Special Issue "Feature Papers"

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A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (27 July 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Lawrence S. Young

Research (Life Sciences and Medicine) and Capital Development, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: viral oncology; virus latency; viral immunology; gene therapy; herpesviruses; papillomaviruses; adenoviruses

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Interaction of Phenol-Soluble Modulins with Phosphatidylcholine Vesicles
Pathogens 2012, 1(1), 3-11; doi:10.3390/pathogens1010003
Received: 10 May 2012 / Revised: 5 June 2012 / Accepted: 19 July 2012 / Published: 20 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several members of the staphylococcal phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptide family exhibit pronounced capacities to lyse eukaryotic cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and erythrocytes. This is commonly assumed to be due to the amphipathic, α-helical structure of PSMs, giving PSMs detergent-like characteristics and allowing
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Several members of the staphylococcal phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptide family exhibit pronounced capacities to lyse eukaryotic cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and erythrocytes. This is commonly assumed to be due to the amphipathic, α-helical structure of PSMs, giving PSMs detergent-like characteristics and allowing for a relatively non-specific destruction of biological membranes. However, the capacities of PSMs to lyse synthetic phospholipid vesicles have not been investigated. Here, we analyzed lysis of synthetic phosphatidylcholine (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, POPC) vesicles by all Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis PSMs. In addition, we investigated the lytic capacities of culture filtrates obtained from different S. aureus PSM deletion mutants toward POPC vesicles. Our results show that all staphylococcal PSMs have phospholipid vesicle-lysing activity and the capacity of S. aureus culture filtrate to lyse POPC vesicles is exclusively dependent on PSMs. Notably, we observed largely differing capacities among PSM peptides to lyse POPC vesicles. Interestingly, POPC vesicle-lytic capacities did not correlate with those previously seen for the lysis of eukaryotic cells. For example, the β-type PSMs were strongly lytic for POPC vesicles, but are known to exhibit only very low lytic capacities toward neutrophils and erythrocytes. Thus our results also suggest that the interaction between PSMs and eukaryotic membranes is more specific than previously assumed, potentially depending on additional structural features of those membranes, such as phospholipid composition or yet unidentified docking molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview From Exit to Entry: Long-term Survival and Transmission of Salmonella
Pathogens 2012, 1(2), 128-155; doi:10.3390/pathogens1020128
Received: 10 August 2012 / Revised: 15 September 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 24 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of human infectious disease worldwide and pose a serious health concern. While we have an improving understanding of pathogenesis and the host-pathogen interactions underlying the infection process, comparatively little is known about the survival of pathogenic Salmonella
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Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of human infectious disease worldwide and pose a serious health concern. While we have an improving understanding of pathogenesis and the host-pathogen interactions underlying the infection process, comparatively little is known about the survival of pathogenic Salmonella outside their hosts. This review focuses on three areas: (1) in vitro evidence that Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods of time under harsh conditions; (2) observations and conclusions about Salmonella persistence obtained from human outbreaks; and (3) new information revealed by genomic- and population-based studies of Salmonella and related enteric pathogens. We highlight the mechanisms of Salmonella persistence and transmission as an essential part of their lifecycle and a prerequisite for their evolutionary success as human pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)

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