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Special Issue "Protein Kinase Inhibitors"

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A special issue of Pharmaceuticals (ISSN 1424-8247).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Lee M. Graves (Website)

Department of Pharmacology, University of NC at Chapel Hill, Genetic Medicine Building, Room 4111, CB# 7365120 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7365, USA
Interests: protein phosphorylation and protein kinase-mediated signaling pathways; application of proteomics; protein kinase inhibitors as therapeutics; regulation of metabolic enzymes by phosphorylation and interacting proteins

Keywords

  • p38 MAP kinase
  • Erk
  • Jnk
  • Raf
  • BCR-Abl,p70 S6 kinase
  • mTor
  • Pyk2
  • Protein Kinase CK2

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Phospholipase D2 Enhances Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Akt Activation in EL4 Lymphoma Cells
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(7), 2045-2058; doi:10.3390/ph3072045
Received: 23 April 2010 / Revised: 24 May 2010 / Accepted: 24 June 2001 / Published: 2 July 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) generates phosphatidic acid through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. PLD2 has been shown to play a role in enhancing tumorigenesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can both activate and interact with PLD2. Murine lymphoma EL4 cells lacking endogenous PLD2 present [...] Read more.
Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) generates phosphatidic acid through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. PLD2 has been shown to play a role in enhancing tumorigenesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can both activate and interact with PLD2. Murine lymphoma EL4 cells lacking endogenous PLD2 present a unique model to elucidate the role of PLD2 in signal transduction. In the current study, we investigated effects of PLD2 on EGF response. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to establish that both parental cells and PLD2 transfectants express endogenous EGFR. Levels of EGFR protein are increased in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. EGF stimulates proliferation of EL4 cells transfected with active PLD2, but not parental cells or cells transfected with inactive PLD2. EGF-mediated proliferation in cells expressing active PLD2 is dependent on the activities of both the EGFR and the PI3K/Akt pathway, as demonstrated by studies using protein kinase inhibitors. EGF-induced invasion through a synthetic extracellular matrix is enhanced in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. Taken together, the data suggest that PLD2 acts in concert with EGFR to enhance mitogenesis and invasion in lymphoma cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)
Open AccessArticle Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in APP Hyperphosphorylation Induced by NMDA Stimulation in Cortical Neurons
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 42-58; doi:10.3390/ph3010042
Received: 23 October 2009 / Revised: 3 December 2009 / Accepted: 5 January 2010 / Published: 7 January 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The phosphorylation of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) at Thr668 plays a key role in APP metabolism that is highly relevant to AD. The c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) can all be responsible for this [...] Read more.
The phosphorylation of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) at Thr668 plays a key role in APP metabolism that is highly relevant to AD. The c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) can all be responsible for this phosphorylation. These kinases are activated by excitotoxic stimuli fundamental hallmarks of AD. The exposure of cortical neurons to a high dose of NMDA (100 μM) for 30’-45’ led to an increase of P-APP Thr668. During NMDA stimulation APP hyperphosphorylation has to be assigned to GSK-3β activity, since addition of L803-mts, a substrate competitive inhibitor of GSK-3β reduced APP phosphorylation induced by NMDA. On the contrary, inhibition of JNK and Cdk5 with D-JNKI1 and Roscovitine respectively did not prevent NMDA-induced P-APP increase. These data show a tight connection, in excitotoxic conditions, between APP metabolism and the GSK-3β signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Dysregulation of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and p27Kip1 Promotes Intimal Hyperplasia in Diabetes Mellitus
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(6), 716-727; doi:10.3390/ph6060716
Received: 14 January 2013 / Revised: 1 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 27 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intima of an artery, known as intimal hyperplasia, is an important component of cardiovascular diseases. This is seen most clearly in the case of in-stent restenosis, where drug eluting stents [...] Read more.
