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Special Issue "Tobacco Smoking and Public Health"

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A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Jennifer Kahende

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., Mailstop K-50, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
Interests: tobacco research; public health; health disparities; health economics; HIV/AIDS prevention; health promotion and disease prevention

Keywords

  • tobacco smoking
  • public health
  • health effects
  • lung cancer, emphysema, and cardiovascular disease
  • psychological effects
  • cigarette, cigar, pipe, smoking cessation
  • anti-tobacco policymaking
  • anti-tobacco education programs
  • restrictions on cigarette advertising and promotions
  • tobacco taxation
  • public smoking bans, secondhand tobacco smoke, tobacco consumption reduction

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Published Papers (30 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle How Do Price Minimizing Behaviors Impact Smoking Cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(5), 1671-1691; doi:10.3390/ijerph8051671
Received: 15 April 2011 / Revised: 9 May 2011 / Accepted: 14 May 2011 / Published: 20 May 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. [...] Read more.
This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups. This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Utility of Pulmonary Function Tests in Predicting Emphysema in Ever-Smokers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(5), 1324-1340; doi:10.3390/ijerph8051324
Received: 15 January 2011 / Revised: 20 April 2011 / Accepted: 22 April 2011 / Published: 29 April 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. [...] Read more.
Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former) over the age of 40. CT of thorax was used to quantify the low attenuation area (% emphysema), and to measure the standardized airway wall thickness. PFTs were used individually and in combination to predict their ability to discriminate radiographic emphysema. Significant emphysema (>7%) was detected in 122 (54%) subjects. Twenty six (21%) emphysema subjects had no evidence of airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio 23% emphysema showed airflow obstruction. The sensitivity and specificity of spirometry for detecting radiographic emphysema were 79% and 75%, respectively. Standardized airway wall thickness was increased in subjects with airflow obstruction, but did not correlate with emphysema severity. In this cohort of lifetime ever-smokers, PFTs alone were inadequate for diagnosing emphysema. Airway wall thickness quantified by CT morphometry was associated with airflow limitation, but not with emphysema indicating that the heterogeneous nature of lung disease in smokers may represent distinct phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Chronic Cigarette Smoking: Implications for Neurocognition and Brain Neurobiology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3760-3791; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103760
Received: 9 September 2010 / Revised: 29 September 2010 / Accepted: 9 October 2010 / Published: 21 October 2010
Cited by 59 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compared to the substantial volume of research on the general health consequences associated with chronic smoking, little research has been specifically devoted to the investigation of its effects on human neurobiology and neurocognition. This review summarizes the peer-reviewed literature on the neurocognitive [...] Read more.
Compared to the substantial volume of research on the general health consequences associated with chronic smoking, little research has been specifically devoted to the investigation of its effects on human neurobiology and neurocognition. This review summarizes the peer-reviewed literature on the neurocognitive and neurobiological implications of chronic cigarette smoking in cohorts that were not seeking treatment for substance use or psychiatric disorders. Studies that specifically assessed the neurocognitive or neurobiological (with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance-based neuroimaging studies) consequences of chronic smoking are highlighted. Chronic cigarette smoking appears to be associated with deficiencies in executive functions, cognitive flexibility, general intellectual abilities, learning and/or memory processing speed, and working memory. Chronic smoking is related to global brain atrophy and to structural and biochemical abnormalities in anterior frontal regions, subcortical nuclei and commissural white matter. Chronic smoking may also be associated with an increased risk for various forms of neurodegenerative diseases. The existing literature is limited by inconsistent accounting for potentially confounding biomedical and psychiatric conditions, focus on cross-sectional studies with middle aged and older adults and the absence of studies concurrently assessing neurocognitive, neurobiological and genetic factors in the same cohort. Consequently, the mechanisms promoting the neurocognitive and neurobiological abnormalities reported in chronic smokers are unclear. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if the smoking-related neurobiological and neurocognitive abnormalities increase over time and/or show recovery with sustained smoking cessation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Tobacco Use, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke, and Training on Cessation Counseling Among Nursing Students: Cross-Country Data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS), 2005–2009
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(10), 2534-2549; doi:10.3390/ijerph6102534
Received: 19 August 2009 / Accepted: 23 September 2009 / Published: 28 September 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Nursing Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) has been conducted in schools in 39 countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank (identified as “sites” for the remainder of this paper). In half the sites, over 20% of the students currently smoked cigarettes, [...] Read more.
