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Entropy, Volume 16, Issue 8 (August 2014), Pages 4185-4712

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Open AccessArticle Block Access Token Renewal Scheme Based on Secret Sharing in Apache Hadoop
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4185-4198; doi:10.3390/e16084185
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 17 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a cloud computing environment, user data is encrypted and stored using a large number of distributed servers. Global Internet service companies such as Google and Yahoo have recognized the importance of Internet service platforms and conducted their own research and development [...] Read more.
In a cloud computing environment, user data is encrypted and stored using a large number of distributed servers. Global Internet service companies such as Google and Yahoo have recognized the importance of Internet service platforms and conducted their own research and development to utilize large cluster-based cloud computing platform technologies based on low-cost commercial off-the-shelf nodes. Accordingly, as various data services are now allowed over a distributed computing environment, distributed management of big data has become a major issue. On the other hand, security vulnerability and privacy infringement due to malicious attackers or internal users can occur by means of various usage types of big data. In particular, various security vulnerabilities can occur in the block access token, which is used for the permission control of data blocks in Hadoop. To solve this problem, we have proposed a weight-applied XOR-based efficient distribution storage and recovery scheme in this paper. In particular, various security vulnerabilities can occur in the block access token, which is used for the permission control of data blocks in Hadoop. In this paper, a secret sharing-based block access token management scheme is proposed to overcome such security vulnerabilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thermoeconomic Evaluation of Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems (ISCCS)
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4246-4259; doi:10.3390/e16084246
Received: 4 June 2014 / Revised: 3 July 2014 / Accepted: 23 July 2014 / Published: 28 July 2014
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Abstract
Three alternatives for integrating a solar field with the bottoming cycle of a combined cycle plant are modeled: parabolic troughs with oil at intermediate and low cycle pressures and Fresnel linear collectors at low cycle pressure. It is assumed that the plant [...] Read more.
Three alternatives for integrating a solar field with the bottoming cycle of a combined cycle plant are modeled: parabolic troughs with oil at intermediate and low cycle pressures and Fresnel linear collectors at low cycle pressure. It is assumed that the plant will always operate at nominal conditions, using post-combustion during the hours of no solar resource. A thermoeconomic study of the operation of the plant throughout a year has been carried out. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant working in fuel only and hybrid modes are compared. The energy efficiencies obtained are very similar; slightly better for the fuel only mode. The exergy efficiencies are slightly better for hybrid operation than for fuel-only mode, due to the high exergy destruction associated with post-combustion. The values for solar electric efficiency are in line with those of similar studies. The economic study shows that the Fresnel hybridization alternative offers similar performance to the others at a significantly lower cost. Full article
Open AccessArticle Combinatorial Optimization with Information Geometry: The Newton Method
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4260-4289; doi:10.3390/e16084260
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 July 2014 / Published: 28 July 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We discuss the use of the Newton method in the computation of max(p → Εp [f]), where p belongs to a statistical exponential family on a finite state space. In a number of papers, the authors have applied first order search methods [...] Read more.
We discuss the use of the Newton method in the computation of max(p → Εp [f]), where p belongs to a statistical exponential family on a finite state space. In a number of papers, the authors have applied first order search methods based on information geometry. Second order methods have been widely used in optimization on manifolds, e.g., matrix manifolds, but appear to be new in statistical manifolds. These methods require the computation of the Riemannian Hessian in a statistical manifold. We use a non-parametric formulation of information geometry in view of further applications in the continuous state space cases, where the construction of a proper Riemannian structure is still an open problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Geometry)
Open AccessArticle “Lagrangian Temperature”: Derivation and Physical Meaning for Systems Described by Kappa Distributions
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4290-4308; doi:10.3390/e16084290
Received: 24 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 July 2014 / Published: 30 July 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper studies the “Lagrangian temperature” defined through the entropy maximization in the canonical ensemble, which is the negative inverse Lagrangian multiplier corresponding to the constraint of internal energy. The Lagrangian temperature is derived for systems out of thermal equilibrium described by [...] Read more.
