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Special Issue "Functional Colorants"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Zhi-Min Hao

Brennerstrasse 60, CH-4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
E-Mail
Interests: pigments; functional chromophores; latent pigments; pigment modifications; pigment solid state characteristics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Colorants played an important role in the early development of chemical industry as well as the organic chemistry as a scientific discipline.

Indeed, dyestuffs were central to the first Industrial Revolution, which began in the late 18th century with the mechanization of the textile industries. The rapid spread of cotton mills, and increased productivity in textile manufacturing, encouraged chemists to investigate the composition of natural dyes. They gave the scientific name alizarin to the natural colorant obtained from madder wood extract, which is the basic compound for Turkey Red.

Dyes also played a prominent role in the second Industrial Revolution, when the quest for synthetic colorants led to the development of science-based industry.

The discovery of Mauveine, the first of the modern synthetic dyes, by William Henry Perkin in 1856 marked the beginning of the synthetic dye industry. It stimulated the colorant research by many other chemists. Of particular interest are the discoveries of diazotization and diazo compounds by P. Griess in 1858, Fuchsine by E. Verguin in 1859, and the production of synthetic alizarin (1869) and indigo (1897). In 1875, Otto N. Witt proposed a theory of color and constitution, with the concept of chromophores and auxochromes, which is still used in modern days.

The work by August von Kekulé on the quadric-valence of carbon in 1858, and on the benzene constitution in 1865, paved the way for the analysis, design and synthesis of organic dyes. Armed with the knowledge, C. Graebe and A. Liebermann were successful in the structural elucidation (1868) and subsequent synthesis of alizarin, the key component in the metal complex dye Turkey Red. They were then followed by the structural elucidation (A. von Baeyer, 1883) and the synthesis (K. Heumann, 1890) of indigo.

The development of the synthetic dye industry led to the emergence of classical organic chemistry, which in turn found rapid application in industry. From the end of the nineteenth century the intermediates employed in the manufacture of synthetic dyes found also use in making pharmaceutical products such as aspirin. Some synthetic dyes exhibited bactericidal properties; they were called medicinal dyes. Sulfonamides, drugs introduced in the 1930s, are actually based on research into dyestuffs and their intermediates. Certain classes of dyes have made color photography possible. A close look at the history of chemical industries would reveal a fact that many chemical companies started their business as dyestuff manufacturers in the early days.

The industries of colorants have reached the maturity phase of the life cycle. Like many other mature sectors of the specialty chemicals industry, colorant industries are facing challenges. The past three decades have seen a steady decline in new introductions of dyestuffs for the textile industry, the principal user of dyes. In addition to the maturity factor, in more recent times, there have been increasing impact of energy and raw material cost, and the introduction of stringent toxicological test requirements for new products due to ecological and environmental concerns. As a result, the colorant industries are currently undergoing restructuring and consolidation, and this is likely to continue in the foreseeable future.

On the other hand, there are also plenty of opportunities, especially in those non-traditional application areas where colorants are needed. As a matter of fact, dyes and pigments are today no longer used only for the coloration of textiles, plastics, paints, inks and lacquers but serve as key components in high-tech applications such as reprographics, optical data storage, display devices, dye sensitized solar cells, energy transfer cascades, light emitting diodes, laser welding processes or heat management systems. Dyes are also of growing importance in the medical and biomedical fields. It is interesting to note that in a number of such non-traditional applications, the color is largely irrelevant. It is the ability of the colorants to absorb visible electromagnetic radiation with high efficiency, or other functional property, that is exploited.

Human beings have the intrinsic desire to improve the quality of life. The insatiable demand for better life is one of the key driving forces behind the technological development. What was hard for the average man to imagine yesterday is in every day use today. To move toward a better future, we need to create and develop new materials with new effects for new applications. New colorants are to be designed for desirable functional properties. New functional colorants for non-traditional applications will be the future of innovative colorant research activities, and we look forward to contributions from those areas.

Dr. Zhi-Min Hao

Guest Editor

Keywords

  • functional dyes
  • functional colorants
  • colorants for high-tech applications
  • dyes for high-tech applications
  • chromophores for displays
  • dyes for solar cells
  • dyes for optical information storage
  • dyes for sensing system

