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Special Issue "Particulate Pollution Related to Vehicle Emission"

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A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 January 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Deborah S. Gross

Department of Chemistry, Carleton College, 1 North College Street, Northfield, MN 55057, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 507-222-5629
Fax: +1 507 222 4400
Interests: aerosol chemical composition; aerosol chemistry; single-particle measurement techniques; education

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vehicle ownership is increasing worldwide. This has implications not only for economic growth but also for oil consumption and, relevant to this special issue of Atmosphere, pollutant emissions. In addition to personal transportation, vehicle emissions arise from the commercial transportation sector as well as non-road vehicles, especially those used in construction. The emissions from these engines include gas-phase species (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, etc.) and particulate matter. The particulate matter emitted is composed of a diverse set of chemicals, including those derived from fuel, lubricating oil, and engine-wear, which have varying effects on local and regional pollution and can impact the global climate. Understanding the dynamics of these emissions, their dependence on the operating conditions and fuel consumed in the engines, and the impacts of these emissions on exposed populations and the environment is a complex task.

In this special issue, we invite publication of papers dealing broadly with the topic of particulate emissions from vehicle sources. These papers should address any of the varied perspectives that will help elucidate the problem of vehicle emissions, including laboratory studies, on-road measurements, and modeling studies of population exposure to these emissions.

Prof. Dr. Deborah Gross
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • motor-vehicle emissions
  • mobile sources
  • on-road emissions
  • non-road vehicles
  • traffic
  • trace elements
  • particulate matter
  • heavy-duty vehicle
  • light-duty vehicle
  • engine emissions

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Emissions from Ethanol-Gasoline Blends: A Single Particle Perspective
Atmosphere 2011, 2(2), 182-200; doi:10.3390/atmos2020182
Received: 8 May 2011 / Revised: 29 May 2011 / Accepted: 13 June 2011 / Published: 22 June 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to its agricultural origin and function as a fuel oxygenate, ethanol is being promoted as an alternative biomass-based fuel for use in spark ignition engines, with mandates for its use at state and regional levels. While it has been established that the
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Due to its agricultural origin and function as a fuel oxygenate, ethanol is being promoted as an alternative biomass-based fuel for use in spark ignition engines, with mandates for its use at state and regional levels. While it has been established that the addition of ethanol to a fuel reduces the particulate mass concentration in the exhaust, little attention has been paid to changes in the physicochemical properties of the emitted particles. In this work, a dynamometer-mounted GM Quad-4 spark ignition engine run without aftertreatment at 1,500 RPM and 100% load was used with four different fuel blends, containing 0, 20, 40 and 85 percent ethanol in gasoline. This allowed the effects of the fuel composition to be isolated from other effects. Instrumentation employed included two Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers covering different size ranges for analysis of single particle composition, an Aethalometer for black carbon, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer for particle size distributions, a Photoelectric Aerosol Sensor for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) species and gravimetric filter measurements for particulate mass concentrations. It was found that, under the conditions investigated here, additional ethanol content in the fuel changes the particle size distribution, especially in the accumulation mode, and decreases the black carbon and total particulate mass concentrations. The molecular weight distribution of the PAHs was found to decrease with added ethanol. However, PAHs produced from higher ethanol-content fuels are associated with NO2 (m/z—46) in the single-particle mass spectra, indicating the presence of nitro-PAHs. Compounds associated with the gasoline (e.g., sulfur-containing species) are diminished due to dilution as ethanol is added to the fuel relative to those associated with the lubricating oil (e.g., calcium, zinc, phosphate) in the single particle spectra. These changes have potential implications for the health effect impacts of particulate emissions from biofuel blends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particulate Pollution Related to Vehicle Emission)
Open AccessArticle Challenges and Approaches for Developing Ultrafine Particle Emission Inventories for Motor Vehicle and Bus Fleets
Atmosphere 2011, 2(2), 36-56; doi:10.3390/atmos2020036
Received: 2 February 2011 / Revised: 13 March 2011 / Accepted: 19 March 2011 / Published: 24 March 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Motor vehicles in urban areas are the main source of ultrafine particles (diameters
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Motor vehicles in urban areas are the main source of ultrafine particles (diameters < 0.1 µm). Ultrafine particles are generally measured in terms of particle number because they have little mass and are prolific in terms of their numbers. These sized particles are of particular interest because of their ability to enter deep into the human respiratory system and contribute to negative health effects. Currently ultrafine particles are neither regularly monitored nor regulated by ambient air quality standards. Motor vehicle and bus fleet inventories, epidemiological studies and studies of the chemical composition of ultrafine particles are urgently needed to inform scientific debate and guide development of air quality standards and regulation to control this important pollution source. This article discusses some of the many challenges associated with modelling and quantifying ultrafine particle concentrations and emission rates for developing inventories and microscale modelling of motor vehicles and buses, including the challenge of understanding and quantifying secondary particle formation. Recommendations are made concerning the application of particle emission factors in developing ultrafine particle inventories for motor vehicle fleets. The article presents a précis of the first published inventory of ultrafine particles (particle number) developed for the urban South-East Queensland motor vehicle and bus fleet in Australia, and comments on the applicability of the comprehensive set of average particle emission factors used in this inventory, for developing ultrafine particle (particle number) and particle mass inventories in other developed countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particulate Pollution Related to Vehicle Emission)

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