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Special Issue "Corrosion and Tribology of Biomaterials Used in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Saverio Affatato

Medical Technology Laboratory, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the orthopedics field, the necessity to wear a prosthesis is a significant clinical problem that sadly too many patients have to adapt to.

Careful evaluation of the clinical data available is required in order to fully assess existing strengths and weaknesses and improve the quality and outcomes in hip/knee replacements. Patients needing arthroplasty have become and continue to become younger. Each year there are over a million cases of patients requiring hip and knee arthroplasty, therefore implants and materials used must be of a highly durable quality, particularly as regards wear resistance. Total joint arthroplasty should be based on extensive research and clinical trials in order to obtain the best possible results. During the last two decades new implant designs, articulating bearings, implant modalities, kinematic concepts and surgical treatments have been put forward, but not all of them have proven beneficial with regard to appropriate in vivo service, patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. Dedicated corrosion tests and tribological considerations of biomaterials used in this field would provide more knowledge about the complex implant–body-interactions and provide valuable input on implant design, material degradation and adverse side effects in vivo, to create sustainable arthroplasty technologies for the future.

Dr. Saverio Affatato
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Wear
  • Tribology
  • Biomaterials
  • Finite Element Model
  • Hip simulation
  • Knee simulation
  • Ceramic
  • Metal
  • UHMWPE
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Micro-CT analyses
  • SEM
  • Corrosion
  • Metallurgy
  • Particle debris
  • Biological media

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Wear Performance of Calcium Carbonate-Containing Knee Spacers
Materials 2017, 10(7), 805; doi:10.3390/ma10070805
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
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Abstract
Articulating spacers should be wear-resistant and load-bearing to avoid prolonged immobilization of the patient and to reduce morbidity. However, due to the articulation of both components, a release of cement wear particles is to be expected. The aim of this study was to
[...] Read more.
Articulating spacers should be wear-resistant and load-bearing to avoid prolonged immobilization of the patient and to reduce morbidity. However, due to the articulation of both components, a release of cement wear particles is to be expected. The aim of this study was to investigate the wear performance of a new spacer cement that contains calcium carbonate as a radio-opaque substance, in comparison to an established barium sulphate-containing spacer material, and also to characterize the amount, morphology, and size distributions of the released cement particles in detail. Force-controlled simulation was carried out on an AMTI knee simulator. The test parameters were in accordance with the standard ISO 14243-1 with a 50% reduced axial force. Tests were run for 500,000 cycles at a frequency of 1 Hz. For wear analysis, photographic documentation of the wear scars, gravimetric wear measurements and wear particle analysis were performed. The barium sulphate spacer material showed a total articular wear of 375.53 ± 161.22 mg. For the calcium carbonate-containing cement, reduced articular wear of 136.32 ± 37.58 mg was determined. Isolated cement wear particles of the barium sulphate-containing cement had a diameter of 0.429 ± 0.224 μm and were significantly larger compared to the calcium carbonate-containing cement (0.380 ± 0.216 μm, p = 0.02). The calcium carbonate-containing cement showed better wear performance in terms of gravimetric wear and particle release. Thus, calcium carbonate seems to be a promising material as a radio-opaque substrate in cement spacers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Metal Ion Exposure on the Cellular Behavior of Human Osteoblasts and PBMCs: In Vitro Analyses of Osteolytic Processes
Materials 2017, 10(7), 734; doi:10.3390/ma10070734
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Osteolysis in the periprosthetic tissue can be caused by metallic wear particles and ions that can originate from implant surface corrosion. These products influence cellular behavior and stimulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact
[...] Read more.
Osteolysis in the periprosthetic tissue can be caused by metallic wear particles and ions that can originate from implant surface corrosion. These products influence cellular behavior and stimulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of CoCr29Mo6 ions on cell survival, differentiation, and cytokine expression in human osteoblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Thus, we exposed cells with a mixture of 200 µg/L ion solution and determined cell viability and apoptosis/necrosis. Gene expression analyses of osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation markers as well as pro-osteolytic mediators (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1, MMP1, TIMP1) were performed. These markers were also investigated in mixed cultures of adherent and non-adherent PBMCs as well as in co-cultures of human osteoblasts and PBMCs. The ion solution induced necrosis in osteoblasts and PBMCs in single cultures. All examined mediators were highly expressed in the co-culture of osteoblasts and PBMCs whereas in the single cell cultures only IL-6, IL-8, and MMP1 were found to be stimulated. While the applied concentration of the CoCr29Mo6 ion solutions had only marginal effects on human osteoblasts and PBMCs alone, the co-culture may provide a comprehensive model to study osteolytic processes in response to Co and Cr ions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Raman and Photoemission Spectroscopic Analyses of Explanted Biolox® Delta Femoral Heads Showing Metal Transfer
Materials 2017, 10(7), 744; doi:10.3390/ma10070744
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
PDF Full-text (6294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Biolox® delta has been widely used in joint replacements thanks to its high strength and wear resistance. In this study, eleven Biolox® delta femoral head retrievals affected by metal transfer (MT) were analysed by Raman spectroscopy to estimate the tetragonal to
[...] Read more.