The paper studies the “Lagrangian temperature” defined through the entropy maximization in the canonical ensemble, which is the negative inverse Lagrangian multiplier corresponding to the constraint of internal energy. The Lagrangian temperature is derived for systems out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions such as space plasmas. The physical meaning of temperature is manifested by the equivalency of two different definitions, that is, through Maxwell’s kinetic theory and Clausius’ thermodynamics. The equivalency of the two definitions is true either for systems at thermal equilibrium described by Maxwell distributions or for systems out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions, and gives the meaning of the actual temperature, that is, the real or measured temperature. However, the third definition, that of the Lagrangian temperature, coincides with the primary two definitions only at thermal equilibrium, and thus, in the general case of systems out of thermal equilibrium, it does not represent the actual temperature, but it is rather a function of this. The paper derives and examines the exact expression and physical meaning of the Lagrangian temperature, showing that it has essentially different content to what is commonly thought. This is achieved by: (i) maximizing the entropy in the continuous description of energy within the general framework of non-extensive statistical mechanics, (ii) using the concept of the “N-particle” kappa distribution, which is governed by a special kappa index that is invariant of the degrees of freedom and the number of particles, and (iii) determining the appropriate scales of length and speed involved in the phase-space microstates. Finally, the paper demonstrates the behavior of the Lagrangian against the actual temperature in various datasets of space plasmas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Statistical Mechanics)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Suction Nozzle Pressure Drop on the Performance of an Ejector-Expansion Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration Cycle
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4309-4321; doi:10.3390/e16084309
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The basic transcritical CO2 systems exhibit low energy efficiency due to their large throttling loss. Replacing the throttle valve with an ejector is an effective measure for recovering some of the energy lost in the expansion process. In this paper, a [...] Read more.
The basic transcritical CO2 systems exhibit low energy efficiency due to their large throttling loss. Replacing the throttle valve with an ejector is an effective measure for recovering some of the energy lost in the expansion process. In this paper, a thermodynamic model of the ejector-expansion transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle is developed. The effect of the suction nozzle pressure drop (SNPD) on the cycle performance is discussed. The results indicate that the SNPD has little impact on entrainment ratio. There exists an optimum SNPD which gives a maximum recovered pressure and COP under a specified condition. The value of the optimum SNPD mainly depends on the efficiencies of the motive nozzle and the suction nozzle, but it is essentially independent of evaporating temperature and gas cooler outlet temperature. Through optimizing the value of SNPD, the maximum COP of the ejector-expansion cycle can be up to 45.1% higher than that of the basic cycle. The exergy loss of the ejector-expansion cycle is reduced about 43.0% compared with the basic cycle. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exclusion-Zone Dynamics Explored with Microfluidics and Optical Tweezers
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4322-4337; doi:10.3390/e16084322
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The exclusion zone (EZ) is a boundary region devoid of macromolecules and microscopic particles formed spontaneously in the vicinity of hydrophilic surfaces. The exact mechanisms behind this remarkable phenomenon are still not fully understood and are debated. We measured the short- and [...] Read more.
