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Special Issue "Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2009)

Keywords

  • sensor sonfiguration
  • smart sensor

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Polygon Model for Wireless Sensor Network Deployment with Directional Sensing Areas
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9998-10022; doi:10.3390/s91209998
Received: 13 November 2009 / Revised: 30 November 2009 / Accepted: 2 December 2009 / Published: 9 December 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The modeling of the sensing area of a sensor node is essential for the deployment algorithm of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a polygon model is proposed for the sensor node with directional sensing area. In addition, a WSN deployment [...] Read more.
The modeling of the sensing area of a sensor node is essential for the deployment algorithm of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a polygon model is proposed for the sensor node with directional sensing area. In addition, a WSN deployment algorithm is presented with topology control and scoring mechanisms to maintain network connectivity and improve sensing coverage rate. To evaluate the proposed polygon model and WSN deployment algorithm, a simulation is conducted. The simulation results show that the proposed polygon model outperforms the existed disk model and circular sector model in terms of the maximum sensing coverage rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Autonomous Distributed Self-Organization for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8961-8995; doi:10.3390/s91108961
Received: 9 June 2009 / Revised: 18 October 2009 / Accepted: 20 October 2009 / Published: 11 November 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an adaptive combined-metrics-based clustering scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks, which manages the mobile sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocates network resources efficiently. A local criteria is used to help mobile sensors form a new cluster [...] Read more.
This paper presents an adaptive combined-metrics-based clustering scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks, which manages the mobile sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocates network resources efficiently. A local criteria is used to help mobile sensors form a new cluster or join a current cluster. The messages transmitted during hierarchical clustering are applied to choose distributed gateways such that communication for adjacent clusters and distributed topology control can be achieved. In order to balance the load among clusters and govern the topology change, a cluster reformation scheme using localized criterions is implemented. The proposed scheme is simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides efficient network topology management and achieves high scalability in mobile sensor networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Best Sensor Configuration and Accommodation Rule Based on Navigation Performance for INS with Seven Inertial Sensors
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 8456-8472; doi:10.3390/s91108456
Received: 5 August 2009 / Revised: 25 September 2009 / Accepted: 15 October 2009 / Published: 27 October 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper considers the best sensor configuration and fault accommodation problem for inertial navigation systems which use seven inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. We prove that when six inertial sensors are used, the isolation of a double fault cannot be [...] Read more.
This paper considers the best sensor configuration and fault accommodation problem for inertial navigation systems which use seven inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. We prove that when six inertial sensors are used, the isolation of a double fault cannot be achieved for some combinations of fault magnitudes, whereas when seven inertial sensors are used, the isolation of any double fault can be achieved. There are many configurations which provide the minimum position errors. This paper proposes four configurations which show the best navigation performance and compares their FDI performances. Considering the FDI performance and the complexity of the accommodation rule, we choose one sensor configuration and provide accommodation rules for double faults. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed to show that the accommodation rules work well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Major Improvements of Quartz Crystal Pulling Sensitivity and Linearity Using Series Reactance
Sensors 2009, 9(10), 8263-8270; doi:10.3390/s91008263
Received: 16 July 2009 / Revised: 23 September 2009 / Accepted: 23 September 2009 / Published: 19 October 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a new method of substantially improving frequency pullability and linearity using reactance in series with an AT fundamental crystal operated with a series load capacitance in the range of 3 to 50 pF and frequencies in the range of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new method of substantially improving frequency pullability and linearity using reactance in series with an AT fundamental crystal operated with a series load capacitance in the range of 3 to 50 pF and frequencies in the range of 3.5 to 21 MHz. The research describes high quartz pullability and linearity by varying the load capacitance. The paper also gives impedance circuits for crystal unit (3.5 MHz) together with load capacitance and compensation reactance. The experimental results show that the new approach using compensation method of quartz crystal connected in series reactance increases the frequency pulling range by ×25 to ×100 depending on the type of oscillator and compensation factor ˝k˝ in the temperature range of 10 to 40 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Delay QoS and MAC Aware Energy-Efficient Data-Aggregation Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(10), 7711-7732; doi:10.3390/s91007711
Received: 13 August 2009 / Revised: 14 September 2009 / Accepted: 23 September 2009 / Published: 28 September 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By eliminating redundant data flows, data aggregation capabilities in wireless sensor networks could transmit less data to reduce the total energy consumption. However, additional data collisions incur extra data retransmissions. These data retransmissions not only increase the system energy consumption, but also [...] Read more.