The Nursing Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) has been conducted in schools in 39 countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank (identified as “sites” for the remainder of this paper). In half the sites, over 20% of the students currently smoked cigarettes, with males having higher rates than females in 22 sites. Over 60% of students reported having been exposed to secondhand smoke in public places in 23 of 39 sites. The majority of students recognized that they are role models in society, believed they should receive training on counseling patients to quit using tobacco, but few reported receiving any formal training. Tobacco control efforts must discourage tobacco use among health professionals, promote smoke free workplaces, and implement programs that train health professionals in effective cessation-counseling techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Smoking Determinants in Turkish University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(8), 2248-2257; doi:10.3390/ijerph6082248
Received: 27 July 2009 / Accepted: 6 August 2009 / Published: 12 August 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim was to explore the prevalence and the correlates of smoking in a group of Turkish university students. A sample of 1,870 students (21.2 ± 2.0 years old) completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, 20-item Toronto [...] Read more.
The aim was to explore the prevalence and the correlates of smoking in a group of Turkish university students. A sample of 1,870 students (21.2 ± 2.0 years old) completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Smoking was highly prevalent (35.9%) in this sample. Male gender (OR = 2.72, CI 2.15-3.44), and parental smoking (OR = 1.41, CI 1.13-1.78) were factors associated with increased likelihood of smoking. Higher depressive symptoms and hopelessness levels were significantly related to smoking behavior. Smoking behavior might initiate as a mild and transient habit and unfortunately could become more serious and lead to an actual dependence. The results of this study show that it is necessary to pay attention to levels of depression and hopelessness, as well as parental influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Levels of Urinary Metals in the U.S. Youth and Adult Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(7), 1930-1946; doi:10.3390/ijerph6071930
Received: 27 April 2009 / Accepted: 28 June 2009 / Published: 2 July 2009
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons [...] Read more.
We assessed 12 urine metals in tobacco smoke-exposed and not exposed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our analysis included age, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in cadmium and lead and creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted data for group comparisons are presented. Smokers’ had higher cadmium, lead, antimony, and barium levels than nonsmokers. Highest lead levels were in the youngest subjects. Lead levels among adults with high second-hand smoke exposure equaled smokers. Older smokers had cadmium levels signaling the potential for cadmium-related toxicity. Given the potential toxicity of metals, our findings complement existing research on exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Pattern of Smoking Habit among Greek Blue and White Collar Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(6), 1812-1817; doi:10.3390/ijerph6061812
Received: 4 May 2009 / Accepted: 5 June 2009 / Published: 10 June 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (38 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking in a Greek working population. A questionnaire regarding smoking habit was collected from 1,005 out of 1,200 blue and white-collar employees (response rate: 84%). The overall smoking prevalence was 48.4% [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking in a Greek working population. A questionnaire regarding smoking habit was collected from 1,005 out of 1,200 blue and white-collar employees (response rate: 84%). The overall smoking prevalence was 48.4% and did not differ by sex, age, education, and occupation. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 25.54, with no difference observed by occupation. The above-mentioned findings, if confirmed by further research, are alarming and inconsistent with the prevalent pattern of smoking habits in the West. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessCommunication Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(5), 1691-1705; doi:10.3390/ijerph6051691
Received: 2 April 2009 / Accepted: 19 May 2009 / Published: 20 May 2009
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are [...] Read more.
Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell ‘safe’ cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers) to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Estimated Time for Occurrence of Smoking-Related Consequences among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(5), 1665-1675; doi:10.3390/ijerph6051665
Received: 7 April 2009 / Accepted: 13 May 2009 / Published: 15 May 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (79 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objectives: To study time estimates by women smokers for when smoking-related consequences will occur given continuing or quitting smoking. The relationship of these estimates to pregnancy and intent to quit smoking was also investigated. Methods: Over a two-week period, eighty [...] Read more.
