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Special Issue "Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bahram Nabet (Website)

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2875, USA
Phone: +1 215 895 6761
Interests: optoelectronic devices and systems; reduced dimensional systems and their use in high-speed low-noise sensors of light, charged particles, and TeraHertz radiation

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Error Analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data by Means of Spherical Statistics and 3D Graphs
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 10128-10145; doi:10.3390/s101110128
Received: 26 August 2010 / Revised: 18 October 2010 / Accepted: 5 November 2010 / Published: 10 November 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a complete analysis of the positional errors of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data based on spherical statistics and 3D graphs. Spherical statistics are preferred because of the 3D vectorial nature of the spatial error. Error vectors have three metric [...] Read more.
This paper presents a complete analysis of the positional errors of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data based on spherical statistics and 3D graphs. Spherical statistics are preferred because of the 3D vectorial nature of the spatial error. Error vectors have three metric elements (one module and two angles) that were analyzed by spherical statistics. A study case has been presented and discussed in detail. Errors were calculating using 53 check points (CP) and CP coordinates were measured by a digitizer with submillimetre accuracy. The positional accuracy was analyzed by both the conventional method (modular errors analysis) and the proposed method (angular errors analysis) by 3D graphics and numerical spherical statistics. Two packages in R programming language were performed to obtain graphics automatically. The results indicated that the proposed method is advantageous as it offers a more complete analysis of the positional accuracy, such as angular error component, uniformity of the vector distribution, error isotropy, and error, in addition the modular error component by linear statistics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of a Photodiode Coupled with a Si Nanowire-FET on a Plastic Substrate
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 9118-9126; doi:10.3390/s101009118
Received: 29 July 2010 / Revised: 8 September 2010 / Accepted: 19 September 2010 / Published: 12 October 2010
PDF Full-text (689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, a laterally coupled device composed of a photodiode and a Si nanowires-field-effect transistor (NWs-FET) is constructed on a plastic substrate and the coupled device is characterized. The photodiode is made of p-type Si NWs and an n-type [...] Read more.
In this study, a laterally coupled device composed of a photodiode and a Si nanowires-field-effect transistor (NWs-FET) is constructed on a plastic substrate and the coupled device is characterized. The photodiode is made of p-type Si NWs and an n-type ZnO film. The Si NWs-FET is connected electrically to the photodiode in order to enhance the latter’s photocurrent efficiency by adjusting the gate voltage of the FET. When the FET is switched on by biasing a gate voltage of −9 V, the photocurrent efficiency of the photodiode is three times higher than that when the FET is switched off by biasing a gate voltage of 0 V. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Granite Varieties from Colour Spectrum Data
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8572-8584; doi:10.3390/s100908572
Received: 30 July 2010 / Revised: 27 August 2010 / Accepted: 8 September 2010 / Published: 14 September 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The granite processing sector of the northwest of Spain handles many varieties of granite with specific technical and aesthetic properties that command different prices in the natural stone market. Hence, correct granite identification and classification from the outset of processing to the [...] Read more.
The granite processing sector of the northwest of Spain handles many varieties of granite with specific technical and aesthetic properties that command different prices in the natural stone market. Hence, correct granite identification and classification from the outset of processing to the end-product stage optimizes the management and control of stocks of granite slabs and tiles and facilitates the operation of traceability systems. We describe a methodology for automatically identifying granite varieties by processing spectral information captured by a spectrophotometer at various stages of processing using functional machine learning techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
Open AccessArticle Micro Cantilever Movement Detection with an Amorphous Silicon Array of Position Sensitive Detectors
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8173-8184; doi:10.3390/s100908173
Received: 23 June 2010 / Revised: 30 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 August 2010 / Published: 1 September 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The movement of a micro cantilever was detected via a self constructed portable data acquisition prototype system which integrates a linear array of 32 1D amorphous silicon position sensitive detectors (PSD). The system was mounted on a microscope using a metal structure [...] Read more.
