Special Issue "Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation"

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A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jörg Haier

Comprehensive Cancer Center Muenster, International Patient Management, University Hospital Muenster, Waldeyerstr. 1, 48149 Muenster, Germany
E-Mail
Fax: +49 251 83 57631
Interests: gastraintestinal cancer; metastasis; cell adhesion; cell migration; chemotaxis
Guest Editor
Dr. Peter Gassmann

Department of General and Abdominal Surgery, University Medicine of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany
E-Mail
Phone: +49 (0)251 83-56301
Fax: +49 (0)251 83-56480
Interests: gastrointestinal cancers; mechanisms of metastasis formation; tumor cell adhesion and migration; animal models; gastro-intestinal surgery; hepato-biliary surgery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of secondary distant organ and lymph node metastasis has an extraordinary impact on the prognosis of patients with solid cancer. In most cases the advent of metastatic growth represents the turning point from a local, potentially curable, disease to a systemic non-curable situation. As a highly regulated process, metastasis formation follows a distinct, non-random pattern characteristic for each tumor entity.

Metastasis formation and strategies to prevent this lethal event in the progression of cancer is of fundamental interest for cancer science and patient care. For this special issue of 'Cancers', papers high-lightning cellular mechanisms of metastasis formation, genetic and epigenetic aspects associated with organ and tumor specific metastasis formation, as well as papers outlining experimental and clinical therapeutic concepts for anti-metastatic treatment are welcome. We especially encourage the submission of papers presenting innovative animal models of organ specific metastasis formation.

Dr. Peter Gassmann
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • organ specific metastasis
  • animal models
  • anti-metastatic treatment
  • metastasis (-suppressor) genes
  • lymph nod metastasis

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Current Concepts of Metastasis Formation
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 2886-2887; doi:10.3390/cancers3032886
Received: 6 July 2011 / Accepted: 12 July 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
PDF Full-text (138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of secondary distant organ and lymph node metastasis has an extraordinary impact on the prognosis of patients with solid cancer. In most cases the advent of metastatic growth represents the turning point from a local, potentially curable, disease to a systemic
[...] Read more.
The development of secondary distant organ and lymph node metastasis has an extraordinary impact on the prognosis of patients with solid cancer. In most cases the advent of metastatic growth represents the turning point from a local, potentially curable, disease to a systemic non-curable situation. As a highly regulated process, metastasis formation follows a distinct, non-random pattern characteristic for each tumor entity. Metastasis formation and strategies to prevent this lethal event in the progression of cancer is of fundamental interest for cancer science and patient care. In this special issue of Cancers, papers highlighting cellular mechanisms of metastasis formation, genetic and epigenetic aspects associated with organ and tumor specific metastasis formation, as well as papers outlining experimental and clinical therapeutic concepts for anti-metastatic treatment are included. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation)