Objectives: To study time estimates by women smokers for when smoking-related consequences will occur given continuing or quitting smoking. The relationship of these estimates to pregnancy and intent to quit smoking was also investigated. Methods: Over a two-week period, eighty women, selected to constitute four subgroups formed by pregnant vs. non-pregnant and trying vs. not trying to quit smoking, rated times at which they would expect smoking-related consequences to occur given continuing or quitting smoking. Results: Somatic health consequences were estimated to occur later than consequences related to mood and social relations. All consequences were estimated to occur later given quitting smoking. Pregnancy had an effect on the estimated time that consequences would occur, with pregnant women estimating earlier occurrence of consequences related to mood and social relations than non-pregnant women did. Conclusion: Health messages should stress consequences for somatic health in quitting smoking, since outcomes later in time might have too low a value to exert a positive effect on decisions to quit smoking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Real World Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Varenicline and Cognitive-Behavioural Interventions for Smoking Cessation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1530-1538; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041530
Received: 10 March 2009 / Accepted: 16 April 2009 / Published: 21 April 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A prospective pragmatic interventional study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation among a cohort of motivated smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics. Smokers between 18 and 65 years who had smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day [...] Read more.
A prospective pragmatic interventional study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation among a cohort of motivated smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics. Smokers between 18 and 65 years who had smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day were included. All participants received cognitive-behavioural varenicline according to approved dose and prescriptions. Continuous abstinence, validated by exhaled CO levels, was assessed in each control. A total of 264 smokers – 155 males (58.7%) and 109 females (41.3%) – were included. Mean age was 43.7, amount smoked was 23 cigarettes per day and 61.4% had at least one prior attempt to quit. The continuous abstinence rate at end of treatment (12 wks) was 58.3%. Conclusions: varenicline and cognitive-behavioural intervention are effective for smoking cessation with high continuous abstinence rates when are used in a clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Smoking and the Risk of Upper Aero Digestive Tract Cancers for Men and Women in the Asia-Pacific Region
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(4), 1358-1370; doi:10.3390/ijerph6041358
Received: 24 December 2008 / Accepted: 1 April 2009 / Published: 3 April 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although smoking is an established causal factor for upper aero digestive tract cancer (UADTC), most of the evidence originates from the West. Thus, we analysed data from 455,409 subjects in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Over a median of around six [...] Read more.
Although smoking is an established causal factor for upper aero digestive tract cancer (UADTC), most of the evidence originates from the West. Thus, we analysed data from 455,409 subjects in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Over a median of around six years follow-up, 371 deaths from UADTC were observed. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for current smokers, compared with those who had never smoked, was 2.36 (1.76 – 3.16), adjusted for age and alcohol drinking. Tobacco control policies are urgently required in Asia to prevent millions of deaths from UADTC that smoking will otherwise cause. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Smoking,GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(3), 1282-1297; doi:10.3390/ijerph6031282
Received: 4 February 2009 / Accepted: 21 March 2009 / Published: 26 March 2009
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to investigate the association between maternal smoking, GSTM1, GSTT1 polymorphism, low birth weight (LBW, < 2,500 g) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR, < 2,500 g and gestation ≥ 37 weeks) risk. Within a prospective cohort study in Kaunas (Lithuania), a nested case-control study on LBW and IUGR occurrence among 646women with genotyping of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms who delivered live singletons was conducted. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study the association of maternal smoking and polymorphism in two genes metabolizing xenobiotics. Without consideration of genotype, light-smoking (mean 4.8 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy was associated with a small increase in LBW risk, adjusted OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.44 – 3.31. The corresponding odds for IUGR risk was 1.57; 95% CI 0.45 – 5.55. The findings suggested the greater LBW risk among light-smoking mothers with the GSTM1-null genotype (OR 1.91; 95% CI 0.43 – 8.47) compared to those with GSTM1-present genotype (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.26 – 4.47). When both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were considered, the synergistic effect was found among smoking mothers: GSTT1-present and GSTM1-null genotype OR for LBW was 3.31; 95% CI 0.60-18.4 and that for IUGR was 2.47; 95% CI 0.31 – 13.1. However there was no statistically significant interaction between maternal smoking, GSTT1- present and GSTM1-null genotypes for LBW (OR 1.45; 95% CI 0.22 – 10.1, p = 0.66) and for IUGR (OR 1.10; 95% CI 0.10 – 12.6, p = 0.93).The results of this study suggested that smoking, even at a low-level, ought to be considered a potential risk factor for adverse birth outcomes and that genetic polymorphism may contribute to individual variation in tobacco smoke response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(3), 1215-1234; doi:10.3390/ijerph6031215
Received: 26 November 2008 / Accepted: 17 March 2009 / Published: 20 March 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (98 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Repeat episodes of HPV-related external genital warts reflect recurring or new infections. No study before has been sufficiently powered to delineate how tobacco use, prior history of EGWs and HIV infection affect the risk for new EGWs. Behavioral, laboratory and examination data [...] Read more.
