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Special Issue "Maladaptive Eating Attitudes in Youth"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. John Worobey (Website)

Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers—The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current but justifiable focus on obesity has led to comparatively less interest in what have traditionally been the classic cases of energy intake gone awry, namely anorexia and bulimia nervosa. For example, a recent check of MEDLINE citations for the years 1990 and 2010, using only the keywords obesity and anorexia nervosa, reveals a 648% increase for the former, but only a 34% increase for the latter. The fact remains, however, that despite the serious morbidities associated with obesity, anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric condition. To be sure, obesity may co-occur with binge eating disorder, but the persisting notion that “thinner is better” may serve to propel chronic dieting into a binge-purge cycle, if not an attempt at self-starvation. Regardless, the nutritional status of the sufferer is affected whether under- or overeating. The purpose of this special issue of Nutrients is to assemble representative efforts on the topic of dysfunctional eating in youth, with studies on the correlates or causes of maladaptive eating attitudes of particular interest.

Prof. Dr. John Worobey
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • eating attitudes
  • eating disturbances
  • body image
  • food restriction
  • anorexia nervosa
  • bulimia nervosa
  • binge eating disorder

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls
Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1260-1272; doi:10.3390/nu4091260
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 29 August 2012 / Published: 11 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group). To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001). Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01), and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maladaptive Eating Attitudes in Youth)
Open AccessArticle A Community-Based Study of Enduring Eating Features in Young Women
Nutrients 2012, 4(5), 413-424; doi:10.3390/nu4050413
Received: 2 February 2012 / Revised: 5 April 2012 / Accepted: 18 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We conducted a prospective exploration of the temporal course of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in two cohorts of community women. One hundred and twenty-two young women (Cohort 1) identified in a general population based survey with ED symptoms of clinical severity agreed [...] Read more.
We conducted a prospective exploration of the temporal course of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in two cohorts of community women. One hundred and twenty-two young women (Cohort 1) identified in a general population based survey with ED symptoms of clinical severity agreed to participate in a 5-year follow-up study. A comparative sample (Cohort 2) of 706 similar aged self-selected college women (221 with disordered eating) was recruited one year later. Both ED groups were given a health literacy package in the first year. ED symptoms, health related quality of life, and psychological distress were assessed annually with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Short Form—12 Health Survey and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, respectively. Forty percent (Cohort 1) and 30.3% (Cohort 2) completed questionnaires at each year of follow-up. In both groups, there was early improvement in ED symptoms which plateaued after the first year, and participants retained high EDE-Q scores at 5 years. BMI increased as expected. Mental health related quality of life scores did not change but there were small improvements in psychological distress scores. The findings suggest little likelihood of spontaneous remission of ED problems in community women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maladaptive Eating Attitudes in Youth)
Open AccessArticle Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables
Nutrients 2012, 4(4), 273-285; doi:10.3390/nu4040273
Received: 2 February 2012 / Revised: 2 April 2012 / Accepted: 6 April 2012 / Published: 17 April 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: (i) To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii) to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and body satisfaction as [...] Read more.
Objective: (i) To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii) to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old) and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i) No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii) no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii) most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv) most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v) greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi) child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maladaptive Eating Attitudes in Youth)
Open AccessArticle Binge Eating and Weight-Related Quality of Life in Obese Adolescents
Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 167-180; doi:10.3390/nu4030167
Received: 23 November 2011 / Revised: 25 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Limited data exist regarding the association between binge eating and quality of life (QOL) in obese adolescent girls and boys. We, therefore, studied binge eating and QOL in 158 obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) adolescents (14.5 ± 1.4 years, 68.0% female, 59% African-American) prior to weight-loss treatment. Youth completed an interview to assess binge eating and a questionnaire measure of QOL. Controlling for body composition, binge eating youth (n = 35), overall, reported poorer QOL in domains of health, mobility, and self-esteem compared to those without binge eating ( ps < 0.05). Also, girls, overall, reported poorer QOL than boys in activities of daily-living, mobility, self-esteem, and social/interpersonal functioning (ps < 0.05). Girls with binge eating reported the greatest impairments in activities of daily living, mobility, self-esteem, social/interpersonal functioning, and work/school QOL (ps < 0.05). Among treatment-seeking obese adolescents, binge eating appears to be a marker of QOL impairment, especially among girls. Prospective and treatment designs are needed to explore the directional relationship between binge eating and QOL and their impact on weight outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maladaptive Eating Attitudes in Youth)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Role of Ghrelin, Salivary Secretions, and Dental Care in Eating Disorders
Nutrients 2012, 4(8), 967-989; doi:10.3390/nu4080967
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 16 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin [...] Read more.
Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maladaptive Eating Attitudes in Youth)

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