Biolox® delta has been widely used in joint replacements thanks to its high strength and wear resistance. In this study, eleven Biolox® delta femoral head retrievals affected by metal transfer (MT) were analysed by Raman spectroscopy to estimate the tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase transformation, whose occurrence may compromise ceramic chemical stability and mechanical strength. The residual stress state was evaluated by both Raman and photoemission spectroscopy. Vm monoclinic zirconia contents were higher near the centre of the articulating surface and in the MT area than in the border control area of the retrievals. In only one retrieval, stress related to MT appeared a more severe condition, able to induce zirconia phase transformation; for all the others, stresses related to loading in the central region and related to MT, were conducive to a zirconia phase transformation of nearly the same extent. Vm depth profiling analyses showed that the transformation involved different thicknesses in different samples. Raman data allowed for the investigation of the mechanism of zirconia phase transformation and confirmed that the growth stage was absent and the nucleation stage was not occurring as freely as it would in unconstrained zirconia. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle In Vivo Damage of the Head-Neck Junction in Hard-on-Hard Total Hip Replacements: Effect of Femoral Head Size, Metal Combination, and 12/14 Taper Design
Materials 2017, 10(7), 733; doi:10.3390/ma10070733
Received: 7 May 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
PDF Full-text (4915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage
[...] Read more.
Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage level, implant design, material combination, and patient characteristics. Head-neck junctions of 148 retrieved implants were analysed, including both ceramic-on-ceramic (N = 61) and metal-on-metal (N = 87) bearings. In all cases, the male taper was made of titanium alloy. Damage was evaluated using a four-point scoring system based on damage morphology and extension. Patient age at implantation, implantation time, damage risk factor, and serum ion concentration were considered as independent potential predicting variables. The damage risk factor summarises head-neck design characteristics and junction loading condition. Junction damage correlated with both implantation time and damage factor risk when the head was made of ceramic. A poor correlation was found when the head was made of cobalt alloy. The fretting-corrosion phenomenon seemed mainly mechanically regulated, at least when cobalt alloy components were not involved. When a component was made of cobalt alloy, the role of chemical phenomena increased, likely becoming, over implantation time, the damage driving phenomena of highly stressed junctions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ageing, Shocks and Wear Mechanisms in ZTA and the Long-Term Performance of Hip Joint Materials
Materials 2017, 10(6), 569; doi:10.3390/ma10060569
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
The surface morphologies and microstructures of Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) femoral heads were analyzed following in vitro tests aiming to simulate in vivo degradation. Three phenomena potentially leading to degradation were investigated: shocks, friction and hydrothermal ageing. Shocks due to micro-separation created the
[...] Read more.
The surface morphologies and microstructures of Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) femoral heads were analyzed following in vitro tests aiming to simulate in vivo degradation. Three phenomena potentially leading to degradation were investigated: shocks, friction and hydrothermal ageing. Shocks due to micro-separation created the main damage with the formation of wear stripes on the femoral head surfaces. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images suggested the release of wear debris of various shapes and sizes through inter- and intra-granular cracks; some debris may have a size lower than 100 nm. A decrease in hardness and Young’s modulus was measured within the wear stripes by nanoindentation technique and was attributed to the presence of surface and sub-surface micro-cracks. Such micro-cracks mechanically triggered the zirconia phase transformation in those worn areas, which in return presumably reduced further crack propagation. In comparison with shocks, friction caused little wear degradation as observed from AFM images by scarce pullout of grains. The long-term resistance of the ZTA composite material against hydrothermal ageing is confirmed by the present observations. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle New Challenges in Tribology: Wear Assessment Using 3D Optical Scanners
Materials 2017, 10(5), 548; doi:10.3390/ma10050548
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
Wear is a significant mechanical and clinical problem. To acquire further knowledge on the tribological phenomena that involve freeform mechanical components or medical prostheses, wear tests are performed on biomedical and industrial materials in order to solve or reduce failures or malfunctions due
[...] Read more.
