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Special Issue "The Toxicity of Natural Products"

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A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jia-You Fang

Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Chang Gung University, Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
Phone: 886-3-2118800
Fax: +886 3 2118236
Interests: pharmaceutics; natural products; dermatology; nanotechnology; drug delivery; pharmacokinetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural products are chemical compounds or substances produced by a living organism - found in nature that usually has a pharmacological or biological activity for use in pharmaceutical drug discovery and drug design. Although the natural products or medicines are beneficial by their pharmacological activities, some products may produce the toxicity and adverse effect to the body. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell or an organ, such as the liver. On the other hand, the natural agents can show the therapeutic effect by exhibiting the toxicity to the pernicious cells or materials. Hence the natural products as the toxins may show dual roles, depending on the targets for treatment. Many researches have systematically studied the toxicity of natural products in recent years. This special issue would focus on any aspects about the toxic effects induced by the natural products. The toxicity of natural products against cancer cells, viruses, germs, or bacteria is also welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Jia-You Fang
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • natural products
  • toxin
  • toxicity
  • pharmacological activity
  • in vitro
  • in vivo

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Plant Natural Compounds with Antibacterial Activity towards Common Pathogens of Pond-Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
Toxins 2010, 2(7), 1676-1689; doi:10.3390/toxins2071676
Received: 28 April 2010 / Revised: 23 June 2010 / Accepted: 25 June 2010 / Published: 28 June 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioassay identified plant [...] Read more.
The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioassay identified plant compounds as potential therapeutants. Chelerythrine chloride and ellagic acid were the most toxic toward E. ictaluri, with 24-h IC50 of 7.3 mg/L and 15.1 mg/L, respectively, and MIC of 2.1 mg/L and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. Chelerythrine chloride, ellagic acid, β-glycyrrhetinic acid, sorgoleone, and wogonin were the most toxic towards two genomovars of F. columnare, and wogonin had the strongest antibacterial activity (MIC = 0.3 mg/L). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Toxicity of Natural Products)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Naturally Occurring Food Toxins
Toxins 2010, 2(9), 2289-2332; doi:10.3390/toxins2092289
Received: 12 August 2010 / Revised: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 13 September 2010 / Published: 20 September 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions [...] Read more.
Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Toxicity of Natural Products)
Open AccessReview Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management
Toxins 2010, 2(8), 1943-1962; doi:10.3390/toxins2081943
Received: 3 June 2010 / Revised: 15 July 2010 / Accepted: 26 July 2010 / Published: 29 July 2010
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There [...] Read more.
Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly successful products based on natural compounds in the major pesticide classes. These include the herbicide glufosinate (synthetic phosphinothricin), the spinosad insecticides, and the strobilurin fungicides. These and other examples of currently marketed natural product-based pesticides, as well as natural toxins that show promise as pesticides from our own research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Toxicity of Natural Products)

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