E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Tetrodotoxin"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Peter C. Ruben (Website)

Department of Biomedical Physiology & Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada
Fax: +1 778 782 3040
Interests: voltage-gated ion channels; toxins; evolution

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Toxins, and their actions on target molecules, provide insight into predator/prey interactions, co-evolutionary arms races, molecular properties, and structure/function relationships. Toxins also hold promise for therapeutic interventions and serve as a template for rational drug design. Tetrodotoxin is a ubiquitous toxin with highly specific actions. Tetrodotoxin’s ability to block voltage-gated sodium channels has been a fruitful area of research for many years and has led to a number of insights from the molecular level through to the grand scale of evolution. It even has epicurean significance, sometimes with lethal results. Tetrodotoxin has been used as a tool to map the structure and the biophysical properties of voltage-gated sodium channels, and is routinely used to differentiate between sodium channel orthologs.

This special issue of the journal Marine Drugs focuses on tetrodotoxin and seeks to emphasize the importance of the toxin as a research tool, as a potential therapeutic agent, and as a key for understanding animal behavior and natural selection. It is my honor to serve as Guest Editor for this special issue, and to invite scientists to report recent advances on the full spectrum of research questions associated with tetrodotoxin. I eagerly anticipate working with you towards a successful special issue of Marine Drugs dedicated to this important toxin.

Prof. Dr. Peter Ruben
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • voltage-gated sodium channels
  • chemical defense
  • ionic currents
  • puffer fish
  • selectivity filter

Published Papers (18 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-18
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(2), 329-339; doi:10.3390/md10020329
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 14 January 2012 / Accepted: 18 January 2012 / Published: 3 February 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic ( < 1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessArticle Tetrodotoxin-Bupivacaine-Epinephrine Combinations for Prolonged Local Anesthesia
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(12), 2717-2728; doi:10.3390/md9122717
Received: 9 October 2011 / Revised: 18 November 2011 / Accepted: 21 November 2011 / Published: 15 December 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently available local anesthetics have analgesic durations in humans generally less than 12 hours. Prolonged-duration local anesthetics will be useful for postoperative analgesia. Previous studies showed that in rats, combinations of tetrodotoxin (TTX) with bupivacaine had supra-additive effects on sciatic block durations. In those studies, epinephrine combined with TTX prolonged blocks more than 10-fold, while reducing systemic toxicity. TTX, formulated as Tectin, is in phase III clinical trials as an injectable systemic analgesic for chronic cancer pain. Here, we examine dose-duration relationships and sciatic nerve histology following local nerve blocks with combinations of Tectin with bupivacaine 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL) solutions, with or without epinephrine 5 µg/mL (1:200,000) in rats. Percutaneous sciatic blockade was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats, and intensity and duration of sensory blockade was tested blindly with different Tectin-bupivacaine-epinephrine combinations. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc Sidak tests. Nerves were examined blindly for signs of injury. Blocks containing bupivacaine 0.25% with Tectin 10 µM and epinephrine 5 µg/mL were prolonged by roughly 3-fold compared to blocks with bupivacaine 0.25% plain (P < 0.001) or bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL (P < 0.001). Nerve histology was benign for all groups. Combinations of Tectin in bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL appear promising for prolonged duration of local anesthesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessArticle Tetrodotoxin Sensitivity of the Vertebrate Cardiac Na+ Current
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(11), 2409-2422; doi:10.3390/md9112409
Received: 20 September 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 10 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evolutionary origin and physiological significance of the tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance of the vertebrate cardiac Na+ current (INa) is still unresolved. To this end, TTX sensitivity of the cardiac INa was examined in cardiac myocytes of a cyclostome (lamprey), [...] Read more.
