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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 1 (January 2012), Pages 1-1268

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Open AccessArticle Prunella vulgaris Suppresses HG-Induced Vascular Inflammation via Nrf2/HO-1/eNOS Activation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1258-1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011258
Received: 9 October 2011 / Revised: 11 January 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 23 January 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Vascular inflammation is an important factor which can promote diabetic complications. In this study, the inhibitory effects of aqueous extract from Prunella vulgaris (APV) on high glucose (HG)-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are reported. APV
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Vascular inflammation is an important factor which can promote diabetic complications. In this study, the inhibitory effects of aqueous extract from Prunella vulgaris (APV) on high glucose (HG)-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are reported. APV decreased HG-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. APV also dose-dependently inhibited HG-induced adhesion of HL-60 monocytic cells. APV suppressed p65 NF-κB activation in HG-treated cells. APV significantly inhibited the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). HG-stimulated HUVEC secreted gelatinases, however, APV inhibited it. APV induced Akt phosphorylation as well as activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), eNOS, and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which may protect vascular inflammation caused by HG. In conclusion, APV exerts anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of ROS/NF-κB pathway by inducing HO-1 and eNOS expression mediated by Nrf2, thereby suggesting that Prunella vulgaris may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of diabetic vascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Secretory Factors of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Human Keratinocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1239-1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011239
Received: 13 December 2011 / Revised: 12 January 2012 / Accepted: 13 January 2012 / Published: 23 January 2012
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The beneficial effects of adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium (ADSC-CM) on skin regeneration have been reported. Although the mechanism of how ADSC-CM promotes skin regeneration is unclear, ADSC-CM contained various growth factors and it is an excellent raw material for skin treatment. ADSC-CM
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The beneficial effects of adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium (ADSC-CM) on skin regeneration have been reported. Although the mechanism of how ADSC-CM promotes skin regeneration is unclear, ADSC-CM contained various growth factors and it is an excellent raw material for skin treatment. ADSC-CM produced in a hypoxia condition of ADSC—in other words, Advanced Adipose-Derived Stem cell Protein Extract (AAPE)—has great merits for skin regeneration. In this study, human primary keratinocytes (HKs), which play fundamental roles in skin tissue, was used to examine how AAPE affects HK. HK proliferation was significantly higher in the experimental group (1.22 μg/mL) than in the control group. DNA gene chip demonstrated that AAPE in keratinocytes (p < 0.05) notably affected expression of 290 identified transcripts, which were associated with cell proliferation, cycle and migration. More keratinocyte wound healing and migration was shown in the experimental group (1.22 μg/mL). AAPE treatment significantly stimulated stress fiber formation, which was linked to the RhoA-ROCK pathway. We identified 48 protein spots in 2-D gel analysis and selected proteins were divided into 64% collagen components and 30% non-collagen components as shown by the MALDI-TOF analysis. Antibody array results contained growth factor/cytokine such as HGF, FGF-1, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, VEGF, and TGF-β3 differing from that shown by 2-D analysis. Conclusion: AAPE activates HK proliferation and migration. These results highlight the potential of the topical application of AAPE in the treatment of skin regeneration. Full article
Open AccessReview Disruption of Axonal Transport in Motor Neuron Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1225-1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011225
Received: 2 November 2011 / Revised: 11 January 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2012 / Published: 23 January 2012
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Motor neurons typically have very long axons, and fine-tuning axonal transport is crucial for their survival. The obstruction of axonal transport is gaining attention as a cause of neuronal dysfunction in a variety of neurodegenerative motor neuron diseases. Depletions in dynein and dynactin-1,
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Motor neurons typically have very long axons, and fine-tuning axonal transport is crucial for their survival. The obstruction of axonal transport is gaining attention as a cause of neuronal dysfunction in a variety of neurodegenerative motor neuron diseases. Depletions in dynein and dynactin-1, motor molecules regulating axonal trafficking, disrupt axonal transport in flies, and mutations in their genes cause motor neuron degeneration in humans and rodents. Axonal transport defects are among the early molecular events leading to neurodegeneration in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Gene expression profiles indicate that dynactin-1 mRNA is downregulated in degenerating spinal motor neurons of autopsied patients with sporadic ALS. Dynactin-1 mRNA is also reduced in the affected neurons of a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a motor neuron disease caused by triplet CAG repeat expansion in the gene encoding the androgen receptor. Pathogenic androgen receptor proteins also inhibit kinesin-1 microtubule-binding activity and disrupt anterograde axonal transport by activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Disruption of axonal transport also underlies the pathogenesis of spinal muscular atrophy and hereditary spastic paraplegias. These observations suggest that the impairment of axonal transport is a key event in the pathological processes of motor neuron degeneration and an important target of therapy development for motor neuron diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Targeting Protective Autophagy Exacerbates UV-Triggered Apoptotic Cell Death
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1209-1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011209
Received: 12 December 2011 / Revised: 10 January 2012 / Accepted: 12 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Autophagy is activated by various stresses, including DNA damage, and previous studies of DNA damage-induced autophagy have focused on the response to chemotherapeutic drugs, ionizing radiation, and reactive oxygen species. In this study, we investigated the biological significance of autophagic response to ultraviolet
