Special Issue "Advanced Thermal Spray Coatings for Emerging Applications"

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A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Lech Pawlowski

University of Limoges, SPCTS, 12, rue Atlantis 87068 Limoges, France
E-Mail
Interests: thermal spray technology of powders and suspension; nanometric coatings tecnology, in particular suspension plasma spray metal oxide coatings (hydroxyapatite, titania, zirconia); laser treatment of materials (laser heating, glazing and engraving); films technologies by laser ablation; characterization techniques by TEM, SEM, XRD, Raman microscopy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thermal spray is growing in many directions. Probably the most exciting developments for coatings revolve around new applications: for example, coatings that are applied to new forms of energy generation such as electrolysis; self-cleaning surfaces by photocatalysis; biomaterials; electronic-based functionalities and many others. The research considered for this special issue can have theoretical or experimental character. The theoretical studies may include the modeling of thermal spray processes such as plasma spray, HVOF or Cold Spray processes that are related to a new application; as well as modeling of phenomenon during coating build up; such as sintering, the generation of residual stresses and other behavior. The experimental research may concern studies on new types of torches or processes; for example the process of physical vapor deposition that is associated with the plasma spray process or special torches for suspension plasma spraying as well as the investigation of microstructure and of the functional properties of the coatings being developed for new applications. The topics of interest should correspond to coatings used for low temperature applications since the journal proposes a special edition for high temperature coatings. Please contact the Editors of this Special Issue if you have any questions or wish to discuss your topical contribution.

Prof. Dr. Lech Pawlowski
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • thermal spray application
  • suspension thermal spray
  • solution thermal spray
  • process development
  • thermal spray modeling
  • process diagnostic