Evolutionary origin and physiological significance of the tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance of the vertebrate cardiac Na+ current (INa) is still unresolved. To this end, TTX sensitivity of the cardiac INa was examined in cardiac myocytes of a cyclostome (lamprey), three teleost fishes (crucian carp, burbot and rainbow trout), a clawed frog, a snake (viper) and a bird (quail). In lamprey, teleost fishes, frog and bird the cardiac INa was highly TTX-sensitive with EC50-values between 1.4 and 6.6 nmol·L−1. In the snake heart, about 80% of the INa was TTX-resistant with EC50 value of 0.65 μmol·L−1, the rest being TTX-sensitive (EC50 = 0.5 nmol·L−1). Although TTX-resistance of the cardiac INa appears to be limited to mammals and reptiles, the presence of TTX-resistant isoform of Na+ channel in the lamprey heart suggest an early evolutionary origin of the TTX-resistance, perhaps in the common ancestor of all vertebrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Isolation and Identification of a New Tetrodotoxin-Producing Bacterial Species, Raoultella terrigena, from Hong Kong Marine Puffer Fish Takifugu niphobles
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(11), 2384-2396; doi:10.3390/md9112384
Received: 24 September 2011 / Revised: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 4 November 2011 / Published: 14 November 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Puffer fish, Takifugu niphobles, collected from the Hong Kong coastal waters were screened for tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria. A Gram-negative, non-acid-fast, non-sporing and rod shaped bacterial strain (designated as gutB01) was isolated from the intestine of the puffer fish and was shown to [...] Read more.
Puffer fish, Takifugu niphobles, collected from the Hong Kong coastal waters were screened for tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria. A Gram-negative, non-acid-fast, non-sporing and rod shaped bacterial strain (designated as gutB01) was isolated from the intestine of the puffer fish and was shown to produce tetrodotoxin (TTX). Based on the Microbial Identification (MIDI) and 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) phylogenetic analysis, the strain was identified as Raoultella terrigena. The TTX production ability of the strain was confirmed by mouse bioassay, ELISA and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Our results reiterate that the TTX found in puffer fish was likely produced by the associated bacteria and TTX are widely produced amongst a diversity of bacterial species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessArticle LC/MS Analysis of Tetrodotoxin and Its Deoxy Analogs in the Marine Puffer Fish Fugu niphobles from the Southern Coast of Korea, and in the Brackishwater Puffer Fishes Tetraodon nigroviridis and Tetraodon biocellatus from Southeast Asia
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(4), 1049-1058; doi:10.3390/md8041049
Received: 9 February 2010 / Revised: 23 March 2010 / Accepted: 29 March 2010 / Published: 31 March 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its deoxy analogs, 5-deoxyTTX, 11-deoxyTTX, 6,11-dideoxyTTX, and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were quantified in the tissues of three female and three male specimens of the marine puffer fish, Fugu niphobles, from the southern coast of Korea, and in the whole body of [...] Read more.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its deoxy analogs, 5-deoxyTTX, 11-deoxyTTX, 6,11-dideoxyTTX, and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, were quantified in the tissues of three female and three male specimens of the marine puffer fish, Fugu niphobles, from the southern coast of Korea, and in the whole body of the brackishwater puffer fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis (12 specimens) and Tetrodon biocellatus (three specimens) from Southeast Asia using LC/MS in single ion mode (SIM). Identification of these four deoxy analogs in the ovarian tissue of F. niphobles were further confirmed by LC/MS/MS. TTX and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX were detected in all three puffer fish species as the major TTX analogs, similar to Japanese Fugu pardalis. While 6,11-dideoxyTTX was also found to be a major analog in almost all tissues of Korean F. niphobles, this analog was minor in the two Tetraodon species and Japanese F. pardalis. Among the tissues of F. niphobles, the concentrations of TTXs were highest in the ovaries (female) and skin (female and male). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessArticle Regulation of the Spontaneous Augmentation of NaV1.9 in Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons: Effect of PKA and PKC Pathways
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(3), 728-740; doi:10.3390/md8030728
Received: 15 January 2010 / Revised: 8 February 2010 / Accepted: 18 March 2010 / Published: 19 March 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion express two kinds of tetrodotoxin resistant (TTX-R) isoforms of voltage-gated sodium channels, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9. These isoforms play key roles in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Of special interest is Na [...] Read more.
Sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion express two kinds of tetrodotoxin resistant (TTX-R) isoforms of voltage-gated sodium channels, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9. These isoforms play key roles in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Of special interest is NaV1.9: our previous studies revealed a unique property of the NaV1.9 current, i.e., the NaV1.9 current shows a gradual and notable up-regulation of the peak amplitude during recording (“spontaneous augmentation of NaV1.9”). However, the mechanism underlying the spontaneous augmentation of NaV1.9 is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC), on the spontaneous augmentation of NaV1.9. The spontaneous augmentation of the NaV1.9 current was significantly suppressed by activation of PKA, whereas activation of PKA did not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation for the NaV1.9 current. On the contrary, the finding that activation of PKC can affect the voltage dependence of inactivation for NaV1.9 in the perforated patch recordings, where the augmentation does not occur, suggests that the effects of PMA are independent of the augmentation process. These results indicate that the spontaneous augmentation of NaV1.9 was regulated directly by PKA, and indirectly by PKC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessArticle Fluidic Force Discrimination Assays: A New Technology for Tetrodotoxin Detection
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(3), 565-576; doi:10.3390/md8030565
Received: 3 February 2010 / Revised: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 5 March 2010 / Published: 10 March 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a low molecular weight (~319 Da) neurotoxin found in a number of animal species, including pufferfish. Protection from toxin tainted food stuffs requires rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tests. An emerging technique for the detection of both proteins and [...] Read more.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a low molecular weight (~319 Da) neurotoxin found in a number of animal species, including pufferfish. Protection from toxin tainted food stuffs requires rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tests. An emerging technique for the detection of both proteins and nucleic acids is Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD) assays. This simple and rapid method typically uses a sandwich immunoassay format labeled with micrometer-diameter beads and has the novel capability of removing nonspecifically attached beads under controlled, fluidic conditions. This technique allows for near real-time, multiplexed analysis at levels of detection that exceed many of the conventional transduction methods (e.g., ELISAs). In addition, the large linear dynamic range afforded by FFD should decrease the need to perform multiple sample dilutions, a common challenge for food testing. By applying FFD assays to an inhibition immunoassay platform specific for TTX and transduction via low magnification microscopy, levels of detection of ~15 ng/mL and linear dynamic ranges of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude were achieved. The results from these studies on the first small molecule FFD assay, along with the impact to detection of seafood toxins, will be discussed in this manuscript. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Tetrodotoxin (TTX) as a Therapeutic Agent for Pain
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(2), 281-305; doi:10.3390/md10020281
Received: 30 December 2011 / Revised: 19 January 2012 / Accepted: 19 January 2012 / Published: 31 January 2012
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (1168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that blocks voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). VGSCs play a critical role in neuronal function under both physiological and pathological conditions. TTX has been extensively used to functionally characterize VGSCs, which can be classified as TTX-sensitive or [...] Read more.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that blocks voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). VGSCs play a critical role in neuronal function under both physiological and pathological conditions. TTX has been extensively used to functionally characterize VGSCs, which can be classified as TTX-sensitive or TTX-resistant channels according to their sensitivity to this toxin. Alterations in the expression and/or function of some specific TTX-sensitive VGSCs have been implicated in a number of chronic pain conditions. The administration of TTX at doses below those that interfere with the generation and conduction of action potentials in normal (non-injured) nerves has been used in humans and experimental animals under different pain conditions. These data indicate a role for TTX as a potential therapeutic agent for pain. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a potential analgesic role for TTX. In addition, the contribution of specific TTX-sensitive VGSCs to pain is reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Figures

Open AccessReview Tetrodotoxin as a Tool to Elucidate Sensory Transduction Mechanisms: The Case for the Arterial Chemoreceptors of the Carotid Body
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(12), 2683-2704; doi:10.3390/md9122683
Received: 22 September 2011 / Revised: 22 November 2011 / Accepted: 1 December 2011 / Published: 15 December 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carotid bodies (CBs) are secondary sensory receptors in which the sensing elements, chemoreceptor cells, are activated by decreases in arterial PO2 (hypoxic hypoxia). Upon activation, chemoreceptor cells (also known as Type I and glomus cells) increase their rate of release of [...] Read more.