The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intima of an artery, known as intimal hyperplasia, is an important component of cardiovascular diseases. This is seen most clearly in the case of in-stent restenosis, where drug eluting stents are used to deliver agents that prevent VSMC proliferation and migration. One class of agents that are highly effective in the prevention of in-stent restenosis is the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Inhibition of mTOR blocks protein synthesis, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. Key to the effects on cell cycle progression and cell migration is the inhibition of mTOR-mediated degradation of p27Kip1 protein. p27Kip1 is a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor that is elevated in quiescent VSMCs and inhibits the G1 to S phase transition and cell migration. Under normal conditions, vascular injury promotes degradation of p27Kip1 protein in an mTOR dependent manner. Recent reports from our lab suggest that in the presence of diabetes mellitus, elevation of extracellular signal response kinase activity may promote decreased p27Kip1 mRNA and produce a relative resistance to mTOR inhibition. Here we review these findings and their relevance to designing treatments for cardiovascular disease in the presence of diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)
Open AccessReview Protein Kinase C Inhibitors as Modulators of Vascular Function and Their Application in Vascular Disease
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(3), 407-439; doi:10.3390/ph6030407
Received: 11 December 2012 / Revised: 12 March 2013 / Accepted: 13 March 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blood pressure (BP) is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent [...] Read more.
Blood pressure (BP) is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance and hypertension (HTN). In VSM, activation of surface receptors by vasoconstrictor stimuli causes an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which forms a complex with calmodulin, activates myosin light chain (MLC) kinase and leads to MLC phosphorylation, actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Vasoconstrictor agonists could also increase the production of diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C (PKC). PKC is a family of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isozymes that have different distributions in various blood vessels, and undergo translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or the nucleus during cell activation. In VSM, PKC translocation to the cell surface may trigger a cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase (MEK), a pathway that ultimately increases the myofilament force sensitivity to [Ca2+]i, and enhances actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. PKC translocation to the nucleus may induce transactivation of various genes and promote VSM growth and proliferation. PKC could also affect endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the extracellular matrix further affecting vascular reactivity and remodeling. In addition to vasoactive factors, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic factors could affect PKC activity. Increased PKC expression and activity have been observed in vascular disease and in certain forms of experimental and human HTN. Targeting of vascular PKC using PKC inhibitors may function in concert with antioxidants, MMP inhibitors and cytokine antagonists to reduce VSM hyperactivity in certain forms of HTN that do not respond to Ca2+ channel blockers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)
Open AccessReview Protein Kinases as Drug Development Targets for Heart Disease Therapy
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(7), 2111-2145; doi:10.3390/ph3072111
Received: 9 April 2010 / Revised: 3 June 2010 / Accepted: 23 June 2010 / Published: 5 July 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein kinases are intimately integrated in different signal transduction pathways for the regulation of cardiac function in both health and disease. Protein kinase A (PKA), Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK), protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein [...] Read more.
Protein kinases are intimately integrated in different signal transduction pathways for the regulation of cardiac function in both health and disease. Protein kinase A (PKA), Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK), protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are not only involved in the control of subcellular activities for maintaining cardiac function, but also participate in the development of cardiac dysfunction in cardiac hypertrophy, diabetic cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Although all these kinases serve as signal transducing proteins by phosphorylating different sites in cardiomyocytes, some of their effects are cardioprotective whereas others are detrimental. Such opposing effects of each signal transduction pathway seem to depend upon the duration and intensity of stimulus as well as the type of kinase isoform for each kinase. In view of the fact that most of these kinases are activated in heart disease and their inhibition has been shown to improve cardiac function, it is suggested that these kinases form excellent targets for drug development for therapy of heart disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)
Open AccessReview Use of p38 MAPK Inhibitors for the Treatment of Werner Syndrome
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(6), 1842-1872; doi:10.3390/ph3061842
Received: 31 March 2010 / Revised: 13 May 2010 / Accepted: 26 May 2010 / Published: 4 June 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Werner syndrome provides a convincing model for aspects of the normal ageing phenotype and may provide a suitable model for therapeutic interventions designed to combat the ageing process. Cultured primary fibroblast cells from Werner syndrome patients provide a powerful model system to [...] Read more.
