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Special Issue "Corrosion and Tribology of Biomaterials Used in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Saverio Affatato

Medical Technology Laboratory, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the orthopedics field, the necessity to wear a prosthesis is a significant clinical problem that sadly too many patients have to adapt to.

Careful evaluation of the clinical data available is required in order to fully assess existing strengths and weaknesses and improve the quality and outcomes in hip/knee replacements. Patients needing arthroplasty have become and continue to become younger. Each year there are over a million cases of patients requiring hip and knee arthroplasty, therefore implants and materials used must be of a highly durable quality, particularly as regards wear resistance. Total joint arthroplasty should be based on extensive research and clinical trials in order to obtain the best possible results. During the last two decades new implant designs, articulating bearings, implant modalities, kinematic concepts and surgical treatments have been put forward, but not all of them have proven beneficial with regard to appropriate in vivo service, patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. Dedicated corrosion tests and tribological considerations of biomaterials used in this field would provide more knowledge about the complex implant–body-interactions and provide valuable input on implant design, material degradation and adverse side effects in vivo, to create sustainable arthroplasty technologies for the future.

Dr. Saverio Affatato
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Wear
  • Tribology
  • Biomaterials
  • Finite Element Model
  • Hip simulation
  • Knee simulation
  • Ceramic
  • Metal
  • UHMWPE
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Micro-CT analyses
  • SEM
  • Corrosion
  • Metallurgy
  • Particle debris
  • Biological media

