Special Issue "Electrochemical Based Biosensors"

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A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chung-Chiun Liu (Website)

Department of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Electronics Design Center, Bingham 112, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7217, USA
Phone: +216-368-2935
Interests: electrochemical biosensors; enzymatic biosensors; microfabrication processing, nano-metallic biosensor catalysts; single use; disposable biosensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrochemical based biosensors have been used extensively in various laboratory, clinical, home care, and point-of-care applications. Nano-catalysts, microfabrication manufacturing processing, the advancement of computer sciences and electronic technology, as well as the identification of newly discovered biomarkers have led the advancement of electrochemical based biosensors to new dimensions.

This special issue invites contributions particularly relating to application-oriented electrochemical based biosensors using innovative development techniques. Examples of application areas include, but are not limited to, different methods of electrochemical detection which can be applied to useful biosensing applications. Many enzymatic reactions produce electrochemically active species such as H2O2, NADH and others which can be used as a foundation to monitor various analytes (biomarkers). Microfabrication processing, including thick- and thin-film techniques, are often employed in the fabrication of biosensor prototypes, and the electrochemical-based biosensors that are produced provide new means in biosensing. Extension of these biosensors to real time, single use, disposable point of care biosensors and minute in vivo biosensors will be of interest to the readers of this special issue.

Prof. Dr. Chung-Chiun Liu
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • electrochemical based biosensors
  • microfabication
  • nano-catalysts
  • in vitro biosensors
  • in vivo biosensors
  • enzymes
  • H2O2
  • NADH