Werner syndrome provides a convincing model for aspects of the normal ageing phenotype and may provide a suitable model for therapeutic interventions designed to combat the ageing process. Cultured primary fibroblast cells from Werner syndrome patients provide a powerful model system to study the link between replicative senescence in vitro and in vivo pathophysiology. Genome instability, together with an increased pro-oxidant state, and frequent replication fork stalling, all provide plausible triggers for intracellular stress in Werner syndrome cells, and implicates p38 MAPK signaling in their shortened replicative lifespan. A number of different p38 MAPK inhibitor chemotypes have been prepared rapidly and efficiently using microwave heating techniques for biological study in Werner syndrome cells, including SB203580, VX-745, RO3201195, UR-13756 and BIRB 796, and their selectivity and potency evaluated in this cellular context. Werner syndrome fibroblasts treated with a p38 MAPK inhibitor reveal an unexpected reversal of the accelerated ageing phenotype. Thus the study of p38 inhibition and its effect upon Werner pathophysiology is likely to provide new revelations into the biological mechanisms operating in cellular senescence and human ageing in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)
Open AccessReview Opportunities to Target Specific Contractile Abnormalities with Smooth Muscle Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(6), 1739-1760; doi:10.3390/ph3061739
Received: 8 April 2010 / Revised: 26 April 2010 / Accepted: 24 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smooth muscle is a major component of most hollow organ systems (e.g., airways, vasculature, bladder and gut/gastrointestine); therefore, the coordinated regulation of contraction is a key property of smooth muscle. When smooth muscle functions normally, it contributes to general health and wellness, [...] Read more.
Smooth muscle is a major component of most hollow organ systems (e.g., airways, vasculature, bladder and gut/gastrointestine); therefore, the coordinated regulation of contraction is a key property of smooth muscle. When smooth muscle functions normally, it contributes to general health and wellness, but its dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) is central to calcium-independent, actomyosin-mediated contractile force generation in the vasculature, thereby playing a role in smooth muscle contraction, cell motility and adhesion. Recent evidence supports an important role for ROCK in the increased vasoconstriction and remodeling observed in various models of hypertension. This review will provide a commentary on the development of specific ROCK inhibitors and their clinical application. Fasudil will be discussed as an example of bench-to-bedside development of a clinical therapeutic that is used to treat conditions of vascular hypercontractility. Due to the wide spectrum of biological processes regulated by ROCK, many additional clinical indications might also benefit from ROCK inhibition. Apart from the importance of ROCK in smooth muscle contraction, a variety of other protein kinases are known to play similar roles in regulating contractile force. The zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) are two well-described regulators of contraction. The relative contribution of each kinase to contraction depends on the muscle bed as well as hormonal and neuronal stimulation. Unfortunately, specific inhibitors for ZIPK and ILK are still in the development phase, but the success of fasudil suggests that inhibitors for these other kinases may also have valuable clinical applications. Notably, the directed inhibition of ZIPK with a pseudosubstrate molecule shows unexpected effects on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)
Open AccessReview Controlling the Mdm2-Mdmx-p53 Circuit
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(5), 1576-1593; doi:10.3390/ph3051576
Received: 1 April 2010 / Revised: 26 April 2010 / Accepted: 11 May 2010 / Published: 18 May 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The p53 tumor suppressor is a key protein in maintaining the integrity of the genome by inducing either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis following cellular stress signals. Two human family members, Mdm2 and Mdmx, are primarily responsible for inactivating p53 transcription and [...] Read more.
