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Special Issue "Dietary Calcium"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Susan J. Whiting (Website)

College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon SK, S7N 5C9 Canada
Phone: 13069665837
Interests: nutrient requirements for bone health; dietary assessment and population health

Keywords

  • calcium and bone
  • calcium and growth
  • calcium and cardiovascular events
  • calcium and body weight
  • calcium and cancer
  • calcium and preeclampsia, hypertension in pregnancy
  • calcium and all-cause mortality
  • calcium and hypertension and blood pressure
  • calcium-nutrient interactions
  • adverse effects of excess calcium
  • calcium intakes and food sources

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Calcium: A Nutrient Deserving a Special Issue
Nutrients 2010, 2(10), 1044-1047; doi:10.3390/nu2101044
Received: 14 September 2010 / Accepted: 22 September 2010 / Published: 5 October 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (51 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interest in calcium has continued since the 1980s when its role in promoting bone growth and retention was established in clinical trials of children and postmenopausal women. The human nutrition functions now attributed to calcium have expanded beyond bone health to include [...] Read more.
Interest in calcium has continued since the 1980s when its role in promoting bone growth and retention was established in clinical trials of children and postmenopausal women. The human nutrition functions now attributed to calcium have expanded beyond bone health to include other conditions such as body weight maintenance. While most efforts have been focused on the findings that dietary intakes are low, there are emerging data on safety concerns of excess amounts. This Special Issue on calcium nutrition, spanning the lifecycle from critically ill neonates through to older adults, has been written by some of the leading researchers in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Consumers’ Health-Related Motive Orientations and Reactions to Claims about Dietary Calcium
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 82-96; doi:10.3390/nu5010082
Received: 16 November 2012 / Revised: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into [...] Read more.
Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers’ health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers’ explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers’ explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body — as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU — do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers’ HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessArticle Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1219-1229; doi:10.3390/nu4091219
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessArticle Calcium Intake and Body Composition in African-American Children and Adolescents at Risk for Overweight and Obesity
Nutrients 2010, 2(9), 950-964; doi:10.3390/nu2090950
Received: 27 July 2010 / Revised: 27 August 2010 / Accepted: 9 September 2010 / Published: 10 September 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the role of calcium intake on body composition in 186 African-American adolescents at risk for overweight and obesity. The average weight of 89.8 kg ± 23.6 (SD) had a mean BMI z score of 2.2. Females with a calcium intake of < 314 mg/day had higher percent fat mass compared to those with the highest calcium intakes that were ≥ 634 mg/day. Compared to those with a low calcium intake (< 365 mg/day), those with the highest calcium intake of > 701 mg/day had higher intake of thiamin, folate, cobalamin, vitamin D, phosphorus, iron, zinc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessArticle A Food Frequency Questionnaire for the Assessment of Calcium, Vitamin D and Vitamin K: A Pilot Validation Study
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 805-819; doi:10.3390/nu2080805
Received: 9 June 2010 / Revised: 16 July 2010 / Accepted: 17 July 2010 / Published: 28 July 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study objective was to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K intakes in overweight and obese postmenopausal community-dwelling women. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day diet record (5DDR) that also [...] Read more.
