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Molecules 2013, 18(5), 5736-5748; doi:10.3390/molecules18055736

Production of Flavours and Fragrances via Bioreduction of (4R)-(-)-Carvone and (1R)-(-)-Myrtenal by Non-Conventional Yeast Whole-Cells

Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences & Industrial Yeasts Collection DBVPG, University of Perugia, Borgo XX Giugno 74, Perugia 06121, Italy
Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena & Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 183, Modena 41125, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 29 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavors and Fragrances)
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As part of a program aiming at the selection of yeast strains which might be of interest as sources of natural flavours and fragrances, the bioreduction of (4R)-(−)-carvone and (1R)-(−)-myrtenal by whole-cells of non-conventional yeasts (NCYs) belonging to the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Lindnera, Nakaseomyces, Vanderwaltozyma and Wickerhamomyces was studied. Volatiles produced were sampled by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and the compounds were analysed and identified by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Yields (expressed as % of biotransformation) varied in dependence of the strain. The reduction of both (4R)-(−)-carvone and (1R)-(−)-myrtenal were catalyzed by some ene-reductases (ERs) and/or carbonyl reductases (CRs), which determined the formation of (1R,4R)-dihydrocarvone and (1R)-myrtenol respectively, as main flavouring products. The potential of NCYs as novel whole-cell biocatalysts for selective biotransformation of electron-poor alkenes for producing flavours and fragrances of industrial interest is discussed.
Keywords: biocatalysis; non-conventional yeasts (NCYs); ene-reductases; carbonyl reductases; monoterpenoids; (4R)-(−)-carvone; (1R)-(−)-myrtenal biocatalysis; non-conventional yeasts (NCYs); ene-reductases; carbonyl reductases; monoterpenoids; (4R)-(−)-carvone; (1R)-(−)-myrtenal

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Goretti, M.; Turchetti, B.; Cramarossa, M.R.; Forti, L.; Buzzini, P. Production of Flavours and Fragrances via Bioreduction of (4R)-(-)-Carvone and (1R)-(-)-Myrtenal by Non-Conventional Yeast Whole-Cells. Molecules 2013, 18, 5736-5748.

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