Repeat episodes of HPV-related external genital warts reflect recurring or new infections. No study before has been sufficiently powered to delineate how tobacco use, prior history of EGWs and HIV infection affect the risk for new EGWs. Behavioral, laboratory and examination data for 2,835 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants examined at 21,519 semi-annual visits were evaluated. Fourteen percent (391/2835) of men reported or were diagnosed with EGWs at 3% (675/21,519) of study visits. Multivariate analyses showed smoking, prior episodes of EGWs, HIV infection and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count among the infected, each differentially influenced the risk for new EGWs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Disparities in Health Care Utilization by Smoking Status – NHANES 1999-2004
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(3), 1095-1106; doi:10.3390/ijerph6031095
Received: 16 December 2008 / Accepted: 10 March 2009 / Published: 13 March 2009
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess disparities in health care utilization, by smoking status, among adults in the United States.We used 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 15,332 adults.Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between smoking status (current, former, and never smoker), with health care utilization.After controlling for demographic characteristics, current smokers and former smokers who quit either <2 years or ≥10 years prior to the survey were more likely to have had inpatient admission in the past year than never smokers.Current smokers did not differ from never smokers on whether they had an outpatient visit in the past year.They were, however, more likely than never smokers to have ≥ 4 outpatient visits.Smokers who quit either <2 years ago or ≥10 years ago were more likely to have had an outpatient visit than never smokers.Former smokers were more likely than never smokers to have ≥ 4 outpatient visits regardless of when they quit.Our results show that cigarette smoking is associated with higher health care utilization for current and former smokers than for never smokers.Frequent hospitalization and outpatient visits translate into higher medical costs.Therefore, more efforts are needed to promote interventions that discourage smoking initiation and encourage cessation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Risk Factors for Initiation of Smoking in Greek High-School Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(3), 971-979; doi:10.3390/ijerph6030971
Received: 15 December 2008 / Accepted: 14 February 2009 / Published: 2 March 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The smoking habits of 9,276 high-school students (15-18 years old) in six cities of Northern Greece were studied using a questionnaire in order to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for initiation of smoking. We observed that 29.6% of high-school students [...] Read more.
The smoking habits of 9,276 high-school students (15-18 years old) in six cities of Northern Greece were studied using a questionnaire in order to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for initiation of smoking. We observed that 29.6% of high-school students (32.6% of boys and 26.7% of girls) were current smokers. A percentage of 43.3% had started smoking before the age of 14. Reactive behaviour towards parents’ and teachers’ advice (40.2%) and the existence of smoking friends (40.1%) were the main reasons of initiation. A well-planned integrated anti-smoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Lack of Cholesterol Awareness among Physicians Who Smoke
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 635-642; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020635
Received: 2 December 2008 / Accepted: 9 February 2009 / Published: 11 February 2009
PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cigarette use is a known risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) as it adversely affects HDL cholesterol levels and promotes thrombogenesis. Smoking may also be associated with behavioral characteristics that potentiate the risk of CAD. A lack of [...] Read more.