Review

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessReview Inflammation and Tumor Microenvironment in Lymph Node Metastasis
Cancers 2011, 3(1), 927-944; doi:10.3390/cancers3010927
Received: 11 January 2011 / Revised: 17 February 2011 / Accepted: 21 February 2011 / Published: 1 March 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (937 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In nearly all human cancers, the presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis increases clinical staging and portends worse prognosis (compared to patients without LN metastasis). Herein, principally reviewing experimental and clinical data related to malignant melanoma, we discuss diverse factors that are mechanistically
[...] Read more.
In nearly all human cancers, the presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis increases clinical staging and portends worse prognosis (compared to patients without LN metastasis). Herein, principally reviewing experimental and clinical data related to malignant melanoma, we discuss diverse factors that are mechanistically involved in LN metastasis. We highlight recent data that link tumor microenvironment, including inflammation (at the cellular and cytokine levels) and tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis, with nodal metastasis. Many of the newly identified genes that appear to influence LN metastasis facilitate general motility, chemotactic, or invasive properties that also increase the ability of cancer cells to disseminate and survive at distant organ sites. These new biomarkers will help predict clinical outcome and point to novel future therapies in metastatic melanoma as well as other cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation)
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Open AccessReview Components of Cell-Matrix Linkage as Potential New Markers for Prostate Cancer
Cancers 2011, 3(1), 883-896; doi:10.3390/cancers3010883
Received: 25 January 2011 / Revised: 12 February 2011 / Accepted: 17 February 2011 / Published: 25 February 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer is one of the most common tumor diseases worldwide. Often being non-aggressive, prostate tumors in these cases do not need immediate treatment. However, about 20% of diagnosed prostate cancers tend to metastasize and require treatment. Existing diagnostic methods may fail to
[...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common tumor diseases worldwide. Often being non-aggressive, prostate tumors in these cases do not need immediate treatment. However, about 20% of diagnosed prostate cancers tend to metastasize and require treatment. Existing diagnostic methods may fail to accurately recognize the transition of a dormant, non-aggressive tumor into highly malignant prostate cancer. Therefore, new diagnostic tools are needed to improve diagnosis and therapy of prostate carcinoma. This review evaluates existing methods to diagnose prostate carcinoma, such as the biochemical marker prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but also discusses the possibility to use the altered expression of integrins and laminin-332 in prostate carcinomas as diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets of prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation)
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Open AccessReview Recently Identified Biomarkers That Promote Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2011, 3(1), 747-772; doi:10.3390/cancers3010747
Received: 10 January 2011 / Revised: 9 February 2011 / Accepted: 17 February 2011 / Published: 22 February 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous cancer that arises in the upper aerodigestive tract. Despite advances in knowledge and treatment of this disease, the five-year survival rate after diagnosis of advanced (stage 3 and 4) HNSCC remains approximately 50%.
[...] Read more.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous cancer that arises in the upper aerodigestive tract. Despite advances in knowledge and treatment of this disease, the five-year survival rate after diagnosis of advanced (stage 3 and 4) HNSCC remains approximately 50%. One reason for the large degree of mortality associated with late stage HNSCC is the intrinsic ability of tumor cells to undergo locoregional invasion. Lymph nodes in the cervical region are the primary sites of metastasis for HNSCC, occurring before the formation of distant metastases. The presence of lymph node metastases is strongly associated with poor patient outcome, resulting in increased consideration being given to the development and implementation of anti-invasive strategies. In this review, we focus on select proteins that have been recently identified as promoters of lymph node metastasis in HNSCC. The discussed proteins are involved in a wide range of critical cellular functions, and offer a more comprehensive understanding of the factors involved in HNSCC metastasis while additionally providing increased options for consideration in the design of future therapeutic intervention strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation)
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Open AccessReview Extra-Neural Metastases of Malignant Gliomas: Myth or Reality?
Cancers 2011, 3(1), 461-477; doi:10.3390/cancers3010461
Received: 31 December 2010 / Revised: 4 January 2011 / Accepted: 19 January 2011 / Published: 27 January 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (769 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malignant gliomas account for approximately 60% of all primary brain tumors in adults. Prognosis for these patients has not significantly changed in recent years—despite debulking surgery, radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy—with a median survival of 9–12 months. Virtually no patients are cured of their
[...] Read more.
Malignant gliomas account for approximately 60% of all primary brain tumors in adults. Prognosis for these patients has not significantly changed in recent years—despite debulking surgery, radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy—with a median survival of 9–12 months. Virtually no patients are cured of their illness. Malignant gliomas are usually locally invasive tumors, though extra-neural metastases can sometimes occur late in the course of the disease (median of two years). They generally appear after craniotomy although spontaneous metastases have also been reported. The incidence of these metastases from primary intra-cranial malignant gliomas is low; it is estimated at less than 2% of all cases. Extra-neural metastases from gliomas frequently occur late in the course of the disease (median of two years), and generally appear after craniotomy, but spontaneous metastases have also been reported. Malignant glioma metastases usually involve the regional lymph nodes, lungs and pleural cavity, and occasionally the bone and liver. In this review, we present three cases of extra-neural metastasis of malignant gliomas from our department, summarize the main reported cases in literature, and try to understand the mechanisms underlying these systemic metastases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation)
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Open AccessReview From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis
Cancers 2011, 3(1), 478-493; doi:10.3390/cancers3010478
Received: 21 December 2010 / Revised: 20 January 2011 / Accepted: 20 January 2011 / Published: 27 January 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology
[...] Read more.
Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation)
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Open AccessReview Decoding Melanoma Metastasis
Cancers 2011, 3(1), 126-163; doi:10.3390/cancers3010126
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 23 December 2010 / Published: 30 December 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses
[...] Read more.
Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation)
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Open AccessReview Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(4), 2100-2137; doi:10.3390/cancers2042100
Received: 9 October 2010 / Revised: 11 November 2010 / Accepted: 2 December 2010 / Published: 15 December 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional
[...] Read more.
Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional performance status, age, and number of brain metastases. Patients with good prognosis may benefit from more aggressive treatment because of the potential for prolonged survival for some of them. In this review, we will comprehensively discuss the therapeutic options for treating brain metastases, which arise mostly from a lung cancer primary. In particular, we will focus on the patient selection for combined modality treatment of brain metastases, such as surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with whole brain irradiation; the use of radiosensitizers; and the neurocognitive deficits after whole brain irradiation with or without SRS. The benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and its potentially associated neuro-toxicity for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are also discussed, along with the combined treatment of intrathoracic primary disease and solitary brain metastasis. The roles of SRS to the surgical bed, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, WBRT with an integrated boost to the gross brain metastases, as well as combining WBRT with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, are explored as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation)

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