The p53 tumor suppressor is a key protein in maintaining the integrity of the genome by inducing either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis following cellular stress signals. Two human family members, Mdm2 and Mdmx, are primarily responsible for inactivating p53 transcription and targeting p53 protein for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. In response to genotoxic stress, post-translational modifications to p53, Mdm2 and Mdmx stabilize and activate p53. The role that phosphorylation of these molecules plays in the cellular response to genotoxic agents has been extensively studied with respect to cancer biology. In this review, we discuss the main phosphorylation events of p53, Mdm2 and Mdmx in response to DNA damage that are important for p53 stability and activity. In tumors that harbor wild-type p53, reactivation of p53 by modulating both Mdm2 and Mdmx signaling is well suited as a therapeutic strategy. However, the rationale for development of kinase inhibitors that target the Mdm2-Mdmx-p53 axis must be carefully considered since modulation of certain kinase signaling pathways has the potential to destabilize and inactivate p53. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)
Open AccessReview Suppression of Autoimmune Arthritis by Small Molecule Inhibitors of the JAK/STAT Pathway
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(5), 1446-1455; doi:10.3390/ph3051446
Received: 26 March 2010 / Revised: 20 April 2010 / Accepted: 11 May 2010 / Published: 12 May 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A skewed ratio of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokines, elevated growth factor synthesis and T- and B-lymphocyte activation are 3 hallmarks of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathology. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-17, IL-12/IL-23 and growth factors, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, IL-3, and erythropoietin activate the [...] Read more.
A skewed ratio of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokines, elevated growth factor synthesis and T- and B-lymphocyte activation are 3 hallmarks of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathology. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-17, IL-12/IL-23 and growth factors, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, IL-3, and erythropoietin activate the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. Evidence showed that STAT protein phosphorylation (p-STAT) by activated JAKs is permissive for p-STAT to act as transcription factors by binding to STAT-responsive gene promoter sequences. This event is critical for perpetuating RA, in part, by up-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription. Activation of JAK/STAT by cytokines and growth factors can induce ‘cross-talk’ with other signaling pathways by which Stress-Activated Protein/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (SAP/MAPK) and Phosphatidylinositide-3-Kinase (PI3K)-mediated signaling are also activated. JAK-specific small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) were developed to test whether JAK/STAT pathway blockade would regulate autoimmune-mediated inflammation. JAK-specific SMI blockade inhibited p-STAT induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Systemically administered JAK-specific SMI blockade also ameliorated biomarkers of inflammation in well-validated arthritis animal models. A few JAK-specific SMIs have made their way into RA clinical trials. In fact, the JAK3-specific SMI, CP-690,500 is the first JAK/STAT SMI to be assessed for clinical efficacy in a Phase III RA trial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)
Open AccessReview Prospects for the Use of ATR Inhibitors to Treat Cancer
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(5), 1311-1334; doi:10.3390/ph3051311
Received: 31 March 2010 / Revised: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 19 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ATR is an apical kinase in one of the DNA-damage induced checkpoint pathways. Despite the development of inhibitors of kinases structurally related to ATR, as well as inhibitors of the ATR substrate Chk1, no ATR inhibitors have yet been developed. Here we [...] Read more.
ATR is an apical kinase in one of the DNA-damage induced checkpoint pathways. Despite the development of inhibitors of kinases structurally related to ATR, as well as inhibitors of the ATR substrate Chk1, no ATR inhibitors have yet been developed. Here we review the effects of ATR downregulation in cancer cells and discuss the potential for development of ATR inhibitors for clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)
Open AccessReview Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors as Antiangiogenic Drugs in Multiple Myeloma
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(4), 1225-1231; doi:10.3390/ph3041225
Received: 9 March 2010 / Revised: 21 April 2010 / Accepted: 22 April 2010 / Published: 22 April 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are a new class of anticancer drugs, that are capable of directly interacting with the catalytic site of the target enzyme and thereby inhibiting catalysis. Therapeutically useful tyrosine kinase inhibitors are not specific for a single tyrosine kinase, but [...] Read more.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are a new class of anticancer drugs, that are capable of directly interacting with the catalytic site of the target enzyme and thereby inhibiting catalysis. Therapeutically useful tyrosine kinase inhibitors are not specific for a single tyrosine kinase, but rather they are selective against a limited number of tyrosine kinases. The success of imatinib-mesylate (Gleevec®) for the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia has opened a intensive search for new small molecular compounds able to target other protein tyrosine kinases involved in the malignant transformation. This review article is focused on the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as antiangiogenic molecules in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)

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