The movement of a micro cantilever was detected via a self constructed portable data acquisition prototype system which integrates a linear array of 32 1D amorphous silicon position sensitive detectors (PSD). The system was mounted on a microscope using a metal structure platform and the movement of the 30  µm wide by 400  µm long cantilever was tracked by analyzing the signals acquired by the 32 sensor array electronic readout system and the relevant data algorithm. The obtained results show a linear behavior of the photocurrent relating X and Y movement, with a non-linearity of about 3%, a spatial resolution of less than 2 µm along the lateral dimension of the sensor as well as of less than 3 µm along the perpendicular dimension of the sensor, when detecting just the micro-cantilever, and a spatial resolution of less than 1 µm when detecting the holding structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
Open AccessArticle Exploiting the Autofluorescent Properties of Photosynthetic Pigments for Analysis of Pigmentation and Morphology in Live Fremyella diplosiphon Cells
Sensors 2010, 10(7), 6969-6979; doi:10.3390/s100706969
Received: 7 June 2010 / Revised: 12 July 2010 / Accepted: 16 July 2010 / Published: 19 July 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fremyella diplosiphon is a freshwater, filamentous cyanobacterium that exhibits light-dependent regulation of photosynthetic pigment accumulation and cellular and filament morphologies in a well-known process known as complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). One of the techniques used to investigate the molecular bases of distinct [...] Read more.
Fremyella diplosiphon is a freshwater, filamentous cyanobacterium that exhibits light-dependent regulation of photosynthetic pigment accumulation and cellular and filament morphologies in a well-known process known as complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). One of the techniques used to investigate the molecular bases of distinct aspects of CCA is confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CLSM capitalizes on the autofluorescent properties of cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a. We employed CLSM to perform spectral scanning analyses of F. diplosiphon strains grown under distinct light conditions. We report optimized utilization of CLSM to elucidate the molecular basis of the photoregulation of pigment accumulation and morphological responses in F. diplosiphon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
Open AccessArticle Semiconducting Polymer Photodetectors with Electron and Hole Blocking Layers: High Detectivity in the Near-Infrared
Sensors 2010, 10(7), 6488-6496; doi:10.3390/s100706488
Received: 22 April 2010 / Revised: 11 May 2010 / Accepted: 30 June 2010 / Published: 1 July 2010
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensing from the ultraviolet-visible to the infrared is critical for a variety of industrial and scientific applications. Photodetectors with broad spectral response, from 300 nm to 1,100 nm, were fabricated using a narrow-band gap semiconducting polymer blended with a fullerene derivative. By [...] Read more.
Sensing from the ultraviolet-visible to the infrared is critical for a variety of industrial and scientific applications. Photodetectors with broad spectral response, from 300 nm to 1,100 nm, were fabricated using a narrow-band gap semiconducting polymer blended with a fullerene derivative. By using both an electron-blocking layer and a hole-blocking layer, the polymer photodetectors, operating at room temperature, exhibited calculated detectivities greater than 1013 cm Hz1/2/W over entire spectral range with linear dynamic range approximately 130 dB. The performance is comparable to or even better than Si photodetectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
Open AccessArticle Application of a Hybrid 3D-2D Laser Scanning System to the Characterization of Slate Slabs
Sensors 2010, 10(6), 5949-5961; doi:10.3390/s100605949
Received: 19 April 2010 / Revised: 21 April 2010 / Accepted: 11 May 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (872 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dimensional control based on 3D laser scanning techniques is widely used in practice. We describe the application of a hybrid 3D-2D laser scanning system to the characterization of slate slabs with structural defects that are difficult for the human eye to characterize [...] Read more.
Dimensional control based on 3D laser scanning techniques is widely used in practice. We describe the application of a hybrid 3D-2D laser scanning system to the characterization of slate slabs with structural defects that are difficult for the human eye to characterize objectively. Our study is based on automating the process using a 3D laser scanner and a 2D camera. Our results demonstrate that the application of this hybrid system optimally characterizes slate slabs in terms of the defects described by the Spanish UNE-EN 12326-1 standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Sensor and Display Human Factors Based Design Constraints for Head Mounted and Tele-Operation Systems
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1589-1606; doi:10.3390/s110201589
Received: 2 December 2010 / Revised: 5 January 2011 / Accepted: 11 January 2011 / Published: 27 January 2011
PDF Full-text (634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For mobile imaging systems in head mounted displays and tele-operation systems it is important to maximize the amount of visual information transmitted to the human visual system without exceeding its input capacity. This paper aims to describe the design constraints on the [...] Read more.