Cigarette use is a known risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) as it adversely affects HDL cholesterol levels and promotes thrombogenesis. Smoking may also be associated with behavioral characteristics that potentiate the risk of CAD. A lack of cholesterol knowledge would indicate an aversion to a prevention-oriented lifestyle. Thus, our goal was to determine the association between tobacco use and knowledge of self-reported cholesterol among male physicians. Using the 1982 and follow-up questionnaires from the physician health study, we report the changes in the frequencies of awareness of self-reported total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors among the 22,067 participants. We classified physicians as being aware of their cholesterol if they reported a cholesterol level and unaware if the question was left unanswered. In 1997, 207 physicians were excluded, as the recorded cholesterol was not interpretable, leaving 21,860 for our follow up analyses. Using unadjusted logistic models, we determined the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of not reporting a cholesterol level in either 1982 or 1997 for each specified risk factor. We then evaluated whether the lack of cholesterol awareness at both time points was associated with the use of tobacco throughout the study. After 14-years of follow up, cholesterol awareness increased from 35.9 to 58.6 percent. During this period, the frequency of hypertension and hyperlipidemia treatment increased (13.5 to 40.5% and 0.57% to 19.6% respectively), as did the diagnosis of diabetes (2.40 to 7.79%). Behavioral characteristics such as a sedentary lifestyle and obesity also increased (27.8 to 42% and 43.5 to 53.5%, respectively), however the proportion of current smokers deceased from 11.1 to 4.05%. The percentages of individuals being unaware of their cholesterol decreased in all risk factor groups. However, individuals were likely to be unaware of their cholesterol at both time points if they were current smokers (1982 OR 1.44, CI 1.4-1.7; 1997 OR 1.71, CI 1.48-1.97), past smokers (1982 OR 1.12, CI 1.05-1.18; 1997 OR 1.13, CI 1.06-1.20), overweight (BMI 25 kg/m2) or sedentary. In addition, physicians who never quit smoking were likely to be unaware of their cholesterol throughout the study (OR 1.42, CI 1.21-1.67). Cholesterol awareness in general and among those with CAD risk factors improved after 14-years of follow-up. However, the likelihood of being unaware was greater among smokers at both time points. Therefore, smokers do not appear to take advantage of other preventive strategies that would minimize their risk of developing CAD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle “It’s All We Got Left”. Why Poor Smokers are Less Sensitive to Cigarette Price Increases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 608-621; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020608
Received: 29 December 2008 / Accepted: 6 February 2009 / Published: 10 February 2009
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In France, between 2000 and 2008, concurrently to the increase in cigarette price, we observed an increasing social differentiation of cigarette smoking: smoking prevalence decreased among executive managers and professional occupations, it remained stable among manual workers, and it increased among the [...] Read more.
In France, between 2000 and 2008, concurrently to the increase in cigarette price, we observed an increasing social differentiation of cigarette smoking: smoking prevalence decreased among executive managers and professional occupations, it remained stable among manual workers, and it increased among the unemployed. Poor smokers were heavier smokers, they were more frequently tobacco-dependent, and they were more prone to smoke automatically or to reduce “negative feelings”. In-depth interviews provided a more comprehensive insight into poor smokers’ motivations: they were aware of their addiction, but they also talked about the pleasure they get from smoking, and they highlighted the essential needs satisfied by smoking: stress relief, cheap leisure, compensation for loneliness, break-up or redundancy… Acknowledging the functional aspects of smoking experienced by poor smokers helps to understand why increasing the cigarette price is unlikely to deter many poor smokers from smoking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessCommunication Nicotine Contamination in Particulate Matter Sampling
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 601-607; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020601
Received: 31 December 2008 / Accepted: 4 February 2009 / Published: 9 February 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have addressed potential contamination of PM2.5 filter samples by nicotine from cigarette smoke. We collected two nicotine samples – one nicotine sampling filter was placed in-line after the collection of PM2.5 and the other stood alone. The overall correlation [...] Read more.
We have addressed potential contamination of PM2.5 filter samples by nicotine from cigarette smoke. We collected two nicotine samples – one nicotine sampling filter was placed in-line after the collection of PM2.5 and the other stood alone. The overall correlation between the two nicotine filter levels was 0.99. The nicotine collected on the “stand-alone” filter was slightly greater than that on the “in-line” filter (mean difference = 1.10 μg/m3), but the difference was statistically significant only when PM2.5 was low (≤ 50 μg/m3). It is therefore important to account for personal and secondhand smoke exposure while assessing occupational and environmental PM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Postprandial Oxidative Stress in Exercise Trained and Sedentary Cigarette Smokers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 579-591; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020579
Received: 29 October 2008 / Accepted: 2 February 2009 / Published: 6 February 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cigarette smokers experience an exaggerated triglyceride (TAG) and oxidative stress response to high fat feeding. Exercise training may serve to attenuate the rise in these variables, by improving TAG clearance and antioxidant defense. We compared blood TAG, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress [...] Read more.