The exclusion zone (EZ) is a boundary region devoid of macromolecules and microscopic particles formed spontaneously in the vicinity of hydrophilic surfaces. The exact mechanisms behind this remarkable phenomenon are still not fully understood and are debated. We measured the short- and long-time-scale kinetics of EZ formation around a Nafion gel embedded in specially designed microfluidic devices. The time-dependent kinetics of EZ formation follow a power law with an exponent of 0.6 that is strikingly close to the value of 0.5 expected for a diffusion-driven process. By using optical tweezers we show that exclusion forces, which are estimated to fall in the sub-pN regime, persist within the fully-developed EZ, suggesting that EZ formation is not a quasi-static but rather an irreversible process. Accordingly, the EZ-forming capacity of the Nafion gel could be exhausted with time, on a scale of hours in the presence of 1 mM Na2HPO4. EZ formation may thus be a non-equilibrium thermodynamic cross-effect coupled to a diffusion-driven transport process. Such phenomena might be particularly important in the living cell by providing mechanical cues within the complex cytoplasmic environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and EZ-Water)
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Open AccessArticle A Natural Gradient Algorithm for Stochastic Distribution Systems
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4338-4352; doi:10.3390/e16084338
Received: 10 September 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
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Abstract
In this paper, we propose a steepest descent algorithm based on the natural gradient to design the controller of an open-loop stochastic distribution control system (SDCS) of multi-input and single output with a stochastic noise. Since the control input vector decides the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a steepest descent algorithm based on the natural gradient to design the controller of an open-loop stochastic distribution control system (SDCS) of multi-input and single output with a stochastic noise. Since the control input vector decides the shape of the output probability density function (PDF), the purpose of the controller design is to select a proper control input vector, so that the output PDF of the SDCS can be as close as possible to the target PDF. In virtue of the statistical characterizations of the SDCS, a new framework based on a statistical manifold is proposed to formulate the control design of the input and output SDCSs. Here, the Kullback–Leibler divergence is presented as a cost function to measure the distance between the output PDF and the target PDF. Therefore, an iterative descent algorithm is provided, and the convergence of the algorithm is discussed, followed by an illustrative example of the effectiveness. Full article
Open AccessArticle Learning Functions and Approximate Bayesian Computation Design: ABCD
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4353-4374; doi:10.3390/e16084353
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A general approach to Bayesian learning revisits some classical results, which study which functionals on a prior distribution are expected to increase, in a preposterior sense. The results are applied to information functionals of the Shannon type and to a class of [...] Read more.
A general approach to Bayesian learning revisits some classical results, which study which functionals on a prior distribution are expected to increase, in a preposterior sense. The results are applied to information functionals of the Shannon type and to a class of functionals based on expected distance. A close connection is made between the latter and a metric embedding theory due to Schoenberg and others. For the Shannon type, there is a connection to majorization theory for distributions. A computational method is described to solve generalized optimal experimental design problems arising from the learning framework based on a version of the well-known approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) method for carrying out the Bayesian analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation. Some simple examples are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy in Experimental Design, Sensor Placement, Inquiry and Search)
Open AccessArticle An Energetic Analysis of the Phase Separation in Non-Ionic Surfactant Mixtures: The Role of the Headgroup Structure
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4375-4391; doi:10.3390/e16084375
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 24 June 2014 / Accepted: 30 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
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Abstract
The main goal of this paper was to examine the effect of the hydrophilic surfactant headgroup on the phase behavior of non-ionic surfactant mixtures. Four mixed systems composed of an ethoxylated plus sugar-based surfactants, each having the same hydrophobic tail, were investigated. [...] Read more.
The main goal of this paper was to examine the effect of the hydrophilic surfactant headgroup on the phase behavior of non-ionic surfactant mixtures. Four mixed systems composed of an ethoxylated plus sugar-based surfactants, each having the same hydrophobic tail, were investigated. We found that the hydrophilicity of the surfactant inhibits the tendency of the system to phase separate, which is sensitive to the presence of NaCl. Applying a classical phase separation thermodynamic model, the corresponding energy parameters were evaluated. In all cases, the parameters were found to depend on the type of nonionic surfactant, its concentration in the micellar solution and the presence of NaCl in the medium. The experimental results can be explained by assuming the phase separation process takes place as a result of reduced hydration of the surfactant headgroup caused by a temperature increase. The enthalpy-entropy compensation plot exhibits excellent linearity. We found that all the mixed surfactant systems coincided on the same straight line, the compensation temperature being lower in the presence of NaCl. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Applied Thermodynamics)
Open AccessArticle Exergy Analysis of a Subcritical Refrigeration Cycle with an Improved Impulse Turbo Expander
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4392-4407; doi:10.3390/e16084392
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 3 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
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Abstract
The impulse turbo expander (ITE) is employed to replace the throttling valve in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle to improve the system performance. An improved ITE and the corresponding cycle are presented. In the new cycle, the ITE not only acts as [...] Read more.