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Autophagy is activated by various stresses, including DNA damage, and previous studies of DNA damage-induced autophagy have focused on the response to chemotherapeutic drugs, ionizing radiation, and reactive oxygen species. In this study, we investigated the biological significance of autophagic response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in A549 and H1299 cells. Our results indicated that UV induces on-rate autophagic flux in these cells. Autophagy inhibition resulting from the knockdown of beclin-1 and Atg5 reduced cell viability and enhanced apoptosis. Moreover, we found that ATR phosphorylation was accompanied by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B II (LC3B-II) expression during the early phases following UV irradiation, which is a well-established inducer of ATR. Knocking down ATR further attenuated the reduction in LC3B-II at early stages in response to UV treatment. Despite the potential role of ATR in autophagic response, reduced ATR expression does not affect autophagy induction during late phases (24 and 48 h after UV treatment). The result is consistent with the reduced ATR phosphorylation at the same time points and suggests that autophagic response at this stage is activated via a distinct pathway. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that autophagy acts as a cytoprotective mechanism against UV-induced apoptosis and that autophagy induction accompanied with apoptosis at late stages is independent of ATR activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of AKT2 Enhances Sensitivity to Gemcitabine via Regulating PUMA and NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1186-1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011186
Received: 1 October 2011 / Revised: 8 December 2011 / Accepted: 21 December 2011 / Published: 20 January 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Invasion, metastasis and resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents are obstacles to successful treatment of pancreatic cancer, and a better understanding of the molecular basis of this malignancy may lead to improved therapeutics. In the present study, we investigated whether AKT2 silencing sensitized
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Invasion, metastasis and resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents are obstacles to successful treatment of pancreatic cancer, and a better understanding of the molecular basis of this malignancy may lead to improved therapeutics. In the present study, we investigated whether AKT2 silencing sensitized pancreatic cancer L3.6pl, BxPC-3, PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 cells to gemcitabine via regulating PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. MTT, TUNEL, EMSA and NF-κB reporter assays were used to detect tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis and NF-κB activity. Western blotting was used to detect different protein levels. Xenograft of established tumors was used to evaluate primary tumor growth and apoptosis after treatment with gemcitabine alone or in combination with AKT2 siRNA. Gemcitabine activated AKT2 and NF-κB in MIAPaCa-2 and L3.6pl cells in vitro or in vivo, and in PANC-1 cells only in vivo. Gemcitabine only activated NF-κB in BxPC-3 cells in vitro. The presence of PUMA was necessary for gemcitabine-induced apoptosis only in BxPC-3 cells in vitro. AKT2 inhibition sensitized gemcitabine-induced apoptosis via PUMA upregulation in MIAPaCa-2 cells in vitro, and via NF-κB activity inhibition in L3.6pl cells in vitro. In PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 cells in vivo, AKT2 inhibition sensitized gemcitabine-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition via both PUMA upregulation and NF-κB inhibition. We suggest that AKT2 inhibition abrogates gemcitabine-induced activation of AKT2 and NF-κB, and promotes gemcitabine-induced PUMA upregulation, resulting in chemosensitization of pancreatic tumors to gemcitabine, which is probably an important strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Open AccessArticle microRNA Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Epithelial Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1173-1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011173
Received: 2 December 2011 / Revised: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 13 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
microRNAs represent a family of very small non-coding RNAs that control several physiologic and pathologic processes, including host immune response and cancer by antagonizing a number of target mRNAs. There is limited knowledge about cell expression and the regulatory role of microRNAs following
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microRNAs represent a family of very small non-coding RNAs that control several physiologic and pathologic processes, including host immune response and cancer by antagonizing a number of target mRNAs. There is limited knowledge about cell expression and the regulatory role of microRNAs following bacterial infections. We investigated whether infection with a Gram-positive bacterium leads to altered expression of microRNAs involved in the host cell response in epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were infected with Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e, a mutant strain (∆inlAB or ∆hly) or incubated with purified listeriolysin (LLO). Total RNA was isolated and microRNA and target gene expression was compared to the expression in non-infected cells using microRNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. We identified and validated five microRNAs (miR-146b, miR-16, let-7a1, miR-145 and miR-155) that were significantly deregulated following listerial infection. We show that expression patterns of particular microRNAs strongly depend on pathogen localization and the presence of bacterial effector proteins. Strikingly, miR-155 which was shown to have an important role in inflammatory responses during infection was induced by wild-type bacteria, by LLO-deficient bacteria and following incubation with purified LLO. It was downregulated following ∆inlAB infection indicating a new potent role for internalins in listerial pathogenicity and miRNA regulation. Concurrently, we observed differences in target transcript expression of the investigated miRNAs. We provide first evidence that L. monocytogenes infection leads to deregulation of a set of microRNAs with important roles in host response. Distinct microRNA expression depends on both LLO and pathogen localization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs)
Open AccessArticle High-Dimensional Descriptor Selection and Computational QSAR Modeling for Antitumor Activity of ARC-111 Analogues Based on Support Vector Regression (SVR)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1161-1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011161
Received: 3 November 2011 / Revised: 9 January 2012 / Accepted: 17 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To design ARC-111 analogues with improved efficiency, we constructed the QSAR of 22 ARC-111 analogues with RPMI8402 tumor cells. First, the optimized support vector regression (SVR) model based on the literature descriptors and the worst descriptor elimination multi-roundly (WDEM) method had similar generalization
[...] Read more.