For mobile imaging systems in head mounted displays and tele-operation systems it is important to maximize the amount of visual information transmitted to the human visual system without exceeding its input capacity. This paper aims to describe the design constraints on the imager and display systems of head mounted devices and tele-operated systems based upon the capabilities of the human visual system. We also present the experimental results of methods to improve the amount of visual information conveyed to a user when trying to display a high dynamic range image on a low dynamic range display. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview Ge-Photodetectors for Si-Based Optoelectronic Integration
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 696-718; doi:10.3390/s110100696
Received: 5 November 2010 / Revised: 29 November 2010 / Accepted: 10 January 2011 / Published: 12 January 2011
Cited by 74 | PDF Full-text (2225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High speed photodetectors are a key building block, which allow a large wavelength range of detection from 850 nm to telecommunication standards at optical fiber band passes of 1.3–1.55 µm. Such devices are key components in several applications such as local area [...] Read more.
High speed photodetectors are a key building block, which allow a large wavelength range of detection from 850 nm to telecommunication standards at optical fiber band passes of 1.3–1.55 µm. Such devices are key components in several applications such as local area networks, board to board, chip to chip and intrachip interconnects. Recent technological achievements in growth of high quality SiGe/Ge films on Si wafers have opened up the possibility of low cost Ge-based photodetectors for near infrared communication bands and high resolution spectral imaging with high quantum efficiencies. In this review article, the recent progress in the development and integration of Ge-photodetectors on Si-based photonics will be comprehensively reviewed, along with remaining technological issues to be overcome and future research trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview Reflectively Coupled Waveguide Photodetector for High Speed Optical Interconnection
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10863-10875; doi:10.3390/s101210863
Received: 28 September 2010 / Revised: 28 October 2010 / Accepted: 24 November 2010 / Published: 2 December 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To fully utilize GaAs high drift mobility, techniques to monolithically integrate In0.53Ga0.47As p-i-n photodetectors with GaAs based optical waveguides using total internal reflection coupling are reviewed. Metal coplanar waveguides, deposited on top of the polyimide layer for the [...] Read more.
To fully utilize GaAs high drift mobility, techniques to monolithically integrate In0.53Ga0.47As p-i-n photodetectors with GaAs based optical waveguides using total internal reflection coupling are reviewed. Metal coplanar waveguides, deposited on top of the polyimide layer for the photodetector’s planarization and passivation, were then uniquely connected as a bridge between the photonics and electronics to illustrate the high-speed monitoring function. The photodetectors were efficiently implemented and imposed on the echelle grating circle for wavelength division multiplexing monitoring. In optical filtering performance, the monolithically integrated photodetector channel spacing was 2 nm over the 1,520–1,550 nm wavelength range and the pass band was 1 nm at the −1 dB level. For high-speed applications the full-width half-maximum of the temporal response and 3-dB bandwidth for the reflectively coupled waveguide photodetectors were demonstrated to be 30 ps and 11 GHz, respectively. The bit error rate performance of this integrated photodetector at 10 Gbit/s with 27-1 long pseudo-random bit sequence non-return to zero input data also showed error-free operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
Open AccessReview Near-Infrared Sub-Bandgap All-Silicon Photodetectors: State of the Art and Perspectives
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10571-10600; doi:10.3390/s101210571
Received: 15 October 2010 / Revised: 10 November 2010 / Accepted: 20 November 2010 / Published: 29 November 2010
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to recent breakthroughs, silicon photonics is now the most active discipline within the field of integrated optics and, at the same time, a present reality with commercial products available on the market. Silicon photodiodes are excellent detectors at visible wavelengths, but [...] Read more.
Due to recent breakthroughs, silicon photonics is now the most active discipline within the field of integrated optics and, at the same time, a present reality with commercial products available on the market. Silicon photodiodes are excellent detectors at visible wavelengths, but the development of high-performance photodetectors on silicon CMOS platforms at wavelengths of interest for telecommunications has remained an imperative but unaccomplished task so far. In recent years, however, a number of near-infrared all-silicon photodetectors have been proposed and demonstrated for optical interconnect and power-monitoring applications. In this paper, a review of the state of the art is presented. Devices based on mid-bandgap absorption, surface-state absorption, internal photoemission absorption and two-photon absorption are reported, their working principles elucidated and their performance discussed and compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview Photo-Detectors for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (ToF-PET)
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 10484-10505; doi:10.3390/s101110484
Received: 25 September 2010 / Revised: 27 October 2010 / Accepted: 30 October 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present the most recent advances in photo-detector design employed in time of flight positron emission tomography (ToF-PET). PET is a molecular imaging modality that collects pairs of coincident (temporally correlated) annihilation photons emitted from the patient body. The annihilation photon detector [...] Read more.