The study objective was to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K intakes in overweight and obese postmenopausal community-dwelling women. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day diet record (5DDR) that also included assessment of supplement intake. Strong correlations between methods were observed for all nutrients (r = 0.63, 0.89, 0.54 for calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K, respectively) and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the FFQ overestimated intakes for calcium, by 576 mg/day (95% CI, −668 to 1,821 mg/day), for vitamin D by 75 IU/day (95% CI, −359 to 510 IU/day), and for vitamin K by 167 mcg/day (95% CI, −233 to 568 mcg/day). This pilot study showed promising validation evidence for the use of this FFQ, which focuses on calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K intakes in postmenopausal women, as a screening tool in clinical and research settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Fractional Absorption of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa) and Calcium Carbonate Measured by a Dual Stable-Isotope Method
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 752-761; doi:10.3390/nu2070752
Received: 10 June 2010 / Revised: 2 July 2010 / Accepted: 8 July 2010 / Published: 12 July 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of [...] Read more.
With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3), the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0), 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24). The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4), was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test). The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH) vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml), as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessArticle Are New Generations of Female College-Student Populations Meeting Calcium Requirements: Comparison of American and Croatian Female Students
Nutrients 2010, 2(6), 599-610; doi:10.3390/nu2060599
Received: 26 April 2010 / Revised: 27 May 2010 / Accepted: 28 May 2010 / Published: 28 May 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We compared calcium (Ca) sources and intake, as well as multivitamin/mineral supplement use between female students with nutrition/health background and those from general-student-populations. 314 participants 18–37 y, including 57 African-Americans and 54 Caucasian-Americans recruited from Nutrition and/or other Health Sciences departments (NHS), [...] Read more.
We compared calcium (Ca) sources and intake, as well as multivitamin/mineral supplement use between female students with nutrition/health background and those from general-student-populations. 314 participants 18–37 y, including 57 African-Americans and 54 Caucasian-Americans recruited from Nutrition and/or other Health Sciences departments (NHS), and 100 African-American and 103 Croatian women representing general-student-population (GSP), completed food frequency questionnaire assessing their usual Ca intake and supplement use. NHS populations met recommendations and consumed significantly more Ca, particularly from dairy sources, and were more likely to take supplements than GSP groups, suggesting that health education may influence Ca intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessArticle Continuous Feedings of Fortified Human Milk Lead to Nutrient Losses of Fat, Calcium and Phosphorous
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 230-240; doi:10.3390/nu2030240
Received: 4 February 2010 / Accepted: 25 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre- and post-feeding (end-point) nutrient content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), protein, and fat. Comparisons were made between continuous, gravity bolus, and 30-minute infusion pump feeding systems, as well as human milk fortified with donor human milk-based and bovine milk-based human milk fortifier using an in vitro model. Feeding method was significantly associated with fat and Ca losses, with increased losses in continuous feeds. Fat losses in continuous feeds were substantial, with 40 ± 3 % of initial fat lost during the feeding process. After correction for feeding method, human milk fortified with donor milk-based fortifier was associated with significantly less loss of Ca (8 ± 4% vs. 28 ± 4%, p< 0.001), Phos (3 ± 4% vs. 24 ± 4%, p < 0.001), and fat (17 ± 2% vs. 25 ± 2%, p = 0.001) than human milk fortified with a bovine milk-based fortifier (Mean ± SEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)