Cigarette smokers experience an exaggerated triglyceride (TAG) and oxidative stress response to high fat feeding. Exercise training may serve to attenuate the rise in these variables, by improving TAG clearance and antioxidant defense. We compared blood TAG, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in exercise trained (>2 hrs per wk) and untrained smokers matched for age, in response to a high fat test meal. We report here that low volume exercise training can attenuate postprandial lipid peroxidation, but has little impact on blood TAG and other markers of oxidative stress. Higher volumes of exercise may be needed to allow for clinically meaningful adaptations in postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 526-546; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020526
Received: 27 November 2008 / Accepted: 2 February 2009 / Published: 5 February 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present report shows that nicotine enhances some of alcohol’s positive and negative effects in women and that these effects are most pronounced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten low progesterone and 10 high progesterone/luteal-phase women received nicotine patch [...] Read more.
The present report shows that nicotine enhances some of alcohol’s positive and negative effects in women and that these effects are most pronounced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten low progesterone and 10 high progesterone/luteal-phase women received nicotine patch pretreatments (placebo or 21 mg) 3 hours before an alcohol challenge (0.4 g/kg). Subjective effects were recorded on mood adjective scales and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). Heart rate and skin temperature were recorded. Luteal-phase women reported peak positive (e.g. “stimulated”) and peak negative effects (e.g. “clumsy”, “dizzy”) almost twice as great as low progesterone women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 558-567; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020558
Received: 21 November 2008 / Accepted: 20 January 2009 / Published: 5 February 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose [...] Read more.
The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides , such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation) and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv/y (average 79.7 μSv/y), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv/y (average 67.1 μSv/y) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv/y (average 104.7 μSv/y), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv/y (average 251.5 μSv/y). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Estimating Intervention Effects in a Complex Multi-Level Smoking Prevention Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(2), 463-477; doi:10.3390/ijerph6020463
Received: 9 December 2008 / Accepted: 22 January 2009 / Published: 3 February 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper illustrates how to estimate cumulative and non-cumulative treatment effects in a complex school-based smoking intervention study. The Instrumental Variable method is used to tackle non-compliance and measurement error for a range of treatment exposure measures (binary, ordinal and continuous) in [...] Read more.
This paper illustrates how to estimate cumulative and non-cumulative treatment effects in a complex school-based smoking intervention study. The Instrumental Variable method is used to tackle non-compliance and measurement error for a range of treatment exposure measures (binary, ordinal and continuous) in the presence of clustering and drop-out. The results are compared to more routine analyses. The empirical findings from this study provide little encouragement for believing that poorly resourced school-based interventions can bring about substantial long-lasting reductions in smoking behaviour but that novel components such as a computer game might have some short-term effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Cohort
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 310-320; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010310
Received: 29 October 2008 / Accepted: 15 January 2009 / Published: 19 January 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) at year 4. Statistical differences in SF-36 scores between groups were determined using ANCOVA with age and sex as covariates. Out of 5,234 eligible participants over 2000-2006, there were 2,639 non-smoker participants, 1,419 ex-smokers, and 1,048 smokers. Within the previous four years, 435 participants became recent quitters and 205 starters. Comparing smoking and health status in year 4, non-smokers showed better scores than the other categories of ever smoking in all dimensions except in the vitality scale value, which was similar in non-smokers and in those smoking less than 15 cigarettes/day. Comparing changes in smoking and health in year 4, continuing smokers had statistically significant worse scores than non-smokers in general health, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health, whereas recent quitters showed statistically significant improvements in role-emotional and mental health over those who had continued smoking or those who became smokers. Our findings support a dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption and a worse quality of life in general and mental health in particular. They also support that changes in smoking have an impact on health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Parental Smoking and Smoking Status of Japanese Dental Hygiene Students: A Pilot Survey at a Dental Hygiene School in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 321-328; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010321
