their longevity during wine aging was evaluated. Red wines containing trans-2-decenal were treated with fining agents and put through reverse osmosis filtration. The efficacy of these treatments was determined using chemical analysis (MDGC-MS) and sensory descriptive analysis. Tridecane and trans-2-decenal concentrations in red and white wine were determined at bottle aging durations of 0, 6, 12 and 24 months using MDGC-MS. Reverse osmosis was found to be partially successful in removing trans-2-decenal concentration from finished wine. While tridecane and trans-2-decenal concentrations decreased during bottle aging, post-fermentative fining treatments were not effective at removing these compounds. Although French oak did not alter the concentration of tridecane and trans-2-decenal in red wine, it did mask the expression of BMSB-related sensory characters. Because of the ineffectiveness of removing BMSB taint post-fermentation, BMSB densities in the grape clusters should be minimized so that the taint does not occur in the wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Sensory Impact of Polyphenolic Composition on the Oxidative Notes of Chardonnay Wines
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 19; doi:10.3390/beverages4010019
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
Chardonnay wines have a long-standing reputation regarding their aging potential. However, in some cases, they face premature oxidation a few years after bottling. Scientific reports are, for now, multiparametric and unclear. Polyphenols seem to be an important factor involved in the oxidative stability
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Chardonnay wines have a long-standing reputation regarding their aging potential. However, in some cases, they face premature oxidation a few years after bottling. Scientific reports are, for now, multiparametric and unclear. Polyphenols seem to be an important factor involved in the oxidative stability of white wines, but their role has not yet been completely characterized. The present study aimed to investigate the link between polyphenol content and the emergence of oxidative odors of bottle-aged Chardonnay wines. In order to obtain samples with noticeable differences in polyphenol content, as well as in sensory oxidative notes, wines from two different vintages were used. For each vintage, three levels of must clarification and two wine closures were implemented. Polyphenol content was analyzed chemically, and the oxidative character was assessed sensorially by a trained panel using a specific intensity scale. The results showed significant effects for closure type and turbidity. However, these effects were strongly affected by vintage. Concerning the polyphenol content, a clear difference was also found between vintages, closures and turbidity levels. Significant linear regression models for REDOX scores pointed out Flavon-3-ols as the main negative predictor, and grape reaction product (GRP) as the main positive predictor. The enological implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Sensory Modification)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Beverages of Yerba-Mate and Soy: Bioactive Compounds and Functional Properties
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 21; doi:10.3390/beverages4010021
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, two high-nutrition commodities that are produced in great amounts in Brazil were joined in a single functional product. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is rich in bioactive compounds, while soybean is a high-quality protein source. The objective of this
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In this paper, two high-nutrition commodities that are produced in great amounts in Brazil were joined in a single functional product. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is rich in bioactive compounds, while soybean is a high-quality protein source. The objective of this paper was to assess the psychochemical characteristics of two yerba-mate progenies (planted–PL and native–NT leaves) and then confirm whether the functional and nutritional properties of the main ingredients were conveyed to the beverage produced. The main raw material, yerba-mate leaves, and the drinks were assessed for bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, physicochemical properties, and nutritional value. Planted leaves showed higher concentration of 5-CQA, caffeic acid and rutin than the native plant, whereas caffeine and theobromine were detected in larger amounts in native leaves. The nutritional profile of the drinks was compared to commercial beverages–either yerba-mate-based or soy-based. They indeed provide more protein, fiber, and fats than traditional yerba-mate beverages (chimarrão, tererê, and mate tea). Soy drinks currently marketed, for their turn, have similar caloric value and higher contents of lipid and protein as compared to our product, but are poor in fibers. NT drink (DPPH—IC50 92.83 and ABTS—8.18 μM Trolox/mL) had higher antioxidant activity than PL (IC50 147.06 and 5.63 μM Trolox/mL) due to the greater volume fraction of yerba-mate extract. NT beverage has more 5-CQA and caffeine in the same intake of tererê and traditional mate tea. This healthy beverage contributes to an increasing income to the food industry and yerba-mate producers, and environmental gains that are related to the exploration of natural resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant Derived Beverages)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Wine Traceability with Rare Earth Elements
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 23; doi:10.3390/beverages4010023
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
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Abstract
The traceability of foodstuffs is now a relevant aspect of the food market. Scientific research has been devoted to addressing this issue by developing analytical protocols in order to find the link between soil and food items. In this view, chemical parameters that
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The traceability of foodstuffs is now a relevant aspect of the food market. Scientific research has been devoted to addressing this issue by developing analytical protocols in order to find the link between soil and food items. In this view, chemical parameters that can act as soil markers are being sought. In this work, the role of rare earth elements (REEs) as geochemical markers in the traceability of red wine is discussed. The REE distribution in samples from each step of the wine making process of Primitivo wine (produced in Southern Italy) was determined using the highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. Samples analyzed include grapes, must, and wine samples after every step in the vinification process. The resulting data were compared to the REE distribution in the soil, revealing that the soil fingerprint is maintained in the intermediate products up to and including grape must. Fractionation occurs thereafter as a consequence of further external interventions, which tends to modify the REE profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Wine Contamination with Ochratoxins: A Review
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/beverages4010006
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the main mycotoxin occurring in wine. This review article is focused on the distribution of this toxin and its producing-fungi in grape berries, as well as on the fate of OTA during winemaking procedures. Due to its toxic properties,
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Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the main mycotoxin occurring in wine. This review article is focused on the distribution of this toxin and its producing-fungi in grape berries, as well as on the fate of OTA during winemaking procedures. Due to its toxic properties, OTA levels in wine are regulated in different countries; therefore, it is necessary to apply control and detoxification methods that are also discussed in this revision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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Open AccessReview Lycopene in Beverage Emulsions: Optimizing Formulation Design and Processing Effects for Enhanced Delivery