Carotid bodies (CBs) are secondary sensory receptors in which the sensing elements, chemoreceptor cells, are activated by decreases in arterial PO2 (hypoxic hypoxia). Upon activation, chemoreceptor cells (also known as Type I and glomus cells) increase their rate of release of neurotransmitters that drive the sensory activity in the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) which ends in the brain stem where reflex responses are coordinated. When challenged with hypoxic hypoxia, the physiopathologically most relevant stimulus to the CBs, they are activated and initiate ventilatory and cardiocirculatory reflexes. Reflex increase in minute volume ventilation promotes CO2 removal from alveoli and a decrease in alveolar PCO2 ensues. Reduced alveolar PCO2 makes possible alveolar and arterial PO2 to increase minimizing the intensity of hypoxia. The ventilatory effect, in conjunction the cardiocirculatory components of the CB chemoreflex, tend to maintain an adequate supply of oxygen to the tissues. The CB has been the focus of attention since the discovery of its nature as a sensory organ by de Castro (1928) and the discovery of its function as the origin of ventilatory reflexes by Heymans group (1930). A great deal of effort has been focused on the study of the mechanisms involved in O2 detection. This review is devoted to this topic, mechanisms of oxygen sensing. Starting from a summary of the main theories evolving through the years, we will emphasize the nature and significance of the findings obtained with veratridine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the genesis of current models of O2-sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessReview Gustatory Detection of Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxin, and Its Competitive Inhibition by Quinine and Strychnine in Freshwater Fishes
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(11), 2283-2290; doi:10.3390/md9112283
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 31 October 2011 / Accepted: 1 November 2011 / Published: 8 November 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish detect extremely low levels of marine toxins tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) via the specialized gustatory receptor(s). Physiological and pharmacological studies show that receptor(s) for TTX and STX are distinct from those which detect feeding stimulant amino acids and bile acids, [...] Read more.
Fish detect extremely low levels of marine toxins tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) via the specialized gustatory receptor(s). Physiological and pharmacological studies show that receptor(s) for TTX and STX are distinct from those which detect feeding stimulant amino acids and bile acids, and that TTX and STX do not share the same receptor populations, while interacting with quinine and strychnine in a competitive fashion suggestive of an antidotal relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessReview Analytical Challenges: Determination of Tetrodotoxin in Human Urine and Plasma by LC-MS/MS
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(11), 2291-2303; doi:10.3390/md9112291
Received: 20 September 2011 / Revised: 27 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 8 November 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a powerful sodium channel blocker found in puffer fish and some marine animals. Cases of TTX poisoning most often result from puffer fish ingestion. Diagnosis is mainly from patient’s signs and symptoms or the detection of TTX in the [...] Read more.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a powerful sodium channel blocker found in puffer fish and some marine animals. Cases of TTX poisoning most often result from puffer fish ingestion. Diagnosis is mainly from patient’s signs and symptoms or the detection of TTX in the leftover food. If leftover food is unavailable, the determination of TTX in the patient’s urine and/or plasma is essential to confirm the diagnosis. Although various methods for the determination of TTX have been published, most of them are for food tissue samples. Dealing with human urine and blood samples is much more challenging. Unlike in food, the amount of toxin in the urine and blood of a patient is generally extremely low; therefore a very sensitive method is required to detect it. In this regard, mass spectrometry (MS) methods are the best choice. Since TTX is a very polar compound, there will be lack of retention on conventional reverse-phase columns; use of ion pair reagent or hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) can help solve this problem. The problem of ion suppression is another challenge in analyzing polar compound in biological samples. This review will discuss different MS methods and their pros and cons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessReview The Chemical Synthesis of Tetrodoxin: An Ongoing Quest
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(10), 2046-2074; doi:10.3390/md9102046
Received: 9 September 2011 / Revised: 29 September 2011 / Accepted: 11 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract This contribution reviews all the synthetic work on tetrodotoxin that has appeared in the literature through June 2011. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessReview The Tetrodotoxin Receptor of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels—Perspectives from Interactions with μ-Conotoxins
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2153-2161; doi:10.3390/md8072153
Received: 2 June 2010 / Revised: 24 June 2010 / Accepted: 25 June 2010 / Published: 13 July 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neurotoxin receptor site 1, in the outer vestibule of the conducting pore of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), was first functionally defined by its ability to bind the guanidinium-containing agents, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX). Subsequent studies showed that peptide μ-conotoxins competed for [...] Read more.