Received: 20 November 2008 / Accepted: 16 January 2009 / Published: 19 January 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the frequency of smoking and to explore factors associated with the smoking habits of female students at a dental hygiene school in Japan. Questionnaires regarding cigarette smoking were given to 168 female students. The response rate was [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the frequency of smoking and to explore factors associated with the smoking habits of female students at a dental hygiene school in Japan. Questionnaires regarding cigarette smoking were given to 168 female students. The response rate was 97.6%. The prevalence of smoking, including current and occasional smokers, was 20.3%. Among family members, only the smoking status of their mother significantly influenced the smoking status of the students. The odds ratio for smoking among dental hygiene students whose mothers were smokers in comparison to students whose mothers were not smokers was 5.1 (95% confidence interval 2.1-12.2, p=0.000). Decision tree analysis showed that the smoking habit of dental hygiene students was correlated with their mothers’ smoking history, as well as the smoking status of junior high school teachers, the smoking habits of close friends and a history of participating in a smoking prevention program when in elementary school. The increased smoking rate of young females, including dental hygienists, is a growing problem in Japan. The smoking statuses of dental hygiene students might be closely influenced by their mothers' smoking status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Smokeless Tobacco Use and Religiousness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 225-231; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010225
Received: 3 November 2008 / Accepted: 7 January 2009 / Published: 12 January 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although smoking shows a strong negative association with religiousness, no studies have appeared of use of smokeless tobacco (ST) and religiousness. To assess an association of use of ST and religiousness, data from 9,374 men aged 17 years and over with complete data on self-reported frequency of attendance at religious services and use of smokeless tobacco were analyzed. Among men aged 17-29 years, 4.9% of frequent attenders (>=24 times/y) and 9.4% of others (<24 times/y) were current users of ST (p=0.002). After adjusting for multiple confounders by logistic regression, infrequent attenders were twice as likely as frequent attenders to be ST users: odds ratio 2.09, 95% confidence limits 1.12-3.92, p=0.02. This negative association suggests a protective effect of early-life religiousness on ST use, which might be taken into account in planning ST prevention efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Smoking Cessation Counselling for Pregnant and Postpartum Women among Midwives, Gynaecologists and Paediatricians in Germany
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 96-107; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010096
Received: 29 October 2008 / Accepted: 23 December 2008 / Published: 5 January 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The incorporation of guidelines for the treatment of tobacco smoking into routine care requires positive attitudes, counselling skills and knowledge about additional help available for smokers.The study assesses performance of smoking cessation intervention, attitudes, training status and knowledge about additional help for [...] Read more.
The incorporation of guidelines for the treatment of tobacco smoking into routine care requires positive attitudes, counselling skills and knowledge about additional help available for smokers.The study assesses performance of smoking cessation intervention, attitudes, training status and knowledge about additional help for smokers in the care for pregnant and parenting women by midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians. A survey of all midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians registered for primary medical care in the federal state Saarland, Germany, was conducted. Participation in the postal questionnaires was 85 %. Depending on profession, 90 % to 100 % see smoking cessation counselling as their assignment, 17 % to 80 % screen for, 48 % to 90 % document smoking status, and 55 % to 76 % offer brief or extensive counselling. 61 % to 87 % consider training to enhance their knowledge and/or counselling skills necessary. The compliance of providers with the necessity to give support in smoking cessation is very high. However, the current status of cessation counselling does not sufficiently correspond to the evidence based requirements. Reports in medical press and advanced training courses should support health care providers and establish smoking as an inherent topic of the anamnesis and treatment of current and former pregnant or parenting smokers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Symptoms of Diminished Autonomy over Cigarettes with Non-Daily Use
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(1), 25-35; doi:10.3390/ijerph6010025
Received: 3 November 2008 / Accepted: 20 December 2008 / Published: 23 December 2008
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data from a nationally representative sample of smokers (ages 12-22 years, n=2,091) was examined to investigate the prevalence of symptoms of diminished autonomy over cigarettes. Six symptoms were assessed: failed cessation, smoking despite a desire to quit, and a need or urge [...] Read more.
Data from a nationally representative sample of smokers (ages 12-22 years, n=2,091) was examined to investigate the prevalence of symptoms of diminished autonomy over cigarettes. Six symptoms were assessed: failed cessation, smoking despite a desire to quit, and a need or urge to smoke, irritability, restlessness, or disrupted concentration attributed to nicotine withdrawal. One or more of the six symptoms were present in 18.9% of subjects who smoked less often than once per week. Among subjects who had not smoked 20 cigarettes in their lifetime, 12.6% had symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, and 25% had made an unsuccessful quit attempt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in Northwest Ohio: Correlates of Prevalence and Age at Onset
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(4), 278-289; doi:10.3390/ijerph5040278
Received: 11 November 2008 / Accepted: 12 December 2008 / Published: 15 December 2008
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of smoking initiation among adolescents. We have used data from adolescents (n=5,392) ages 10-18 who participated in the 2003 Tobacco Survey, a representative sample of adolescents in Northwest Ohio. A selfreport of cigarette smoking was [...] Read more.