The impulse turbo expander (ITE) is employed to replace the throttling valve in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle to improve the system performance. An improved ITE and the corresponding cycle are presented. In the new cycle, the ITE not only acts as an expansion device with work extraction, but also serves as an economizer with vapor injection. An increase of 20% in the isentropic efficiency can be attained for the improved ITE compared with the conventional ITE owing to the reduction of the friction losses of the rotor. The performance of the novel cycle is investigated based on energy and exergy analysis. A correlation of the optimum intermediate pressure in terms of ITE efficiency is developed. The improved ITE cycle increases the exergy efficiency by 1.4%–6.1% over the conventional ITE cycle, 4.6%–8.3% over the economizer cycle and 7.2%–21.6% over the base cycle. Furthermore, the improved ITE cycle is also preferred due to its lower exergy loss. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Information Entropy Evolution for Groundwater Flow System: A Case Study of Artificial Recharge in Shijiazhuang City, China
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4408-4419; doi:10.3390/e16084408
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 17 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 5 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The groundwater flow system is typical dissipative structure system, and its evolution can be described with system information entropies. The information entropies of groundwater in Shijiazhuang City had been calculated between 1960 and 2005, and the results show that the entropies have [...] Read more.
The groundwater flow system is typical dissipative structure system, and its evolution can be described with system information entropies. The information entropies of groundwater in Shijiazhuang City had been calculated between 1960 and 2005, and the results show that the entropies have a decreasing trend throughout the research period, and they can be divided into our stages based on the groundwater flow system entropy variation as follows: entropy steady period (1960–1965), entropy decreasing period (1965–1980), entropy increasing period (1980–1995) and secondary entropy decreasing period (1995–2005); understanding the major and significant driving the pattern changing forces of groundwater levels is essential to groundwater management,. A new method of grey correlation analysis has been presented, and the results show that, the grey correlation grade between groundwater flow system information entropies and precipitation series is γ01 = 0.749, the grey correlation grade between groundwater flow system information entropies and groundwater withdrawal series is γ02 = 0.814, as the groundwater withdrawal is the main driving force of groundwater flow system entropy variation; based on the numerical simulation results, information entropy increased with artificial recharge, and a smaller recharge water volume would enhance the information entropy drastically, but then doubled water would not increase the information correspondingly, which could be useful to assess the health state of groundwater flow systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Historical and Physical Account on Entropy and Perspectives on the Second Law of Thermodynamics for Astrophysical and Cosmological Systems
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4420-4442; doi:10.3390/e16084420
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 27 July 2014 / Accepted: 30 July 2014 / Published: 5 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We performed an in depth analysis of the subjects of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics and how they are treated in astrophysical systems. These subjects are retraced historically from the early works on thermodynamics to the modern statistical mechanical approach [...] Read more.
We performed an in depth analysis of the subjects of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics and how they are treated in astrophysical systems. These subjects are retraced historically from the early works on thermodynamics to the modern statistical mechanical approach and analyzed in view of specific practices within the field of astrophysics. As often happens in discussions regarding cosmology, the implications of this analysis range from physics to philosophy of science. We argue that the difficult question regarding entropy and the second law in the scope of cosmology is a consequence of the dominating paradigm. We further demonstrate this point by assuming an alternative paradigm, not related to thermodynamics of horizons, and successfully describing entropic behavior of astrophysical systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Structure of a Global Network of Financial Companies Based on Transfer Entropy
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4443-4482; doi:10.3390/e16084443
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 1 August 2014 / Published: 7 August 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work uses the stocks of the 197 largest companies in the world, in terms of market capitalization, in the financial area, from 2003 to 2012. We study the causal relationships between them using Transfer Entropy, which is calculated using the stocks [...] Read more.
This work uses the stocks of the 197 largest companies in the world, in terms of market capitalization, in the financial area, from 2003 to 2012. We study the causal relationships between them using Transfer Entropy, which is calculated using the stocks of those companies and their counterparts lagged by one day. With this, we can assess which companies influence others according to sub-areas of the financial sector, which are banks, diversified financial services, savings and loans, insurance, private equity funds, real estate investment companies, and real estate trust funds. We also analyze the exchange of information between those stocks as seen by Transfer Entropy and the network formed by them based on this measure, verifying that they cluster mainly according to countries of origin, and then by industry and sub-industry. Then we use data on the stocks of companies in the financial sector of some countries that are suffering the most with the current credit crisis, namely Greece, Cyprus, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, and Italy, and assess, also using Transfer Entropy, which companies from the largest 197 are most affected by the stocks of these countries in crisis. The aim is to map a network of influences that may be used in the study of possible contagions originating in those countries in financial crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transfer Entropy)
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Open AccessArticle Is Gravity Entropic Force?