Neurotoxin receptor site 1, in the outer vestibule of the conducting pore of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), was first functionally defined by its ability to bind the guanidinium-containing agents, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX). Subsequent studies showed that peptide μ-conotoxins competed for binding at site 1. All of these natural inhibitors block single sodium channels in an all-or-none manner on binding. With the discovery of an increasing variety of μ-conotoxins, and the synthesis of numerous derivatives, observed interactions between the channel and these different ligands have become more complex. Certain μ-conotoxin derivatives block single-channel currents partially, rather than completely, thus enabling the demonstration of interactions between the bound toxin and the channel’s voltage sensor. Most recently, the relatively small μ-conotoxin KIIIA (16 amino acids) and its variants have been shown to bind simultaneously with TTX and exhibit both synergistic and antagonistic interactions with TTX. These interactions raise new pharmacological possibilities and place new constraints on the possible structures of the bound complexes of VGSCs with these toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessReview The Outer Vestibule of the Na+ Channel–Toxin Receptor and Modulator of Permeation as Well as Gating
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(4), 1373-1393; doi:10.3390/md8041373
Received: 3 February 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 19 April 2010 / Published: 21 April 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The outer vestibule of voltage-gated Na+ channels is formed by extracellular loops connecting the S5 and S6 segments of all four domains (“P-loops”), which fold back into the membrane. Classically, this structure has been implicated in the control of ion permeation [...] Read more.
The outer vestibule of voltage-gated Na+ channels is formed by extracellular loops connecting the S5 and S6 segments of all four domains (“P-loops”), which fold back into the membrane. Classically, this structure has been implicated in the control of ion permeation and in toxin blockage. However, conformational changes of the outer vestibule may also result in alterations in gating, as suggested by several P-loop mutations that gave rise to gating changes. Moreover, partial pore block by mutated toxins may reverse gating changes induced by mutations. Therefore, toxins that bind to the outer vestibule can be used to modulate channel gating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessReview Effects of Tetrodotoxin on the Mammalian Cardiovascular System
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(3), 741-762; doi:10.3390/md8030741
Received: 3 February 2010 / Revised: 11 February 2010 / Accepted: 18 March 2010 / Published: 19 March 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The human genome encodes nine functional voltage-gated Na+ channels. Three of them, namely Nav1.5, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9, are resistant to nanomolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin (TTX; IC50 ≥ 1 μM). The other isoforms, which are [...] Read more.