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Ni-Al and NiO-Al Composite Coatings by Combustion-Assisted Flame Spraying
Coatings 2014, 4(2), 231-252; doi:10.3390/coatings4020231
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 9 April 2014 / Accepted: 10 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new, cost-efficient and on-site-applicable thermal spraying process for depositing NiAl metallic overlay or bond-coat coatings for high temperature applications by synthesizing the desired intermetallic phases in-flight during oxy-acetylene flame spraying is presented. Base-metal powders were used for spraying and, by adjusting the
[...] Read more.
A new, cost-efficient and on-site-applicable thermal spraying process for depositing NiAl metallic overlay or bond-coat coatings for high temperature applications by synthesizing the desired intermetallic phases in-flight during oxy-acetylene flame spraying is presented. Base-metal powders were used for spraying and, by adjusting the spraying conditions, excellent NiAl-based coatings were achieved on various substrates, including mild steel, stainless steel and aluminium alloys. Expensive, pre-alloyed or agglomerated powders are avoided and the method is very promising for in-situ work and repairs. We call the new method “Combustion-Assisted Flame Spraying” (CAFSY) and its viability has been demonstrated at a pre-industrial level for coating metallic substrates. The NiAl-based coatings produced by CAFSY exhibit very high integrity with good adhesion, very low porosity, high surface hardness and high erosion resistance at a substantially lower cost than equivalent coatings using pre-prepared alloy powders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thermal Spray Coatings for Emerging Applications)
Open AccessArticle Microstructural Characteristics and Tribological Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Novel Fe-Based Alloy Coatings
Coatings 2014, 4(1), 98-120; doi:10.3390/coatings4010098
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermally-sprayed Fe-based coatings have shown their potential for use in wear applications due to their good tribological properties. In addition, these kinds of coatings have other advantages, e.g., cost efficiency and positive environmental aspects. In this study, the microstructural details and tribological performances
[...] Read more.
Thermally-sprayed Fe-based coatings have shown their potential for use in wear applications due to their good tribological properties. In addition, these kinds of coatings have other advantages, e.g., cost efficiency and positive environmental aspects. In this study, the microstructural details and tribological performances of Fe-based coatings (Fe-Cr-Ni-B-C and Fe-Cr-Ni-B-Mo-C) manufactured by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process are evaluated. Traditional Ni-based (Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B-C) and hard-metal (WC-CoCr) coatings were chosen as references. Microstructural investigation (field-emission scanning electron microscope FESEM and X-Ray diffractometry XRD) reveals a high density and low oxide content for HVOF Fe-based coatings. Particle melting and rapid solidification resulted in a metastable austenitic phase with precipitates of mixed carbides and borides of chromium and iron which lead to remarkably high nanohardness. Tribological performances were evaluated by means of the ball on-disk dry sliding wear test, the rubber-wheel dry particle abrasion test, and the cavitation erosion wear test. A higher wear resistance validates Fe-based coatings as a future alternative to the more expensive and less environmentally friendly Ni-based alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thermal Spray Coatings for Emerging Applications)
Open AccessArticle Abrasion, Erosion and Cavitation Erosion Wear Properties of Thermally Sprayed Alumina Based Coatings
Coatings 2014, 4(1), 18-36; doi:10.3390/coatings4010018
Received: 7 November 2013 / Revised: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 2 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermally-sprayed alumina based materials, e.g., alumina-titania (Al2O3-TiO2), are commonly applied as wear resistant coatings in industrial applications. Properties of the coatings depend on the spray process, powder morphology, and chemical composition of the powder. In this study,
[...] Read more.
Thermally-sprayed alumina based materials, e.g., alumina-titania (Al2O3-TiO2), are commonly applied as wear resistant coatings in industrial applications. Properties of the coatings depend on the spray process, powder morphology, and chemical composition of the powder. In this study, wear resistant coatings from Al2O3 and Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were sprayed with plasma and high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) spray processes. Both, fused and crushed, and agglomerated and sintered Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were studied and compared to pure Al2O3. The coatings were tested for abrasion, erosion, and cavitation resistances in order to study the effect of the coating structure on the wear behavior. Improved coating properties were achieved when agglomerated and sintered nanostructured Al2O3-13TiO2 powder was used in plasma spraying. Coatings with the highest wear resistance in all tests were produced by HVOF spraying from fused and crushed powders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thermal Spray Coatings for Emerging Applications)
Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Properties of Plasma Sprayed Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ceramics
Coatings 2012, 2(2), 64-75; doi:10.3390/coatings2020064
Received: 9 January 2012 / Revised: 8 March 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 28 March 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2095 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was plasma sprayed onto various substrates of different character. Additionally, a free-standing body made by plasma spraying was investigated. X-ray diffraction analyses of a decomposition of the as-sprayed coating products detected components of the PT-PZ system as well as
[...] Read more.
Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was plasma sprayed onto various substrates of different character. Additionally, a free-standing body made by plasma spraying was investigated. X-ray diffraction analyses of a decomposition of the as-sprayed coating products detected components of the PT-PZ system as well as binary oxides—PbO and ZrO2. Due to the comparatively complex phase character, the Curie temperature monitored by DTA, had a smeared appearance without pronounced maxima. The corresponding electrical properties are comparable with those typically observed for CaTiO3, but are worse than the normal values of bulk PZT due to defective stoichiometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thermal Spray Coatings for Emerging Applications)
Open AccessArticle In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder
Coatings 2011, 1(2), 88-107; doi:10.3390/coatings1020088
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 22 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 September 2011 / Published: 3 October 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2851 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN) based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult
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Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN) based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN) to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma) by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm) AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv). The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN), c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases) and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N), cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON) and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were not included in the feedstock and were not formed through nitriding of the Al. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thermal Spray Coatings for Emerging Applications)
Open AccessArticle Optimization and Characterization of High Velocity Oxy-fuel Sprayed Coatings: Techniques, Materials, and Applications
Coatings 2011, 1(1), 17-52; doi:10.3390/coatings1010017
Received: 28 July 2011 / Revised: 19 August 2011 / Accepted: 19 August 2011 / Published: 2 September 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (7615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray techniques, spraying process optimization, and characterization of coatings are reviewed. Different variants of the technology are described and the main differences in spray conditions in terms of particle kinetics and thermal energy are rationalized.
[...] Read more.
In this work High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray techniques, spraying process optimization, and characterization of coatings are reviewed. Different variants of the technology are described and the main differences in spray conditions in terms of particle kinetics and thermal energy are rationalized. Methods and tools for controlling the spray process are presented as well as their use in optimizing the coating process. It will be shown how the differences from the starting powder to the final coating formation affect the coating microstructure and performance. Typical properties of HVOF sprayed coatings and coating performance is described. Also development of testing methods used for the evaluation of coating properties and current status of standardization is presented. Short discussion of typical applications is done. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thermal Spray Coatings for Emerging Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Very Low Pressure Plasma Spray—A Review of an Emerging Technology in the Thermal Spray Community
Coatings 2011, 1(2), 117-132; doi:10.3390/coatings1020117
Received: 30 October 2011 / Revised: 11 December 2011 / Accepted: 17 December 2011 / Published: 20 December 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A fundamentally new family of thermal spray processes has emerged. These new processes, collectively known as very low pressure plasma spray or VLPPS, differ from traditional thermal spray processes in that coatings are deposited at unusually low chamber pressures, typically less than ~800
[...] Read more.
A fundamentally new family of thermal spray processes has emerged. These new processes, collectively known as very low pressure plasma spray or VLPPS, differ from traditional thermal spray processes in that coatings are deposited at unusually low chamber pressures, typically less than ~800 Pa (6 Torr). Depending upon the specific process, deposition may be in the form of very fine molten droplets, vapor phase deposition, or a mixture of vapor and droplet deposition. Resulting coatings are similar in quality to coatings produced by alternative coating technologies, such as physical vapor deposition (PVD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD), but deposition rates can be roughly an order of magnitude higher with VLPPS. With these new process technologies modified low pressure plasma spray (LPPS) systems can now be used to produce dense, high quality coatings in the 1 to 100 micron thickness range with lamellar or columnar microstructures. A history of pioneering work in VLPPS technology is presented, deposition mechanisms are discussed, potential new applications are reviewed, and challenges for the future are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thermal Spray Coatings for Emerging Applications)

Other

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Microstructure and Properties of Plasma Sprayed Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ceramics. Coatings 2012, 2, 64-75
Coatings 2012, 2(2), 94; doi:10.3390/coatings2020094
Received: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 12 June 2012 / Published: 19 June 2012
PDF Full-text (110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper: the correct number of the project granted by the Czech Science Foundation is P108/12/1872. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thermal Spray Coatings for Emerging Applications)

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