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 14; doi:10.3390/beverages4010014
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
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Abstract
Lycopene is a desired ingredient in food formulations, yet its beneficial effects on human health remain largely underexploited due to its poor chemical stability and bioavailability. Oil-in-water emulsions may offer multiple advantages for the incorporation and delivery of this carotenoid species. Engineering and
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Lycopene is a desired ingredient in food formulations, yet its beneficial effects on human health remain largely underexploited due to its poor chemical stability and bioavailability. Oil-in-water emulsions may offer multiple advantages for the incorporation and delivery of this carotenoid species. Engineering and processing aspects for the development of emulsion-based delivery systems are of paramount importance for maintaining the structural integrity of lycopene. The selection of emulsifiers, pH, temperature, oil phase, particle size, homogenization conditions and presence of other antioxidants are major determinants for enhancing lycopene stability and delivery from a food emulsion. Process and formulation optimization of the delivery system is product-specific and should be tailored accordingly. Further research is required to better understand the underlying mechanisms of lycopene absorption by the human digestive system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Emulsions)
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Open AccessReview Recent Advances and Applications of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) to Improve Polyphenol Extraction and Color Release during Red Winemaking
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 18; doi:10.3390/beverages4010018
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
Pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology is an innovative food processing system and it has been introduced in relatively recent times as a pre-treatment of liquid and semi-solid food. Low cost-equipment and short processing time, coupled to the effectiveness in assisting the extraction of
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Pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology is an innovative food processing system and it has been introduced in relatively recent times as a pre-treatment of liquid and semi-solid food. Low cost-equipment and short processing time, coupled to the effectiveness in assisting the extraction of valuable compounds from vegetable tissues, makes PEF a challenging solution for the industrial red winemaking; a tailored PEF-assisted maceration was demonstrated to promote an increase in wine color quality and an improvement in the polyphenolic profile. Despite the application of PEF has been studied and the positive effects in selected wine varieties were demonstrated on batch and pilot-scale systems, there is a need for a more detailed characterization of the impact in different grapes, and for a better understanding of potential undesirable side-effects. This review aims to summarize the state of the art in view of a detailed feasibility study, to promote the introduction of PEF technology in the oenological industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages)
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Open AccessReview Some Popular Energy Shots and Their Ingredients: Are They Safe and Should They Be Used? A Literature Review
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 20; doi:10.3390/beverages4010020
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 25 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
The current demanding and busy lifestyle has spawned the development of supplements that are marketed as energy and concentration boosters. Energy shots are one of the most popular such supplements due to their small volume and efficient packaging. The components of energy shots
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The current demanding and busy lifestyle has spawned the development of supplements that are marketed as energy and concentration boosters. Energy shots are one of the most popular such supplements due to their small volume and efficient packaging. The components of energy shots have very limited evidence supporting their effects, and their efficacy is not consistently proven. This literature review from the past 40 years utilized PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS and EMBASE, using the following keywords: ‘energy beverage’, ‘energy drink’, ‘energy shot’, ‘power shot’, ‘power energy’, ‘exercise’, ‘caffeine’, ‘glucose’, ‘ginseng’, ‘guarana’, ‘l-tyrosine’, ‘green tea extract’, ‘quercetin’, ‘garcinia cambogia extract’, ‘yerba mate’, and ‘taurine’. The effects of each ingredient individually, as well as of energy shots in general, were summarized, and recommendations on use and safety of energy shots are provided. Full article
Open AccessReview Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 22; doi:10.3390/beverages4010022
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health.
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The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health. Grape juice can be produced from any grape variety once it has attained appropriate maturity. However, only in traditional wine producing regions, grape juices are produced from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. For example, Brazilian grape juices are essentially produced from Vitis labrusca grape varieties, known as American or hybrid, as they preserve their characteristics such as the natural flavour after pasteurisation. Grapes are one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds among fruits. Therefore, grape juices have been broadly studied due to their composition in phenolic compounds and their potential beneficial effects on human health, specifically the ability to prevent various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review will address grape juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the potential beneficial effects on human health and on the grape juice sensory impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Fruit Beverages)
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Open AccessReview Biosensor-Based Approaches for Detecting Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole in Beverages
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 24; doi:10.3390/beverages4010024
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Mycotoxins and haloanisoles are secondary metabolites produced under special conditions of temperature and humidity by fungi colonizing a variety of commodities from preharvest up to consumer use. Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-trichloanisole are produced mainly by species of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium.
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Mycotoxins and haloanisoles are secondary metabolites produced under special conditions of temperature and humidity by fungi colonizing a variety of commodities from preharvest up to consumer use. Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-trichloanisole are produced mainly by species of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium. Ochratoxin A exhibits nephrotic effects and can, potentially, be associated with human carcinogenesis, whereas 2,4,6-trichloanisole is primarily responsible for cork taint in wines. This review provides an overview of recent advances in biosensor technology for the determination of the aforementioned compounds in wine, beer and other beverages, as well as cork stoppers, which help in establishing and carrying out proper product quality-management strategies. Such a detailed investigation of biosensor-based detection methods of these toxic compounds in beverages could lead to the provision of safe-to-consume products, and allow the prioritization of future research efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Beverages)
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