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4483-4488; doi:10.3390/e16084483
Received: 5 June 2014 / Revised: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
If we assume that the source of thermodynamic system, ρ and p, are also the source of gravity, then either thermal quantities, such as entropy, temperature, and chemical potential, can induce gravitational effects, or gravity can induce thermal effects. We find that [...] Read more.
If we assume that the source of thermodynamic system, ρ and p, are also the source of gravity, then either thermal quantities, such as entropy, temperature, and chemical potential, can induce gravitational effects, or gravity can induce thermal effects. We find that gravity can be seen as entropic force only for systems with constant temperature and zero chemical potential. The case for Newtonian approximation is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Spacetime)
Open AccessArticle Complexity and the Emergence of Physical Properties
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4489-4496; doi:10.3390/e16084489
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using the effective complexity measure, proposed by M. Gell-Mann and S. Lloyd, we give a quantitative definition of an emergent property. We use several previous results and properties of this particular information measure closely related to the random features of the entity [...] Read more.
Using the effective complexity measure, proposed by M. Gell-Mann and S. Lloyd, we give a quantitative definition of an emergent property. We use several previous results and properties of this particular information measure closely related to the random features of the entity and its regularities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy Methods in Guided Self-Organization)
Open AccessArticle Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4497-4520; doi:10.3390/e16084497
Received: 21 May 2014 / Revised: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS). Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the [...] Read more.
Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS). Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy in Human Brain Networks)
Open AccessArticle Koszul Information Geometry and Souriau Geometric Temperature/Capacity of Lie Group Thermodynamics
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4521-4565; doi:10.3390/e16084521
Received: 30 March 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 23 June 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2994 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The François Massieu 1869 idea to derive some mechanical and thermal properties of physical systems from “Characteristic Functions”, was developed by Gibbs and Duhem in thermodynamics with the concept of potentials, and introduced by Poincaré in probability. This paper deals with generalization [...] Read more.
The François Massieu 1869 idea to derive some mechanical and thermal properties of physical systems from “Characteristic Functions”, was developed by Gibbs and Duhem in thermodynamics with the concept of potentials, and introduced by Poincaré in probability. This paper deals with generalization of this Characteristic Function concept by Jean-Louis Koszul in Mathematics and by Jean-Marie Souriau in Statistical Physics. The Koszul-Vinberg Characteristic Function (KVCF) on convex cones will be presented as cornerstone of “Information Geometry” theory, defining Koszul Entropy as Legendre transform of minus the logarithm of KVCF, and Fisher Information Metrics as hessian of these dual functions, invariant by their automorphisms. In parallel, Souriau has extended the Characteristic Function in Statistical Physics looking for other kinds of invariances through co-adjoint action of a group on its momentum space, defining physical observables like energy, heat and momentum as pure geometrical objects. In covariant Souriau model, Gibbs equilibriums states are indexed by a geometric parameter, the Geometric (Planck) Temperature, with values in the Lie algebra of the dynamical Galileo/Poincaré groups, interpreted as a space-time vector, giving to the metric tensor a null Lie derivative. Fisher Information metric appears as the opposite of the derivative of Mean “Moment map” by geometric temperature, equivalent to a Geometric Capacity or Specific Heat. We will synthetize the analogies between both Koszul and Souriau models, and will reduce their definitions to the exclusive Cartan “Inner Product”. Interpreting Legendre transform as Fourier transform in (Min,+) algebra, we conclude with a definition of Entropy given by a relation mixing Fourier/Laplace transforms: Entropy = (minus) Fourier(Min,+) o Log o Laplace(+,X). Full article
Open AccessArticle Chaos Synchronization Error Technique-Based Defect Pattern Recognition for GIS through Partial Discharge Signal Analysis
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4566-4582; doi:10.3390/e16084566
Received: 31 May 2014 / Revised: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 31 July 2014 / Published: 13 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The work is aimed at using the chaos synchronization error dynamics (CSED) technique for defect pattern recognition in gas insulated switchgear (GIS). The radiated electromagnetic waves generated due to internal defects were measured by the self-made ultrahigh frequency (UHF) micro-strip antenna, so [...] Read more.