By eliminating redundant data flows, data aggregation capabilities in wireless sensor networks could transmit less data to reduce the total energy consumption. However, additional data collisions incur extra data retransmissions. These data retransmissions not only increase the system energy consumption, but also increase link transmission delays. The decision of when and where to aggregate data depends on the trade-off between data aggregation and data retransmission. The challenges of this problem need to address the routing (layer 3) and the MAC layer retransmissions (layer 2) at the same time to identify energy-efficient data-aggregation routing assignments, and in the meantime to meet the delay QoS. In this paper, for the first time, we study this cross-layer design problem by using optimization-based heuristics. We first model this problem as a non-convex mathematical programming problem where the objective is to minimize the total energy consumption subject to the data aggregation tree and the delay QoS constraints. The objective function includes the energy in the transmission mode (data transmissions and data retransmissions) and the energy in the idle mode (to wait for data from downstream nodes in the data aggregation tree). The proposed solution approach is based on Lagrangean relaxation in conjunction with a number of optimization-based heuristics. From the computational experiments, it is shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing heuristics that do not take MAC layer retransmissions and the energy consumption in the idle mode into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Real-Time Smart Sensor for High-Resolution Frequency Estimation in Power Systems
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 7412-7429; doi:10.3390/s90907412
Received: 2 July 2009 / Revised: 9 September 2009 / Accepted: 14 September 2009 / Published: 15 September 2009
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Power quality monitoring is a theme in vogue and accurate frequency measurement of the power line is a major issue. This problem is particularly relevant for power generating systems since the generated signal must comply with restrictive standards. The novelty of this [...] Read more.
Power quality monitoring is a theme in vogue and accurate frequency measurement of the power line is a major issue. This problem is particularly relevant for power generating systems since the generated signal must comply with restrictive standards. The novelty of this work is the development of a smart sensor for real-time high-resolution frequency measurement in accordance with international standards for power quality monitoring. The proposed smart sensor utilizes commercially available current clamp, hall-effect sensor or resistor as primary sensor. The signal processing is carried out through the chirp z-transform. Simulations and experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed smart sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Bistatic Radar Configuration for Soil Moisture Retrieval: Analysis of the Spatial Coverage
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 7250-7265; doi:10.3390/s90907250
Received: 21 August 2009 / Revised: 8 September 2009 / Accepted: 9 September 2009 / Published: 10 September 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Some outcomes of a feasibility analysis of a spaceborne bistatic radar mission for soil moisture retrieval are presented in this paper. The study starts from the orbital design of the configuration suitable for soil moisture estimation identified in a previous study. This [...] Read more.
Some outcomes of a feasibility analysis of a spaceborne bistatic radar mission for soil moisture retrieval are presented in this paper. The study starts from the orbital design of the configuration suitable for soil moisture estimation identified in a previous study. This configuration is refined according to the results of an analysis of the spatial resolution. The paper focuses on the assessment of the spatial coverage i.e., on the verification that an adequate overlap between the footprints of the antennas is ensured and on the duty cycle, that is the fraction of orbital period during which the bistatic data are acquired. A non-cooperating system is considered, in which the transmitter is the C-band Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard Envisat. The best performances in terms of duty cycle are achieved if the transmitter operates in Wide Swath Mode. The higher resolution Image Swath Modes that comply with the selected configuration have a duty cycle that is never less than 12% and can exceed 21%. When Envisat operates in Wide Swath Mode, the bistatic system covers a wide latitude range across the equator, while in some of the Image Swath Modes, the bistatic measurements, collected from the same orbit, cover mid-latitude areas. In the latter case, it might be possible to achieve full coverage in an Envisat orbit repeat cycle, while, for a very large latitude range such as that covered in Wide Swath Mode, bistatic acquisitions could be obtained over about 65% of the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A MEMS-Based Flow Rate and Flow Direction Sensing Platform with Integrated Temperature Compensation Scheme
Sensors 2009, 9(7), 5460-5476; doi:10.3390/s90705460
Received: 11 May 2009 / Revised: 26 June 2009 / Accepted: 29 June 2009 / Published: 9 July 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study develops a MEMS-based low-cost sensing platform for sensing gas flow rate and flow direction comprising four silicon nitride cantilever beams arranged in a cross-form configuration, a circular hot-wire flow meter suspended on a silicon nitride membrane, and an integrated resistive [...] Read more.
This study develops a MEMS-based low-cost sensing platform for sensing gas flow rate and flow direction comprising four silicon nitride cantilever beams arranged in a cross-form configuration, a circular hot-wire flow meter suspended on a silicon nitride membrane, and an integrated resistive temperature detector (RTD). In the proposed device, the flow rate is inversely derived from the change in the resistance signal of the flow meter when exposed to the sensed air stream. To compensate for the effects of the ambient temperature on the accuracy of the flow rate measurements, the output signal from the flow meter is compensated using the resistance signal generated by the RTD. As air travels over the surface of the cross-form cantilever structure, the upstream cantilevers are deflected in the downward direction, while the downstream cantilevers are deflected in the upward direction. The deflection of the cantilever beams causes a corresponding change in the resistive signals of the piezoresistors patterned on their upper surfaces. The amount by which each beam deflects depends on both the flow rate and the orientation of the beam relative to the direction of the gas flow. Thus, following an appropriate compensation by the temperature-corrected flow rate, the gas flow direction can be determined through a suitable manipulation of the output signals of the four piezoresistors. The experimental results have confirmed that the resulting variation in the output signals of the integrated sensors can be used to determine not only the ambient temperature and the velocity of the air flow, but also its direction relative to the sensor with an accuracy of ± 7.5o error. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology
Sensors 2009, 9(10), 7785-7813; doi:10.3390/s91007785
Received: 27 July 2009 / Revised: 3 September 2009 / Accepted: 16 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (3194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant [...] Read more.
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)
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