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of smoking initiation among adolescents. We have used data from adolescents (n=5,392) ages 10-18 who participated in the 2003 Tobacco Survey, a representative sample of adolescents in Northwest Ohio. A selfreport of cigarette smoking was obtained using a questionnaire administered in classrooms. Data were analyzed using weighted chi-square and multiple logistic regressions in SAS that accounted for the survey design. The prevalence rates for adolescents that ever tried smoking were 7.4% in elementary (grades 4-5); 17.7% in middle (grades 6-8), and 41.4% in high (grades 9-12) schools, respectively. The highest prevalence rate was among Hispanics. Having a close friend that smoked and a smoker at home correlated significantly with both initiation of smoking and smoking at an earlier age. Smoking was correlated with low academic achievement among adolescents in all grades. Students who reported smoking by parents or siblings were significantly more likely to start smoking at an earlier age, compared to other students living in a non-smoking home environment. Smoking prevention program should include components focused on adolescents’ home environment and should start as early as the 4th grade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Gender Specific Differences in the Pros and Cons of Smoking among Current Smokers in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Future Smoking Cessation Interventions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5(4), 230-242; doi:10.3390/ijerph5040230
Received: 22 October 2008 / Accepted: 4 December 2008 / Published: 8 December 2008
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated gender differences in the perceived “pros” and “cons” of smoking using the constructs of decisional balance (DB) and stage of change from the Transtheoretical Model. The population distribution for stage of change among a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 155 [...] Read more.
This study investigated gender differences in the perceived “pros” and “cons” of smoking using the constructs of decisional balance (DB) and stage of change from the Transtheoretical Model. The population distribution for stage of change among a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 155 current smokers over 40 years was: precontemplation (22.6%), contemplation (41.9%), preparation (35.5%). Results of stepwise regression models indicated significant gender differences in DB were in the preparation stage of change; scores on the DB measure increased 3.94 points (95% CI: 1.94, 5.93) for male smokers. Interventions targeting the “pros” and “cons” of smoking may need to be gender specific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Biomarkers of Induced Active and Passive Smoking Damage
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(3), 874-888; doi:10.3390/ijerph6030874
Received: 23 December 2008 / Accepted: 20 February 2009 / Published: 26 February 2009
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In addition to thewell-known link between smoking and lung cancer, large epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between smoking and cancers of the nose, oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney, stomach, liver, colon and cervix, as well as myeloid leukemia. [...] Read more.
In addition to thewell-known link between smoking and lung cancer, large epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between smoking and cancers of the nose, oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, kidney, stomach, liver, colon and cervix, as well as myeloid leukemia. Epidemiological evidence has reported a direct link between exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke and disease, most notably, lung cancer. Much evidence demonstrates that carcinogenic-DNA adducts are useful markers of tobacco smoke exposure, providing an integrated measurement of carcinogen intake, metabolic activation, and delivery to the DNA in target tissues. Monitoring accessible surrogate tissues, such as white blood cells or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, also provides a means of investigating passive and active tobacco exposure in healthy individuals and cancer patients. Levels of DNA adducts measured in many tissues of smokers are significantly higher than in non-smokers. While some studies have demonstrated an association between carcinogenic DNA adducts and cancer in current smokers, no association has been observed in ex or never smokers. The role of genetic susceptibility in the development of smoking related-cancer is essential. In order to establish whether smoking-related DNA adducts are biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and/or its carcinogenic activity we summarized all data that associated tobacco smoke exposure and smoking-related DNA adducts both in controls and/or in cancer cases and studies where the effect of genetic polymorphisms involved in the activation and deactivation of carcinogens were also evaluated. In the future we hope we will be able to screen for lung cancer susceptibility by using specific biomarkers and that subjects of compared groups can be stratified for multiple potential modulators of biomarkers, taking into account various confounding factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)

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