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Electrochemical Based Biosensors
Biosensors 2012, 2(3), 269-272; doi:10.3390/bios2030269
Received: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (26 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This editorial summarizes the general approaches of the electrochemical based biosensors described in the manuscripts published in this Special Issue. Electrochemical based biosensors are scientifically and economically important for the detection and early diagnosis of many diseases, and they will be increasing [...] Read more.
This editorial summarizes the general approaches of the electrochemical based biosensors described in the manuscripts published in this Special Issue. Electrochemical based biosensors are scientifically and economically important for the detection and early diagnosis of many diseases, and they will be increasing used and developed in the coming years. The importance of the selection of recognition processes, fabrication techniques and biosensor materials will be introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Based Biosensors)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Effect of Toxic Components on Microbial Fuel Cell-Polarization Curves and Estimation of the Type of Toxic Inhibition
Biosensors 2012, 2(3), 255-268; doi:10.3390/bios2030255
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 11 July 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polarization curves are of paramount importance for the detection of toxic components in microbial fuel cell (MFC) based biosensors. In this study, polarization curves were made under non-toxic conditions and under toxic conditions after the addition of various concentrations of nickel, bentazon, [...] Read more.
Polarization curves are of paramount importance for the detection of toxic components in microbial fuel cell (MFC) based biosensors. In this study, polarization curves were made under non-toxic conditions and under toxic conditions after the addition of various concentrations of nickel, bentazon, sodiumdodecyl sulfate and potassium ferricyanide. The experimental polarization curves show that toxic components have an effect on the electrochemically active bacteria in the cell. (Extended) Butler Volmer Monod (BVM) models were used to describe the polarization curves of the MFC under nontoxic and toxic conditions. It was possible to properly fit the (extended) BVM models using linear regression techniques to the polarization curves and to distinguish between different types of kinetic inhibitions. For each of the toxic components, the value of the kinetic inhibition constant Ki was also estimated from the experimental data. The value of Ki indicates the sensitivity of the sensor for a specific component and thus can be used for the selection of the biosensor for a toxic component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Based Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Peroxide-Dependent Analyte Conversion by the Heme Prosthetic Group, the Heme Peptide “Microperoxidase-11” and Cytochrome c on Chitosan Capped Gold Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes
Biosensors 2012, 2(2), 189-204; doi:10.3390/bios2020189
Received: 10 April 2012 / Revised: 3 May 2012 / Accepted: 9 May 2012 / Published: 14 May 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In view of the role ascribed to the peroxidatic activity of degradation products of cytochrome c (cyt c) in the processes of apoptosis, we investigate the catalytic potential of heme and of the cyt c derived heme peptide MP-11 to catalyse the [...] Read more.
In view of the role ascribed to the peroxidatic activity of degradation products of cytochrome c (cyt c) in the processes of apoptosis, we investigate the catalytic potential of heme and of the cyt c derived heme peptide MP-11 to catalyse the cathodic reduction of hydrogen peroxide and to oxidize aromatic compounds. In order to check whether cyt c has an enzymatic activity in the native state where the protein matrix should suppress the inherent peroxidatic activity of its heme prosthetic group, we applied a biocompatible immobilization matrix and very low concentrations of the co-substrate H2O2. The biocatalysts were entrapped on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode in a biocompatible chitosan layer which contained gold nanoparticles. The electrochemical signal for the peroxide reduction is generated by the redox conversion of the heme group, whilst a reaction product of the substrate oxidation is cathodically reduced in the substrate indication. The catalytic efficiency of microperoxidase-11 is sufficient for sensors indicating HRP substrates, e.g., p-aminophenol, paracetamol and catechol, but also the hydroxylation of aniline and dehalogenation of 4-fluoroaniline. The lower limit of detection for p-aminophenol is comparable to previously published papers with different enzyme systems. The peroxidatic activity of cyt c immobilized in the chitosan layer for catechol was found to be below 1 per mill and for p-aminophenol about 3% as compared with that of heme or MP-11. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Based Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Enzyme-Gelatin Electrochemical Biosensors: Scaling Down
Biosensors 2012, 2(1), 101-113; doi:10.3390/bios2010101
Received: 1 February 2012 / Revised: 3 March 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article we investigate the possibility of scaling down enzyme-gelatin modified electrodes by spin coating the enzyme-gelatin layer. Special attention is given to the electrochemical behavior of the selected enzymes inside the gelatin matrix. A glassy carbon electrode was used as [...] Read more.
In this article we investigate the possibility of scaling down enzyme-gelatin modified electrodes by spin coating the enzyme-gelatin layer. Special attention is given to the electrochemical behavior of the selected enzymes inside the gelatin matrix. A glassy carbon electrode was used as a substrate to immobilize, in the first instance, horse heart cytochrome c (HHC) in a gelatin matrix. Both a drop dried and a spin coated layer was prepared. On scaling down, a transition from diffusion controlled reactions towards adsorption controlled reactions is observed. Compared to a drop dried electrode, a spin coated electrode showed a more stable electrochemical behavior. Next to HHC, we also incorporated catalase in a spin coated gelatin matrix immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode. By spincoating, highly uniform sub micrometer layers of biocompatible matrices can be constructed. A full electrochemical study and characterization of the modified surfaces has been carried out. It was clear that in the case of catalase, gluteraldehyde addition was needed to prevent leaking of the catalase from the gelatin matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Based Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Poly(lactic acid)/Carbon Nanotube Fibers as Novel Platforms for Glucose Biosensors
Biosensors 2012, 2(1), 70-82; doi:10.3390/bios2010070
Received: 16 January 2012 / Revised: 11 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 27 February 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The focus of this paper is the development and investigation of properties of new nanostructured architecture for biosensors applications. Highly porous nanocomposite fibers were developed for use as active materials in biosensors. The nanocomposites comprised poly(lactic acid)(PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fibers obtained [...] Read more.
The focus of this paper is the development and investigation of properties of new nanostructured architecture for biosensors applications. Highly porous nanocomposite fibers were developed for use as active materials in biosensors. The nanocomposites comprised poly(lactic acid)(PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fibers obtained via solution-blow spinning onto indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The electrocatalytic properties of nanocomposite-modified ITO electrodes were investigated toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. We investigated the effect of carbon nanotube concentration and the time deposition of fibers on the sensors properties, viz., sensitivity and limit of detection. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed that the nanocomposite-modified electrodes displayed enhanced activity in the electrochemical reduction of H2O2, which offers a number of attractive features to be explored in development of an amperometric biosensor. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was further immobilized by drop coating on an optimized ITO electrode covered by poly(lactic acid)/carbon nanotube nanofibrous mats. The optimum biosensor response was linear up to 800 mM of glucose with a sensitivity of 358 nA·mM−1 and a Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) of 4.3 mM. These results demonstrate that the solution blow spun nanocomposite fibers have great potential for application as amperometric biosensors due to their high surface to volume ratio, high porosity and permeability of the substrate. The latter features may significantly enhance the field of glucose biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Based Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle ZnO Nanorods Based Enzymatic Biosensor for Selective Determination of Penicillin
Biosensors 2011, 1(4), 153-163; doi:10.3390/bios1040153
Received: 6 September 2011 / Revised: 13 October 2011 / Accepted: 25 October 2011 / Published: 27 October 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a biosensor based on well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods which were grown on gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. The ZnO nanorods were [...] Read more.
In this study, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a biosensor based on well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods which were grown on gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. The ZnO nanorods were immobilized with penicillinase enzyme using the physical adsorption approach in combination with N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide (ANB-NOS) as cross linking molecules. The potentiometric response of the sensor configuration revealed good linearity over a large logarithmic concentration range from 100 µM to 100 mM. During the investigations, the proposed sensor showed a good stability with high sensitivity of ~121 mV/decade for sensing of penicillin. A quick electrochemical response of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and a negligible response to common interferents such as Na1+, K1+, d-glucose, l-glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea, sucrose, lactose, glycine, penicilloic acid and cephalosporins, was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Based Biosensors)

Review

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Open AccessReview Microfabricated Electrochemical Cell-Based Biosensors for Analysis of Living Cells In Vitro
Biosensors 2012, 2(2), 127-170; doi:10.3390/bios2020127
Received: 2 March 2012 / Revised: 2 April 2012 / Accepted: 19 April 2012 / Published: 25 April 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, [...] Read more.
Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA), the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Based Biosensors)
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