Wear is a significant mechanical and clinical problem. To acquire further knowledge on the tribological phenomena that involve freeform mechanical components or medical prostheses, wear tests are performed on biomedical and industrial materials in order to solve or reduce failures or malfunctions due to material loss. Scientific and technological advances in the field of optical scanning allow the application of innovative devices for wear measurements, leading to improvements that were unimaginable until a few years ago. It is therefore important to develop techniques, based on new instrumentations, for more accurate and reproducible measurements of wear. The aim of this work is to discuss the use of innovative 3D optical scanners and an experimental procedure to detect and evaluate wear, comparing this technique with other wear evaluation methods for industrial components and biomedical devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro versus In Vivo Phase Instability of Zirconia-Toughened Alumina Femoral Heads: A Critical Comparative Assessment
Materials 2017, 10(5), 466; doi:10.3390/ma10050466
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A clear discrepancy between predicted in vitro and actual in vivo surface phase stability of BIOLOX®delta zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads has been demonstrated by several independent research groups. Data from retrievals challenge the validity of the standard method currently utilized
[...] Read more.
A clear discrepancy between predicted in vitro and actual in vivo surface phase stability of BIOLOX®delta zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads has been demonstrated by several independent research groups. Data from retrievals challenge the validity of the standard method currently utilized in evaluating surface stability and raise a series of important questions: (1) Why do in vitro hydrothermal aging treatments conspicuously fail to model actual results from the in vivo environment? (2) What is the preponderant microscopic phenomenon triggering the accelerated transformation in vivo? (3) Ultimately, what revisions of the current in vitro standard are needed in order to obtain consistent predictions of ZTA transformation kinetics in vivo? Reported in this paper is a new in toto method for visualizing the surface stability of femoral heads. It is based on CAD-assisted Raman spectroscopy to quantitatively assess the phase transformation observed in ZTA retrievals. Using a series of independent analytical probes, an evaluation of the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the polymorphic transformation is also provided. An outline is given of the possible ways in which the current hydrothermal simulation standard for artificial joints can be improved in an attempt to reduce the gap between in vitro simulation and reality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wear Distribution Detection of Knee Joint Prostheses by Means of 3D Optical Scanners
Materials 2017, 10(4), 364; doi:10.3390/ma10040364
Received: 16 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine total knee polyethylene inserts from in vitro simulation to evaluate and display—using a 3D optical scanner—wear patterns and wear rates of inserts exposed to wear by means of simulators. Various sets of tibial inserts have
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine total knee polyethylene inserts from in vitro simulation to evaluate and display—using a 3D optical scanner—wear patterns and wear rates of inserts exposed to wear by means of simulators. Various sets of tibial inserts have been reconstructed by using optical scanners. With this in mind, the wear behavior of fixed and mobile bearing polyethylene knee configurations was investigated using a knee wear joint simulator. After the completion of the wear test, the polyethylene menisci were analyzed by an innovative 3D optical scanners in order to evaluate the 3D wear distribution on the prosthesis surface. This study implemented a new procedure for evaluating polyethylene bearings of joint prostheses obtained after in vitro wear tests and the proposed new approach allowed quantification of the contact zone on the geometry of total knee prostheses. The results of the present study showed that mobile TKPs (total knee prosthesis) have lower wear resistance with respect to fixed TKPs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quantification of Wear and Deformation in Different Configurations of Polyethylene Acetabular Cups Using Micro X-ray Computed Tomography
Materials 2017, 10(3), 259; doi:10.3390/ma10030259
Received: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Wear is currently quantified as mass loss of the bearing materials measured using gravimetric methods. However, this method does not provide other information, such as volumetric loss or surface deviation. In this work, we validated a technique to quantify polyethylene wear in three
[...] Read more.
Wear is currently quantified as mass loss of the bearing materials measured using gravimetric methods. However, this method does not provide other information, such as volumetric loss or surface deviation. In this work, we validated a technique to quantify polyethylene wear in three different batches of ultrahigh-molecular-polyethylene acetabular cups used for hip implants using nondestructive microcomputed tomography. Three different configurations of polyethylene acetabular cups, previously tested under the ISO 14242 parameters, were tested on a hip simulator for an additional 2 million cycles using a modified ISO 14242 load waveform. In this context, a new approach was proposed in order to simulate, on a hip joint simulator, high-demand activities. In addition, the effects of these activities were analyzed in terms of wear and deformations of those polyethylenes by means of gravimetric method and micro X-ray computed tomography. In particular, while the gravimetric method was used for weight loss assessment, microcomputed tomography allowed for acquisition of additional quantitative information about the evolution of local wear and deformation through three-dimensional surface deviation maps for the entire cups’ surface. Experimental results showed that the wear and deformation behavior of these materials change according to different mechanical simulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Analytical Calculation of Frictional and Bending Moments at the Head-Neck Interface of Hip Joint Implants during Different Physiological Activities
Materials 2016, 9(12), 982; doi:10.3390/ma9120982
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study predicts the frictional moments at the head-cup interface and frictional torques and bending moments acting on the head-neck interface of a modular total hip replacement across a range of activities of daily living. The predicted moment and torque profiles are based
[...] Read more.