The work is aimed at using the chaos synchronization error dynamics (CSED) technique for defect pattern recognition in gas insulated switchgear (GIS). The radiated electromagnetic waves generated due to internal defects were measured by the self-made ultrahigh frequency (UHF) micro-strip antenna, so as to determine whether partial discharge will occur. Firstly, a data pretreatment is performed on the measured raw data for the purpose of computational burden reduction. A characteristic matrix is then constructed according to dynamic error trajectories in a chaos synchronization system, subsequent to which characteristics are extracted. A comparison with the existing Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) method reveals that the two characteristics extracted from the CSED results presented herein using the fractal theory were recognized at a higher rate pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Systems and Nonlinear Dynamics)
Open AccessArticle Information Entropy-Based Metrics for Measuring Emergences in Artificial Societies
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4583-4602; doi:10.3390/e16084583
Received: 21 May 2014 / Revised: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emergence is a common phenomenon, and it is also a general and important concept in complex dynamic systems like artificial societies. Usually, artificial societies are used for assisting in resolving several complex social issues (e.g., emergency management, intelligent transportation system) with the [...] Read more.
Emergence is a common phenomenon, and it is also a general and important concept in complex dynamic systems like artificial societies. Usually, artificial societies are used for assisting in resolving several complex social issues (e.g., emergency management, intelligent transportation system) with the aid of computer science. The levels of an emergence may have an effect on decisions making, and the occurrence and degree of an emergence are generally perceived by human observers. However, due to the ambiguity and inaccuracy of human observers, to propose a quantitative method to measure emergences in artificial societies is a meaningful and challenging task. This article mainly concentrates upon three kinds of emergences in artificial societies, including emergence of attribution, emergence of behavior, and emergence of structure. Based on information entropy, three metrics have been proposed to measure emergences in a quantitative way. Meanwhile, the correctness of these metrics has been verified through three case studies (the spread of an infectious influenza, a dynamic microblog network, and a flock of birds) with several experimental simulations on the Netlogo platform. These experimental results confirm that these metrics increase with the rising degree of emergences. In addition, this article also has discussed the limitations and extended applications of these metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Systems and Nonlinear Dynamics)
Open AccessArticle A Maximum Entropy Approach for Predicting Epileptic Tonic-Clonic Seizure
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4603-4611; doi:10.3390/e16084603
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (695 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of methods for time series analysis and prediction has always been and continues to be an active area of research. In this work, we develop a technique for modelling chaotic time series in parametric fashion. In the case of tonic-clonic [...] Read more.
The development of methods for time series analysis and prediction has always been and continues to be an active area of research. In this work, we develop a technique for modelling chaotic time series in parametric fashion. In the case of tonic-clonic epileptic electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis, we show that appropriate information theory tools provide valuable insights into the dynamics of neural activity. Our purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of the maximum entropy principle to anticipate tonic-clonic seizure in patients with epilepsy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Electroencephalography)
Open AccessArticle Exergetic and Thermoeconomic Analyses of Solar Air Heating Processes Using a Parabolic Trough Collector
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4612-4625; doi:10.3390/e16084612
Received: 11 May 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 August 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a theoretical and practical analysis of the application of the thermoeconomic method. A furnace for heating air is evaluated using the methodology. The furnace works with solar energy, received from a parabolic trough collector and with electricity supplied by [...] Read more.
