Special Issue "Biofabrication"

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A special issue of Bioengineering (ISSN 2306-5354).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Anthony Guiseppi-Elie

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 864 656 1712
Interests: biomolecular engineering; biochip implant biocompatibility; in vivo biosensors; cell-based sensing; electronic nose; brain tumor biochip; bioelectronic devices and bioelectrochemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of biomolecules, sub-cellular fragments, whole cells, biomaterials and/or other bioactive components that serve as construction elements in the fabrication of biological models, medical diagnostic or therapeutic devices or products. Also, the use of additive and subtractive technologies in the fabrication of functional, engineered components based on the use of (or containing) biomolecules, sub-cellular fragments, whole cells, biomaterials and/or other bioactive components.

We look forward to receiving your contributions to these cutting edge issues.

Prof. Dr. Anthony Guiseppi-Elie
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Bioengineering is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • biofabrication
  • organ printing
  • tissue scaffolds
  • layer-by-layer assembly
  • biomimicry
  • biodevices
  • biosensors
  • biochips
  • bio-CMOS
  • abio-bio interfaces

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Electroactive Tissue Scaffolds with Aligned Pores as Instructive Platforms for Biomimetic Tissue Engineering
Bioengineering 2015, 2(1), 15-34; doi:10.3390/bioengineering2010015
Received: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (796 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tissues in the body are hierarchically structured composite materials with tissue-specific chemical and topographical properties. Here we report the preparation of tissue scaffolds with macroscopic pores generated via the dissolution of a sacrificial supramolecular polymer-based crystal template (urea) from a biodegradable polymer-based scaffold
[...] Read more.
Tissues in the body are hierarchically structured composite materials with tissue-specific chemical and topographical properties. Here we report the preparation of tissue scaffolds with macroscopic pores generated via the dissolution of a sacrificial supramolecular polymer-based crystal template (urea) from a biodegradable polymer-based scaffold (polycaprolactone, PCL). Furthermore, we report a method of aligning the supramolecular polymer-based crystals within the PCL, and that the dissolution of the sacrificial urea yields scaffolds with macroscopic pores that are aligned over long, clinically-relevant distances (i.e., centimeter scale). The pores act as topographical cues to which rat Schwann cells respond by aligning with the long axis of the pores. Generation of an interpenetrating network of polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) in the scaffolds yields electroactive tissue scaffolds that allow the electrical stimulation of Schwann cells cultured on the scaffolds which increases the production of nerve growth factor (NGF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication)
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Open AccessCommunication Biocatalytic Synthesis of Fluorescent Conjugated Indole Oligomers
Bioengineering 2014, 1(4), 246-259; doi:10.3390/bioengineering1040246
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 3 December 2014
PDF Full-text (856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fluorescent conjugated materials exhibiting reasonable biocompatibility that are capable of interacting with biological molecules are of interest for bio-sensing and imaging applications. Traditional approaches do not allow for the synthesis of conjugated materials in the presence of biologically relevant substrates. Further conjugated polymers
[...] Read more.
Fluorescent conjugated materials exhibiting reasonable biocompatibility that are capable of interacting with biological molecules are of interest for bio-sensing and imaging applications. Traditional approaches do not allow for the synthesis of conjugated materials in the presence of biologically relevant substrates. Further conjugated polymers synthesized using conventional methods are doped and not fluorescent. Here we explore the possibility of synthesizing fluorescent oligomers of indole using enzymes as catalyst under mild conditions. The peroxidase catalyzed coupling reaction presented here creates a photoluminescent material that allows for direct utilization (without purification and separation of the dopant) in biosensing applications. The polymerization reaction proceeds smoothly in just deionized water and ethanol. Monitoring of the absorption and fluorescence spectra over one hour shows that the concentration of both absorbing and emitting species grows steadily over time. The presence of anionic buffers and templates is shown to effectively retard the development of light emitting species and instead leads to the formation of an electrically doped conjugated polymer. Structural characterization through FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis suggests that the oligomer is coupled through the 2 and 3 positions on the indole ring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Bioactive Surfaces by Functionalization of Electroactive and Surface-Active Block Copolymers
Bioengineering 2014, 1(3), 134-153; doi:10.3390/bioengineering1030134
Received: 29 May 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