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle In Vitro versus In Vivo Phase Instability of Zirconia-Toughened Alumina Femoral Heads: A Critical Comparative Assessment
Materials 2017, 10(5), 466; doi:10.3390/ma10050466
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
A clear discrepancy between predicted in vitro and actual in vivo surface phase stability of BIOLOX®delta zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads has been demonstrated by several independent research groups. Data from retrievals challenge the validity of the standard method currently utilized
[...] Read more.
A clear discrepancy between predicted in vitro and actual in vivo surface phase stability of BIOLOX®delta zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads has been demonstrated by several independent research groups. Data from retrievals challenge the validity of the standard method currently utilized in evaluating surface stability and raise a series of important questions: (1) Why do in vitro hydrothermal aging treatments conspicuously fail to model actual results from the in vivo environment? (2) What is the preponderant microscopic phenomenon triggering the accelerated transformation in vivo? (3) Ultimately, what revisions of the current in vitro standard are needed in order to obtain consistent predictions of ZTA transformation kinetics in vivo? Reported in this paper is a new in toto method for visualizing the surface stability of femoral heads. It is based on CAD-assisted Raman spectroscopy to quantitatively assess the phase transformation observed in ZTA retrievals. Using a series of independent analytical probes, an evaluation of the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the polymorphic transformation is also provided. An outline is given of the possible ways in which the current hydrothermal simulation standard for artificial joints can be improved in an attempt to reduce the gap between in vitro simulation and reality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wear Distribution Detection of Knee Joint Prostheses by Means of 3D Optical Scanners
Materials 2017, 10(4), 364; doi:10.3390/ma10040364
Received: 16 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine total knee polyethylene inserts from in vitro simulation to evaluate and display—using a 3D optical scanner—wear patterns and wear rates of inserts exposed to wear by means of simulators. Various sets of tibial inserts have
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine total knee polyethylene inserts from in vitro simulation to evaluate and display—using a 3D optical scanner—wear patterns and wear rates of inserts exposed to wear by means of simulators. Various sets of tibial inserts have been reconstructed by using optical scanners. With this in mind, the wear behavior of fixed and mobile bearing polyethylene knee configurations was investigated using a knee wear joint simulator. After the completion of the wear test, the polyethylene menisci were analyzed by an innovative 3D optical scanners in order to evaluate the 3D wear distribution on the prosthesis surface. This study implemented a new procedure for evaluating polyethylene bearings of joint prostheses obtained after in vitro wear tests and the proposed new approach allowed quantification of the contact zone on the geometry of total knee prostheses. The results of the present study showed that mobile TKPs (total knee prosthesis) have lower wear resistance with respect to fixed TKPs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quantification of Wear and Deformation in Different Configurations of Polyethylene Acetabular Cups Using Micro X-ray Computed Tomography
Materials 2017, 10(3), 259; doi:10.3390/ma10030259
Received: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Wear is currently quantified as mass loss of the bearing materials measured using gravimetric methods. However, this method does not provide other information, such as volumetric loss or surface deviation. In this work, we validated a technique to quantify polyethylene wear in three
[...] Read more.
Wear is currently quantified as mass loss of the bearing materials measured using gravimetric methods. However, this method does not provide other information, such as volumetric loss or surface deviation. In this work, we validated a technique to quantify polyethylene wear in three different batches of ultrahigh-molecular-polyethylene acetabular cups used for hip implants using nondestructive microcomputed tomography. Three different configurations of polyethylene acetabular cups, previously tested under the ISO 14242 parameters, were tested on a hip simulator for an additional 2 million cycles using a modified ISO 14242 load waveform. In this context, a new approach was proposed in order to simulate, on a hip joint simulator, high-demand activities. In addition, the effects of these activities were analyzed in terms of wear and deformations of those polyethylenes by means of gravimetric method and micro X-ray computed tomography. In particular, while the gravimetric method was used for weight loss assessment, microcomputed tomography allowed for acquisition of additional quantitative information about the evolution of local wear and deformation through three-dimensional surface deviation maps for the entire cups’ surface. Experimental results showed that the wear and deformation behavior of these materials change according to different mechanical simulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Analytical Calculation of Frictional and Bending Moments at the Head-Neck Interface of Hip Joint Implants during Different Physiological Activities
Materials 2016, 9(12), 982; doi:10.3390/ma9120982
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
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Abstract
This study predicts the frictional moments at the head-cup interface and frictional torques and bending moments acting on the head-neck interface of a modular total hip replacement across a range of activities of daily living. The predicted moment and torque profiles are based
[...] Read more.
This study predicts the frictional moments at the head-cup interface and frictional torques and bending moments acting on the head-neck interface of a modular total hip replacement across a range of activities of daily living. The predicted moment and torque profiles are based on the kinematics of four patients and the implant characteristics of a metal-on-metal implant. Depending on the body weight and type of activity, the moments and torques had significant variations in both magnitude and direction over the activity cycles. For the nine investigated activities, the maximum magnitude of the frictional moment ranged from 2.6 to 7.1 Nm. The maximum magnitude of the torque acting on the head-neck interface ranged from 2.3 to 5.7 Nm. The bending moment acting on the head-neck interface varied from 7 to 21.6 Nm. One-leg-standing had the widest range of frictional torque on the head-neck interface (11 Nm) while normal walking had the smallest range (6.1 Nm). The widest range, together with the maximum magnitude of torque, bending moment, and frictional moment, occurred during one-leg-standing of the lightest patient. Most of the simulated activities resulted in frictional torques that were near the previously reported oxide layer depassivation threshold torque. The predicted bending moments were also found at a level believed to contribute to the oxide layer depassivation. The calculated magnitudes and directions of the moments, applied directly to the head-neck taper junction, provide realistic mechanical loading data for in vitro and computational studies on the mechanical behaviour and multi-axial fretting at the head-neck interface. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tribocorrosion Failure Mechanism of TiN/SiOx Duplex Coating Deposited on AISI304 Stainless Steel
Materials 2016, 9(12), 963; doi:10.3390/ma9120963
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 26 November 2016
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Abstract
TiN/SiOx duplex coatings were synthesized on AISI304 stainless steel by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) followed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). The microstructure and tribocorrosion failure behaviors of the duplex coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,
[...] Read more.
TiN/SiOx duplex coatings were synthesized on AISI304 stainless steel by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) followed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). The microstructure and tribocorrosion failure behaviors of the duplex coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, reciprocating-sliding tribometer, and electrochemical tests. The as-deposited duplex coating had a two-layered columnar growth structure consisting of face-centered cubic TiN and amorphous SiOx. Sliding tests showed that the TiN interlayer had good adhesion with the substrate, but the SiOx layer suffered from severe delamination failure. Friction force induced a number of micro-cracks in the coating, which provided channels for the diffusion of NaCl solution. The tribocorrosion test showed that the duplex coating exhibited a lower wear-performance in NaCl solution than in ambient atmosphere. Multi-scale chloride ion corrosion occurred simultaneously and substantially degraded the bonding strength of the columnar crystals or neighboring layers. Force-corrosion synergy damage eventually led to multi-degradation failure of the duplex coating. The presented results provide a comprehensive understanding of the tribocorrosion failure mechanism in coatings with duplex architecture. Full article
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Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Understanding the wear degradation mechanisms on ZTA hip joints and potential consequences on the long-term performance in vivo
Author: Jérôme Chevalier
Abstract: The current study focuses on the analysis of Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) femoral heads following in vitro tests. Three sources potentially leading to degradation were investigated: shocks, friction and hydrothermal ageing. Shocks due to micro-separation created the main damage with the formation of wear stripes on the femoral head surfaces. AFM images suggested the release of wear debris of various shapes and sizes through inter- and intra-granular fractures. Debris may have an average size lower than hundred nm. A decrease of ~10% in hardness was measured within the wear stripes by nanoindentation technique (the Young’s modulus remained unchanged) and was attributed to the presence of micro-cracks, detectable on cross-section planes by DB-FIB microscope. The formation and propagation of micro-cracks were controlled by toughening mechanisms associated with zirconia phase transformation; this presumably prevented the risk of rupture. In comparison with shocks, friction caused little wear degradation from AFM images. It is symbolized by a few pull-outs of grains. The as-formed composite material confirmed its long-term stability against hydrothermal aging.

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