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Special Issue "Iodine Supplementation"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2012)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Sheila Skeaff

Associate Professor, Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 9054
E-Mail
Phone: +643 479 7944
Interests: nutritional assessment; nutrient deficiency; minerals and trace elements; salt; lifecycle nutrition; food literacy
Guest Editor
Dr. Jo (Shao) Zhou

School of Agriculture Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +61 8 8313 7109
Interests: the effect of iodine nutrition in pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes and early childhood development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Iodine is needed for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are required for normal growth and development, particularly of the brain and central nervous system. Iodine deficiency is still one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies in the world affecting up to 700 million people. Inadequate intake is the main cause of iodine deficiency as the natural iodine content of most foods is low. Iodine intakes can be improved through fortification with universal salt iodization as recommended by the World Health Organization. For segments of the population who do not consume fortified foods or those segments of the population with high dietary iodine requirements, such as pregnant and lactating women, additional iodine in the form of supplementation is suggested. Currently, some countries including the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand have recommended that pregnant and lactating women take a daily iodine supplement, despite a lack of randomized trials to support the efficacy and safety of routine iodine supplementation, particularly in populations with less severe iodine deficiency. The purpose of this special issue is to focus on the effect of increased iodine intake via iodine supplementation on iodine status and health outcomes in populations with moderate to mild iodine deficiency.

Dr. Sheila Skeaff
Dr. Jo (Shao) Zhou
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • iodine
  • supplementation
  • iodine deficiency
  • status
  • neurodevelopment
  • pregnancy
  • lactation
  • health
  • iodine intake

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Poor Knowledge and Practices Related to Iodine Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation in Australian Women: Pre- and Post-Iodine Fortification
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1317-1327; doi:10.3390/nu4091317
Received: 28 June 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A before-after review was undertaken to assess whether knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition, supplementation and fortification has improved in Australian women since the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification in 2009. Surveys of pregnant (n = 139) and non-pregnant (n
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A before-after review was undertaken to assess whether knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition, supplementation and fortification has improved in Australian women since the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification in 2009. Surveys of pregnant (n = 139) and non-pregnant (n = 75) women in 2007–2008 are compared with surveys of pregnant (n = 147) and lactating women (n = 60) one to two years post-fortification in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. A self-administered questionnaire was completed and dietary intake of iodine was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. A generally poor knowledge about the role and sources of iodine in the diet remained after fortification. Post-fortification, iodine-containing supplements were being taken by 60% (up from 20% pre-fortification) and 45% of pregnant and lactating women, respectively. Dairy foods were the highest contributors to dietary iodine intake (57%–62%). A low intake of fish and seafood resulted in this food group contributing only 3%–8% of total intake. A low level of public awareness regarding the role of iodine in health supports the need for public health strategies in addition to fortification, such as an accompanying consumer education campaign, increased uptake of supplementation, and on-going monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine Supplementation)

Review

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Open AccessReview Iodine Supplementation in the Newborn
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 382-390; doi:10.3390/nu6010382
Received: 27 October 2013 / Revised: 29 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 20 January 2014
PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely
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Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine Supplementation)
Open AccessReview Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2013, 5(4), 1384-1416; doi:10.3390/nu5041384
Received: 10 December 2012 / Revised: 14 February 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 22 April 2013
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental
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Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011) was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1) randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2) non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3) prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4) prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies), 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies), 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status), and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status). This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine Supplementation)
Figures

Open AccessReview History of U.S. Iodine Fortification and Supplementation
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1740-1746; doi:10.3390/nu4111740
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing
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Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine Supplementation)

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