The human genome encodes nine functional voltage-gated Na+ channels. Three of them, namely Nav1.5, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9, are resistant to nanomolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin (TTX; IC50 ≥ 1 μM). The other isoforms, which are predominantly expressed in the skeletal muscle and nervous system, are highly sensitive to TTX (IC50 ~ 10 nM). During the last two decades, it has become evident that in addition to the major cardiac isoform Nav1.5, several of those TTX sensitive isoforms are expressed in the mammalian heart. Whereas immunohistochemical and electrophysiological methods demonstrated functional expression in various heart regions, the physiological importance of those isoforms for cardiac excitation in higher mammals is still debated. This review summarizes our knowledge on the systemic cardiovascular effects of TTX in animals and humans, with a special focus on cardiac excitation and performance at lower concentrations of this marine drug. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that TTX sensitive Na+ channels, detected more recently in various heart tissues, are not involved in excitation phenomena in the healthy adult heart of higher mammals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessReview The Chemical and Evolutionary Ecology of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) Toxicity in Terrestrial Vertebrates
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(3), 577-593; doi:10.3390/md8030577
Received: 24 February 2010 / Revised: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 8 March 2010 / Published: 10 March 2010
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is widely distributed in marine taxa, however in terrestrial taxa it is limited to a single class of vertebrates (Amphibia). Tetrodotoxin present in the skin and eggs of TTX-bearing amphibians primarily serves as an antipredator defense and these taxa have [...] Read more.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is widely distributed in marine taxa, however in terrestrial taxa it is limited to a single class of vertebrates (Amphibia). Tetrodotoxin present in the skin and eggs of TTX-bearing amphibians primarily serves as an antipredator defense and these taxa have provided excellent models for the study of the evolution and chemical ecology of TTX toxicity. The origin of TTX present in terrestrial vertebrates is controversial. In marine organisms the accepted hypothesis is that the TTX present in metazoans results from either dietary uptake of bacterially produced TTX or symbiosis with TTX producing bacteria, but this hypothesis may not be applicable to TTX-bearing amphibians. Here I review the taxonomic distribution and evolutionary ecology of TTX in amphibians with some attention to the origin of TTX present in these taxa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessReview Behavioral and Chemical Ecology of Marine Organisms with Respect to Tetrodotoxin
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(3), 381-398; doi:10.3390/md8030381
Received: 4 February 2010 / Revised: 24 February 2010 / Accepted: 25 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The behavioral and chemical ecology of marine organisms that possess tetrodotoxin (TTX) has not been comprehensively reviewed in one work to date. The evidence for TTX as an antipredator defense, as venom, as a sex pheromone, and as an attractant for TTX-sequestering [...] Read more.
The behavioral and chemical ecology of marine organisms that possess tetrodotoxin (TTX) has not been comprehensively reviewed in one work to date. The evidence for TTX as an antipredator defense, as venom, as a sex pheromone, and as an attractant for TTX-sequestering organisms is discussed. Little is known about the adaptive value of TTX in microbial producers; thus, I focus on what is known about metazoans that are purported to accumulate TTX through diet or symbioses. Much of what has been proposed is inferred based on the anatomical distribution of TTX. Direct empirical tests of these hypotheses are absent in most cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessReview The Tetrodotoxin Binding Site Is within the Outer Vestibule of the Sodium Channel
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(2), 219-234; doi:10.3390/md8020219
Received: 23 December 2009 / Revised: 10 January 2010 / Accepted: 28 January 2010 / Published: 1 February 2010
Cited by 55 | PDF Full-text (426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin are small, compact asymmetrical marine toxins that block voltage-gated Na channels with high affinity and specificity. They enter the channel pore’s outer vestibule and bind to multiple residues that control permeation. Radiolabeled toxins were key contributors to channel protein [...] Read more.
Tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin are small, compact asymmetrical marine toxins that block voltage-gated Na channels with high affinity and specificity. They enter the channel pore’s outer vestibule and bind to multiple residues that control permeation. Radiolabeled toxins were key contributors to channel protein purification and subsequent cloning. They also helped identify critical structural elements called P loops. Spacial organization of their mutation-identified interaction sites in molecular models has generated a molecular image of the TTX binding site in the outer vestibule and the critical permeation and selectivity features of this region. One site in the channel’s domain I P loop determines affinity differences in mammalian isoforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Marine Drugs Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
marinedrugs@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Marine Drugs
Back to Top