This study predicts the frictional moments at the head-cup interface and frictional torques and bending moments acting on the head-neck interface of a modular total hip replacement across a range of activities of daily living. The predicted moment and torque profiles are based on the kinematics of four patients and the implant characteristics of a metal-on-metal implant. Depending on the body weight and type of activity, the moments and torques had significant variations in both magnitude and direction over the activity cycles. For the nine investigated activities, the maximum magnitude of the frictional moment ranged from 2.6 to 7.1 Nm. The maximum magnitude of the torque acting on the head-neck interface ranged from 2.3 to 5.7 Nm. The bending moment acting on the head-neck interface varied from 7 to 21.6 Nm. One-leg-standing had the widest range of frictional torque on the head-neck interface (11 Nm) while normal walking had the smallest range (6.1 Nm). The widest range, together with the maximum magnitude of torque, bending moment, and frictional moment, occurred during one-leg-standing of the lightest patient. Most of the simulated activities resulted in frictional torques that were near the previously reported oxide layer depassivation threshold torque. The predicted bending moments were also found at a level believed to contribute to the oxide layer depassivation. The calculated magnitudes and directions of the moments, applied directly to the head-neck taper junction, provide realistic mechanical loading data for in vitro and computational studies on the mechanical behaviour and multi-axial fretting at the head-neck interface. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tribocorrosion Failure Mechanism of TiN/SiOx Duplex Coating Deposited on AISI304 Stainless Steel
Materials 2016, 9(12), 963; doi:10.3390/ma9120963
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 26 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
TiN/SiOx duplex coatings were synthesized on AISI304 stainless steel by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) followed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). The microstructure and tribocorrosion failure behaviors of the duplex coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,
[...] Read more.
TiN/SiOx duplex coatings were synthesized on AISI304 stainless steel by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) followed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). The microstructure and tribocorrosion failure behaviors of the duplex coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, reciprocating-sliding tribometer, and electrochemical tests. The as-deposited duplex coating had a two-layered columnar growth structure consisting of face-centered cubic TiN and amorphous SiOx. Sliding tests showed that the TiN interlayer had good adhesion with the substrate, but the SiOx layer suffered from severe delamination failure. Friction force induced a number of micro-cracks in the coating, which provided channels for the diffusion of NaCl solution. The tribocorrosion test showed that the duplex coating exhibited a lower wear-performance in NaCl solution than in ambient atmosphere. Multi-scale chloride ion corrosion occurred simultaneously and substantially degraded the bonding strength of the columnar crystals or neighboring layers. Force-corrosion synergy damage eventually led to multi-degradation failure of the duplex coating. The presented results provide a comprehensive understanding of the tribocorrosion failure mechanism in coatings with duplex architecture. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene: Influence of the Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties on the Wear Behavior. A Review
Materials 2017, 10(7), 791; doi:10.3390/ma10070791
Received: 17 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
PDF Full-text (3371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the most common bearing material in total joint arthroplasty due to its unique combination of superior mechanical properties and wear resistance over other polymers. A great deal of research in recent decades has focused on further improving
[...] Read more.
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the most common bearing material in total joint arthroplasty due to its unique combination of superior mechanical properties and wear resistance over other polymers. A great deal of research in recent decades has focused on further improving its performances, in order to provide durable implants in young and active patients. From “historical”, gamma-air sterilized polyethylenes, to the so-called first and second generation of highly crosslinked materials, a variety of different formulations have progressively appeared in the market. This paper reviews the structure–properties relationship of these materials, with a particular emphasis on the in vitro and in vivo wear performances, through an analysis of the existing literature. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Understanding the wear degradation mechanisms on ZTA hip joints and potential consequences on the long-term performance in vivo
Author: Jérôme Chevalier
Abstract: The current study focuses on the analysis of Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) femoral heads following in vitro tests. Three sources potentially leading to degradation were investigated: shocks, friction and hydrothermal ageing. Shocks due to micro-separation created the main damage with the formation of wear stripes on the femoral head surfaces. AFM images suggested the release of wear debris of various shapes and sizes through inter- and intra-granular fractures. Debris may have an average size lower than hundred nm. A decrease of ~10% in hardness was measured within the wear stripes by nanoindentation technique (the Young’s modulus remained unchanged) and was attributed to the presence of micro-cracks, detectable on cross-section planes by DB-FIB microscope. The formation and propagation of micro-cracks were controlled by toughening mechanisms associated with zirconia phase transformation; this presumably prevented the risk of rupture. In comparison with shocks, friction caused little wear degradation from AFM images. It is symbolized by a few pull-outs of grains. The as-formed composite material confirmed its long-term stability against hydrothermal aging.

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