We present the most recent advances in photo-detector design employed in time of flight positron emission tomography (ToF-PET). PET is a molecular imaging modality that collects pairs of coincident (temporally correlated) annihilation photons emitted from the patient body. The annihilation photon detector typically comprises a scintillation crystal coupled to a fast photo-detector. ToF information provides better localization of the annihilation event along the line formed by each detector pair, resulting in an overall improvement in signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed image. Apart from the demand for high luminosity and fast decay time of the scintillation crystal, proper design and selection of the photo-detector and methods for arrival time pick-off are a prerequisite for achieving excellent time resolution required for ToF-PET. We review the two types of photo-detectors used in ToF-PET: photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) with a special focus on SiPMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-)Semiconductor Structures
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 10155-10180; doi:10.3390/s101110155
Received: 26 September 2010 / Revised: 14 October 2010 / Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 11 November 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE [...] Read more.
The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
Open AccessReview Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 8797-8826; doi:10.3390/s101008797
Received: 5 August 2010 / Revised: 7 September 2010 / Accepted: 14 September 2010 / Published: 28 September 2010
Cited by 52 | PDF Full-text (970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower [...] Read more.
The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
Open AccessReview ZnO-Based Ultraviolet Photodetectors
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8604-8634; doi:10.3390/s100908604
Received: 30 July 2010 / Revised: 25 August 2010 / Accepted: 10 September 2010 / Published: 17 September 2010
Cited by 158 | PDF Full-text (5743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) photodetection has drawn a great deal of attention in recent years due to a wide range of civil and military applications. Because of its wide band gap, low cost, strong radiation hardness and high chemical stability, ZnO are regarded as [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV) photodetection has drawn a great deal of attention in recent years due to a wide range of civil and military applications. Because of its wide band gap, low cost, strong radiation hardness and high chemical stability, ZnO are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for UV photodetectors. Additionally, doping in ZnO with Mg elements can adjust the bandgap largely and make it feasible to prepare UV photodetectors with different cut-off wavelengths. ZnO-based photoconductors, Schottky photodiodes, metal–semiconductor–metal photodiodes and p–n junction photodetectors have been developed. In this work, it mainly focuses on the ZnO and ZnMgO films photodetectors. We analyze the performance of ZnO-based photodetectors, discussing recent achievements, and comparing the characteristics of the various photodetector structures developed to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
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Open AccessReview Novel Ultra-Sensitive Detectors in the 10–50 μm Wavelength Range
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8411-8423; doi:10.3390/s100908411
Received: 29 July 2010 / Revised: 13 August 2010 / Accepted: 31 August 2010 / Published: 8 September 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We have developed novel single-photon detectors in the 10–50 μm wavelength region. The detectors are charge-sensitive infrared phototransistors (CSIPs) fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well (QW) structures, in which a photo-generated hole (+e) in the floating gate (upper QW) modulates the conductance [...] Read more.
We have developed novel single-photon detectors in the 10–50 μm wavelength region. The detectors are charge-sensitive infrared phototransistors (CSIPs) fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well (QW) structures, in which a photo-generated hole (+e) in the floating gate (upper QW) modulates the conductance of a capacitively-coupled channel located underneath (lower QW). The excellent noise equivalent power (NEP = 8.3 × 10−19 W/Hz1/2) and specific detectivity (D* = 8 × 1014 cm Hz1/2/W) are demonstrated for 15 micron detection up to 23 K, which are by a few orders of magnitude better than those of other state-of-the-art high-sensitivity detectors. The dynamic range exceeds 106 (~aW to pW) by repeatedly resetting the accumulated holes in the upper QW. Simple device structure makes the detectors feasible for array fabrication: Furthermore, monolithic integration with reading circuits will be possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
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