PDF Full-text (992 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofunctional block copolymers are becoming increasingly attractive materials as active components in biosensors and other nanoscale electronic devices. We have described two different classes of block copolymers with biofuctional properties. Biofunctionality for block copolymers is achieved through functionalization with appropriate biospecific ligands. We
[...] Read more.
Biofunctional block copolymers are becoming increasingly attractive materials as active components in biosensors and other nanoscale electronic devices. We have described two different classes of block copolymers with biofuctional properties. Biofunctionality for block copolymers is achieved through functionalization with appropriate biospecific ligands. We have synthesized block copolymers of electroactive poly(3-decylthiophene) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate by atom transfer radical polymerization. The block copolymers were functionalized with the dinitrophenyl (DNP) groups, which are capable of binding to Immunoglobulin E (IgE) on cell surfaces. The block copolymers were shown to be redox active. Additionally, the triblock copolymer of α, ω-bi-biotin (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly (styrene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide)) was also synthesized to study their capacity to bind fluorescently tagged avidin. The surface-active property of the poly(ethylene oxide) block improved the availability of the biotin functional groups on the polymer surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy observations confirm the specific binding of biotin with avidin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Precisely Assembled Nanofiber Arrays as a Platform to Engineer Aligned Cell Sheets for Biofabrication
Bioengineering 2014, 1(3), 114-133; doi:10.3390/bioengineering1030114
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 7 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A hybrid cell sheet engineering approach was developed using ultra-thin nanofiber arrays to host the formation of composite nanofiber/cell sheets. It was found that confluent aligned cell sheets could grow on uniaxially-aligned and crisscrossed nanofiber arrays with extremely low fiber densities. The porosity
[...] Read more.
A hybrid cell sheet engineering approach was developed using ultra-thin nanofiber arrays to host the formation of composite nanofiber/cell sheets. It was found that confluent aligned cell sheets could grow on uniaxially-aligned and crisscrossed nanofiber arrays with extremely low fiber densities. The porosity of the nanofiber sheets was sufficient to allow aligned linear myotube formation from differentiated myoblasts on both sides of the nanofiber sheets, in spite of single-side cell seeding. The nanofiber content of the composite cell sheets is minimized to reduce the hindrance to cell migration, cell-cell contacts, mass transport, as well as the foreign body response or inflammatory response associated with the biomaterial. Even at extremely low densities, the nanofiber component significantly enhanced the stability and mechanical properties of the composite cell sheets. In addition, the aligned nanofiber arrays imparted excellent handling properties to the composite cell sheets, which allowed easy processing into more complex, thick 3D structures of higher hierarchy. Aligned nanofiber array-based composite cell sheet engineering combines several advantages of material-free cell sheet engineering and polymer scaffold-based cell sheet engineering; and it represents a new direction in aligned cell sheet engineering for a multitude of tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Biofabrication Using Pyrrole Electropolymerization for the Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase and Lactate Oxidase on Implanted Microfabricated Biotransducers
Bioengineering 2014, 1(1), 85-110; doi:10.3390/bioengineering1010085
Received: 26 December 2013 / Revised: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1080 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dual responsive Electrochemical Cell-on-a-Chip Microdisc Electrode Array (ECC MDEA 5037) is a recently developed electrochemical transducer for use in a wireless, implantable biosensor system for the continuous measurement of interstitial glucose and lactate. Fabrication of the biorecognition membrane via pyrrole electropolymerization and
[...] Read more.
The dual responsive Electrochemical Cell-on-a-Chip Microdisc Electrode Array (ECC MDEA 5037) is a recently developed electrochemical transducer for use in a wireless, implantable biosensor system for the continuous measurement of interstitial glucose and lactate. Fabrication of the biorecognition membrane via pyrrole electropolymerization and both in vitro and in vivo characterization of the resulting biotransducer is described. The influence of EDC-NHS covalent conjugation of glucose oxidase with 4-(3-pyrrolyl) butyric acid (monomerization) and with 4-sulfobenzoic acid (sulfonization) on biosensor performance was examined. As the extent of enzyme conjugation was increased sensitivity decreased for monomerized enzymes but increased for sulfonized enzymes. Implanted biotransducers were examined in a Sprague-Dawley rat hemorrhage model. Resection after 4 h and subsequent in vitro re-characterization showed a decreased sensitivity from 0.68 (±0.40) to 0.22 (±0.17) µA·cm−2·mM−1, an increase in the limit of detection from 0.05 (±0.03) to 0.27 (±0.27) mM and a six-fold increase in the response time from 41 (±18) to 244 (±193) s. This evidence reconfirms the importance of biofouling at the bio-abio interface and the need for mitigation strategies to address the foreign body response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication)

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