Review

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Open AccessReview Does Excess Weight Interfere with Bone Mass Accumulation during Adolescence?
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2047-2061; doi:10.3390/nu5062047
Received: 24 January 2013 / Revised: 16 May 2013 / Accepted: 17 May 2013 / Published: 6 June 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity and osteoporosis are important global health problems characterized by increasing prevalence with high impact on morbidity and mortality. The objective of this review was to determine whether excess weight during adolescence interferes with bone mass accumulation. If bone mineral gain can [...] Read more.
Obesity and osteoporosis are important global health problems characterized by increasing prevalence with high impact on morbidity and mortality. The objective of this review was to determine whether excess weight during adolescence interferes with bone mass accumulation. If bone mineral gain can be optimized during puberty, adults are less likely to suffer from the devastating complications of osteoporosis. The increased fracture risk in obese children has also been attributed to a lower bone mass for weight compared to non-obese children. Thus, adiposity present in this age group may not result in the protection of bone mass, in contrast to what has been observed in adults. However, studies involving adolescents have reported both protective and detrimental effects of obesity on bone. The results and mechanisms of these interactions are controversial and have not been fully elucidated, a fact highlighting the extreme relevance of this topic and the need to monitor intervening and interactive variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessReview Calcium Nutrition and Extracellular Calcium Sensing: Relevance for the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis, Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 302-327; doi:10.3390/nu5010302
Received: 30 October 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Through a systematic search in Pubmed for literature, on links between calcium malnutrition and risk of chronic diseases, we found the highest degree of evidence for osteoporosis, colorectal and breast cancer, as well as for hypertension, as the only major cardiovascular risk [...] Read more.
Through a systematic search in Pubmed for literature, on links between calcium malnutrition and risk of chronic diseases, we found the highest degree of evidence for osteoporosis, colorectal and breast cancer, as well as for hypertension, as the only major cardiovascular risk factor. Low calcium intake apparently has some impact also on cardiovascular events and disease outcome. Calcium malnutrition can causally be related to low activity of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). This member of the family of 7-TM G-protein coupled receptors allows extracellular Ca2+ to function as a “first messenger” for various intracellular signaling cascades. Evidence demonstrates that Ca2+/CaSR signaling in functional linkage with vitamin D receptor (VDR)-activated pathways (i) promotes osteoblast differentiation and formation of mineralized bone; (ii) targets downstream effectors of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathway to inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation of colorectal cancer cells; (iii) evokes Ca2+ influx into breast cancer cells, thereby activating pro-apoptotic intracellular signaling. Furthermore, Ca2+/CaSR signaling opens Ca2+-sensitive K+ conductance channels in vascular endothelial cells, and also participates in IP3-dependent regulation of cytoplasmic Ca2+, the key intermediate of cardiomyocyte functions. Consequently, impairment of Ca2+/CaSR signaling may contribute to inadequate bone formation, tumor progression, hypertension, vascular calcification and, probably, cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessReview Space Flight Calcium: Implications for Astronaut Health, Spacecraft Operations, and Earth
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 2047-2068; doi:10.3390/nu4122047
Received: 11 October 2012 / Revised: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The space flight environment is known to induce bone loss and, subsequently, calcium loss. The longer the mission, generally the more bone and calcium are lost. This review provides a history of bone and calcium studies related to space flight and highlights [...] Read more.
The space flight environment is known to induce bone loss and, subsequently, calcium loss. The longer the mission, generally the more bone and calcium are lost. This review provides a history of bone and calcium studies related to space flight and highlights issues related to calcium excretion that the space program must consider so that urine can be recycled. It also discusses a novel technique using natural stable isotopes of calcium that will be helpful in the future to determine calcium and bone balance during space flight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessReview Postprandial Energy Metabolism in the Regulation of Body Weight: Is there a Mechanistic Role for Dietary Calcium?
Nutrients 2010, 2(6), 586-598; doi:10.3390/nu2060586
Received: 16 April 2010 / Revised: 26 May 2010 / Accepted: 27 May 2010 / Published: 28 May 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. [...] Read more.
There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. There is, as yet, no conclusive evidence for a greater diet induced thermogenesis, an increased lipolysis or suppression of key lipogenic enzyme systems. There is however convincing evidence that higher calcium intakes promote a modest energy loss through increased fecal fat excretion. Overall, there is a role for dietary calcium in human energy metabolism. Future studies need to define threshold intakes for metabolic and gastrointestinal outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Figures

Open AccessReview Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health?
Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 505-522; doi:10.3390/nu2050505
Received: 30 March 2010 / Revised: 12 May 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2010 / Published: 17 May 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements) of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their [...] Read more.
Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements) of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety has recently been questioned due to potential adverse effects on vascular disease which may increase mortality. For example, the findings from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (currently published in abstract form only) revealed that the use of calcium supplements was associated with an ~30% increased risk of myocardial infarction. If high levels of calcium are harmful to health, this may alter current public health recommendations with regard to the use of calcium supplements for preventing osteoporosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest information from human observational and prospective studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses related to the effects of calcium supplementation on vascular disease and related risk factors, including blood pressure, lipid and lipoprotein levels and vascular calcification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessReview Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings
Nutrients 2010, 2(4), 474-480; doi:10.3390/nu2040474
Received: 4 February 2010 / Revised: 22 March 2010 / Accepted: 2 April 2010 / Published: 6 April 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without [...] Read more.
Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)

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