This paper presents a theoretical and practical analysis of the application of the thermoeconomic method. A furnace for heating air is evaluated using the methodology. The furnace works with solar energy, received from a parabolic trough collector and with electricity supplied by an electric power utility. The methodology evaluates the process by the first and second law of thermodynamics as the first step then the cost analysis is applied for getting the thermoeconomic cost. For this study, the climatic conditions of the city of Queretaro (Mexico) are considered. Two periods were taken into account: from July 2006 to June 2007 and on 6 January 2011. The prototype, located at CICATA-IPN, Qro, was analyzed in two different scenarios i.e., with 100% of electricity and 100% of solar energy. The results showed that thermoeconomic costs for the heating process with electricity, inside the chamber, are less than those using solar heating. This may be ascribed to the high cost of the materials, fittings, and manufacturing of the solar equipment. Also, the influence of the mass flow, aperture area, length and diameter of the receiver of the solar prototype is a parameter for increasing the efficiency of the prototype in addition to the price of manufacturing. The optimum design parameters are: length is 3 to 5 m, mass flow rate is 0.03 kg/s, diameter of the receiver is around 10 to 30 mm and aperture area is 3 m2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exergy: Analysis and Applications)
Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Scaling Effect on Rainfall Network Design Using Entropy
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4626-4647; doi:10.3390/e16084626
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 August 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
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Abstract
Because of high variation in mountainous areas, rainfall data at different spatiotemporal scales may yield potential uncertainty for network design. However, few studies focus on the scaling effect on both the spatial and the temporal scale. By calculating the maximum joint entropy [...] Read more.
Because of high variation in mountainous areas, rainfall data at different spatiotemporal scales may yield potential uncertainty for network design. However, few studies focus on the scaling effect on both the spatial and the temporal scale. By calculating the maximum joint entropy of hourly typhoon events, monthly, six dry and wet months and annual rainfall between 1992 and 2012 for 1-, 3-, and 5-km grids, the relocated candidate rain gauges in the National Taiwan University Experimental Forest of Central Taiwan are prioritized. The results show: (1) the network exhibits different locations for first prioritized candidate rain gauges for different spatiotemporal scales; (2) the effect of spatial scales is insignificant compared to temporal scales; and (3) a smaller number and a lower percentage of required stations (PRS) reach stable joint entropy for a long duration at finer spatial scale. Prioritized candidate rain gauges provide key reference points for adjusting the network to capture more accurate information and minimize redundancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy in Hydrology)
Open AccessArticle Entropy Production in Pipeline Flow of Dispersions of Water in Oil
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4648-4661; doi:10.3390/e16084648
Received: 23 July 2014 / Revised: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 19 August 2014
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Abstract
Entropy production in pipeline adiabatic flow of water-in-oil emulsions is investigated experimentally in three different diameter pipes. The dispersed-phase (water droplets) concentration of emulsion is varied from 0 to 41% vol. The entropy production rates in emulsion flow are compared with the [...] Read more.
Entropy production in pipeline adiabatic flow of water-in-oil emulsions is investigated experimentally in three different diameter pipes. The dispersed-phase (water droplets) concentration of emulsion is varied from 0 to 41% vol. The entropy production rates in emulsion flow are compared with the values expected in single-phase flow of Newtonian fluids with the same properties (viscosity and density). While in the laminar regime the entropy production rates in emulsion flow can be described adequately by the single-phase Newtonian equations, a significant deviation from single-phase flow behavior is observed in the turbulent regime. In the turbulent regime, the entropy production rates in emulsion flow are found to be substantially smaller than those expected on the basis of single-phase equations. For example, the entropy production rate in water-in-oil emulsion flow at a dispersed-phase volume fraction of 0.41 is only 38.4% of that observed in flow of a single-phase Newtonian fluid with the same viscosity and density, when comparison is made at a Reynolds number of 4000. Thus emulsion flow in pipelines is more efficient thermodynamically than single-phase Newtonian flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thermodynamics)
Open AccessArticle Information-Theoretic Bounded Rationality and ε-Optimality
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4662-4676; doi:10.3390/e16084662
Received: 19 July 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bounded rationality concerns the study of decision makers with limited information processing resources. Previously, the free energy difference functional has been suggested to model bounded rational decision making, as it provides a natural trade-off between an energy or utility function that is [...] Read more.