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Syntheses and Functional Properties of Phthalocyanines
Materials 2009, 2(3), 1127-1179; doi:10.3390/ma2031127
Received: 27 June 2009 / Revised: 19 August 2009 / Accepted: 24 August 2009 / Published: 28 August 2009
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metal phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acids, metal phthalocyanine octacarboxylic acids, metal octakis(hexyloxymethyl)phthalocyanines, and metal anthraquinocyanines have been synthesized. Then, zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(3,4-pyrido)porphyrazines, the cyclotetramerization products of a 1:1 mixture of 3,6-didecylphthalonitrile and 3,4-dicyanopyridine, were synthesized. Futher, subphthalocyanine and its derivatives, with substituents such as thiobutyl and
[...] Read more.
Metal phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acids, metal phthalocyanine octacarboxylic acids, metal octakis(hexyloxymethyl)phthalocyanines, and metal anthraquinocyanines have been synthesized. Then, zinc bis(1,4-didecylbenzo)-bis(3,4-pyrido)porphyrazines, the cyclotetramerization products of a 1:1 mixture of 3,6-didecylphthalonitrile and 3,4-dicyanopyridine, were synthesized. Futher, subphthalocyanine and its derivatives, with substituents such as thiobutyl and thiophenyl moieties were synthesized. Electrochemical measurements were performed on the abovementioned phthalocyanine derivatives and analogues in order to examine their electron transfer abilities and electrochemical reaction mechanisms in an organic solvent. Moreover, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(thiophenylmethyl) phthalocyanes were synthesized. The Q-bands of the latter compounds appeared in the near-infrared region. Furthermore, non-colored transparent films in the visible region can be produced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Colorants)
Open AccessArticle A Method for Digital Color Analysis of Spalted Wood Using Scion Image Software
Materials 2009, 2(1), 62-75; doi:10.3390/ma2010062
Received: 9 January 2009 / Revised: 31 January 2009 / Accepted: 13 February 2009 / Published: 16 February 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Color analysis of spalted wood surfaces requires a non-subjective, repeatable method for determining percent of pigmentation on the wood surface. Previously published methods used human visual perception with a square grid overlay to determine the percent of surface pigmentation. Our new method uses
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Color analysis of spalted wood surfaces requires a non-subjective, repeatable method for determining percent of pigmentation on the wood surface. Previously published methods used human visual perception with a square grid overlay to determine the percent of surface pigmentation. Our new method uses Scion Image©, a graphical software program used for grayscale and color analysis, to separate fungal pigments from the wood background. These human interface processes render the wood block into HSV (hue, saturation, value, within the RGB color space), allowing subtle and drastic color changes to be visualized, selected and analyzed by the software. Analysis with Scion Image© allows for a faster, less subjective, and easily repeatable procedure that is superior to simple human visual perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Colorants)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Colorimetric Assay and Antibacterial Activity of Cotton, Silk, and Wool Fabrics Dyed with Peony, Pomegranate, Clove, Coptis chinenis and Gallnut Extracts
Materials 2009, 2(1), 10-21; doi:10.3390/ma2010010
Received: 28 November 2008 / Revised: 14 January 2009 / Accepted: 15 January 2009 / Published: 15 January 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To investigate the antibacterial functionality of natural colorant extracts, five kinds of natural dying aqueous solutions were obtained by extraction from peony, pomegranate, clove, Coptis chinensis and gallnut using water at 90 °C for 90 min with a liquor ratio (solid natural colorant
[...] Read more.
To investigate the antibacterial functionality of natural colorant extracts, five kinds of natural dying aqueous solutions were obtained by extraction from peony, pomegranate, clove, Coptis chinensis and gallnut using water at 90 °C for 90 min with a liquor ratio (solid natural colorant material/water, weight ratio) of 1:10. The colorimetric assay and antibacterial activity of cotton, silk, and wool fabrics dyed with these natural colorant extracts were examined. It was found that these properties were significantly dependent on the structure of colorant and the kind of fabrics. The hues (H) of all fabrics dyed with these natural colorants were in the range of 6.05YR -1.95Y. The order of value (V) was wool, silk and cotton. The chroma (C) of all samples was found to be at very low levels indicating the natural tone. All the fabrics dyed with the five natural colorants (peony, pomegranate, clove, Coptis chinensis and gallnut) extracts displayed excellent antibacterial activity (reduction rate: 96.8 - 99.9%) against Staphylococcus aureus. However, in the case of Klebsiella pneumoniae, the antibacterial activity was found to depend on the kind of natural colorant extract used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Colorants)

Review

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Open AccessReview Optimization of the Laser Properties of Polymer Films Doped with N,N´-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,-diphenylbenzidine
Materials 2009, 2(3), 1288-1304; doi:10.3390/ma2031288
Received: 1 August 2009 / Revised: 3 September 2009 / Accepted: 7 September 2009 / Published: 10 September 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review compiles the work performed in the field of organic solid-state lasers with the hole-transporting organic molecule N,-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,-diphenylbenzidine system (TPD), in view of improving active laser material properties. The optimization of the amplified spontaneous emission
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This review compiles the work performed in the field of organic solid-state lasers with the hole-transporting organic molecule N,-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,-diphenylbenzidine system (TPD), in view of improving active laser material properties. The optimization of the amplified spontaneous emission characteristics, i.e., threshold, linewidth, emission wavelength and photostability, of polystyrene films doped with TPD in waveguide configuration has been achieved by investigating the influence of several materials parameters such as film thickness and TPD concentration. In addition, the influence in the emission properties of the inclusion of a second-order distributed feedback grating in the substrate is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Colorants)
Open AccessReview Characteristics of Color Produced by Awa Natural Indigo and Synthetic Indigo
Materials 2009, 2(2), 661-673; doi:10.3390/ma2020661
Received: 12 May 2009 / Revised: 28 May 2009 / Accepted: 9 June 2009 / Published: 9 June 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Color of cloth dyed with Awa natural indigo is quantitatively compared with color of the cloth dyed with synthetic indigo. Results showed that: 1) color produced by Awa natural indigo is bluer and brighter than color produced by synthetic indigo; 2) a single
[...] Read more.
Color of cloth dyed with Awa natural indigo is quantitatively compared with color of the cloth dyed with synthetic indigo. Results showed that: 1) color produced by Awa natural indigo is bluer and brighter than color produced by synthetic indigo; 2) a single Gaussian function fits the profile of the running of color produced by Awa natural indigo and the running of color produced by synthetic indigo prepared with sodium hydrosulfite approximates a linear sum of two Gaussian functions; 3) before and after washing, color is quantitatively more uneven when produced by Awa natural indigo than when produced by synthetic indigo; 4) the diffusion coefficient of Awa natural indigo is lower than that of synthetic indigo; 5) color superiority of Awa natural indigorelates to smaller diffusion coefficient, slower reduction, poorer penetration, and higher dye aggregation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Colorants)

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