Bounded rationality concerns the study of decision makers with limited information processing resources. Previously, the free energy difference functional has been suggested to model bounded rational decision making, as it provides a natural trade-off between an energy or utility function that is to be optimized and information processing costs that are measured by entropic search costs. The main question of this article is how the information-theoretic free energy model relates to simple ε-optimality models of bounded rational decision making, where the decision maker is satisfied with any action in an ε-neighborhood of the optimal utility. We find that the stochastic policies that optimize the free energy trade-off comply with the notion of ε-optimality. Moreover, this optimality criterion even holds when the environment is adversarial. We conclude that the study of bounded rationality based on ε-optimality criteria that abstract away from the particulars of the information processing constraints is compatible with the information-theoretic free energy model of bounded rationality. Full article
Open AccessArticle Entropy-Complexity Characterization of Brain Development in Chickens
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4677-4692; doi:10.3390/e16084677
Received: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 20 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electroencephalography (EEG) reflects the electrical activity of the brain, which can be considered chaotic and ruled by a nonlinear dynamics. Chickens exhibit a protracted period of maturation, and this temporal separation of the synapse formation and maturation phases is analogous to human [...] Read more.
Electroencephalography (EEG) reflects the electrical activity of the brain, which can be considered chaotic and ruled by a nonlinear dynamics. Chickens exhibit a protracted period of maturation, and this temporal separation of the synapse formation and maturation phases is analogous to human neural development, though the changes in chickens occur in weeks compared to years in humans. The development of synaptic networks in the chicken brain can be regarded as occurring in two broadly defined phases. We specifically describe the chicken brain development phases in the causality entropy-complexity plane H × C, showing that the complexity of the electrical activity can be characterized by estimating the intrinsic correlational structure of the EEG signal. This allows us to identify the dynamics of the developing chicken brain within the zone of a chaotic dissipative behavior in the plane H × C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Electroencephalography)
Open AccessArticle Some New Results on the Multiple-AccessWiretap Channel
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4693-4712; doi:10.3390/e16084693
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
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Abstract
In this paper, some new results on the multiple-access wiretap channel (MAC-WT) are provided. Specifically, first, we investigate the degraded MAC-WT, where two users transmit their corresponding confidential messages (no common message) to a legitimate receiver via a multiple-access channel (MAC), while [...] Read more.
In this paper, some new results on the multiple-access wiretap channel (MAC-WT) are provided. Specifically, first, we investigate the degraded MAC-WT, where two users transmit their corresponding confidential messages (no common message) to a legitimate receiver via a multiple-access channel (MAC), while a wiretapper wishes to obtain the messages via a physically degraded wiretap channel. The secrecy capacity region of this model is determined for both the discrete memoryless and Gaussian cases. For the Gaussian case, we find that this secrecy capacity region is exactly the same as the achievable secrecy rate region provided by Tekin and Yener, i.e., Tekin–Yener’s achievable region is exactly the secrecy capacity region of the degraded Gaussian MAC-WT. Second, we study a special Gaussian MAC-WT, and find the power control for two kinds of optimal points (max-min point and single user point) on the secrecy rate region of this special Gaussian model. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Computer Simulations of Soft Matter: Linking the Scales
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4199-4245; doi:10.3390/e16084199
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 July 2014 / Published: 28 July 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (8582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last few decades, computer simulations have become a fundamental tool in the field of soft matter science, allowing researchers to investigate the properties of a large variety of systems. Nonetheless, even the most powerful computational resources presently available are, in [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, computer simulations have become a fundamental tool in the field of soft matter science, allowing researchers to investigate the properties of a large variety of systems. Nonetheless, even the most powerful computational resources presently available are, in general, sufficient to simulate complex biomolecules only for a few nanoseconds. This limitation is often circumvented by using coarse-grained models, in which only a subset of the system’s degrees of freedom is retained; for an effective and insightful use of these simplified models; however, an appropriate parametrization of the interactions is of fundamental importance. Additionally, in many cases the removal of fine-grained details in a specific, small region of the system would destroy relevant features; such cases can be treated using dual-resolution simulation methods, where a subregion of the system is described with high resolution, and a coarse-grained representation is employed in the rest of the simulation domain. In this review we discuss the basic notions of coarse-graining theory, presenting the most common methodologies employed to build low-resolution descriptions of a system and putting particular emphasis on their similarities and differences. The AdResS and H-AdResS adaptive resolution simulation schemes are reported as examples of dual-resolution approaches, especially focusing in particular on their theoretical background. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Dynamics Simulation) Print Edition available

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