To design ARC-111 analogues with improved efficiency, we constructed the QSAR of 22 ARC-111 analogues with RPMI8402 tumor cells. First, the optimized support vector regression (SVR) model based on the literature descriptors and the worst descriptor elimination multi-roundly (WDEM) method had similar generalization as the artificial neural network (ANN) model for the test set. Secondly, seven and 11 more effective descriptors out of 2,923 features were selected by the high-dimensional descriptor selection nonlinearly (HDSN) and WDEM method, and the SVR models (SVR3 and SVR4) with these selected descriptors resulted in better evaluation measures and a more precise predictive power for the test set. The interpretability system of better SVR models was further established. Our analysis offers some useful parameters for designing ARC-111 analogues with enhanced antitumor activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of New 24 Microsatellite DNA Markers for Golden Cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1154-1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011154
Received: 23 December 2011 / Revised: 12 January 2012 / Accepted: 13 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (88 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Twenty-four microsatellite DNA markers were isolated and characterized for golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) from a (GT)13—enriched genomic library. Loci were tested in 48 individuals from Jiaozhou bay of China. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two
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Twenty-four microsatellite DNA markers were isolated and characterized for golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) from a (GT)13—enriched genomic library. Loci were tested in 48 individuals from Jiaozhou bay of China. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 25 with an average of 10.3. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.896 and from 0.137 to 0.953, with averages of 0.519 and 0.633, respectively. Six loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni’s correction and no significant linkage disequilibrium between loci pairs was detected. These microsatellite markers would be useful for analyzing the population genetic structure to make conservation and management decisions for S. esculenta. Full article
Open AccessReview Clinical Significance of Serum Biomarkers in Pediatric Solid Mediastinal and Abdominal Tumors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1126-1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011126
Received: 7 December 2011 / Revised: 1 January 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Childhood cancer is the leading cause of death by disease among U.S. children between infancy and age 15. Despite successes in treating solid tumors such as Wilms tumor, disappointments in the outcomes of high-risk solid tumors like neuroblastoma have precipitated efforts towards the
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Childhood cancer is the leading cause of death by disease among U.S. children between infancy and age 15. Despite successes in treating solid tumors such as Wilms tumor, disappointments in the outcomes of high-risk solid tumors like neuroblastoma have precipitated efforts towards the early and accurate detection of these malignancies. This review summarizes available solid tumor serum biomarkers with a special focus on mediastinal and abdominal cancers in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Temozolomide/Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/Nano-Hydroxyapatite Microspheres on Glioma U87 Cells Behavior
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1109-1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011109
Received: 7 November 2011 / Revised: 20 December 2011 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 19 January 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (1891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the effects of temozolomide (TMZ)/Poly (lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA)/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres on the behavior of U87 glioma cells. The microspheres were fabricated by the “Solid/Water/Oil” method, and they were characterized by using X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning
[...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the effects of temozolomide (TMZ)/Poly (lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA)/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres on the behavior of U87 glioma cells. The microspheres were fabricated by the “Solid/Water/Oil” method, and they were characterized by using X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of glioma cells were evaluated by MTT, flow cytometry assay and Transwell assay. The presence of the key invasive gene, αVβ3 integrin, was detected by the RT-PCR and Western blot method. It was found that the temozolomide/PLGA/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres have a significantly diminished initial burst of drug release, compared to the TMZ laden PLGA microspheres. Our results suggest they can significantly inhibit the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells, and induce their apoptosis. Additionally, αVβ3 integrin was also reduced by the microspheres. These data suggest that by inhibiting the biological behavior of glioma cells in vitro, the newly designed temozolomide/PLGA/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres, as controlled drug release carriers, have promising potential in treating glioma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Local Mechanical Stimulation of Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney Cell Sheets on Temperature-Responsive Hydrogel
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1095-1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011095
Received: 13 September 2011 / Revised: 25 December 2011 / Accepted: 13 January 2012 / Published: 19 January 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Collective motion of cell sheets plays a role not only in development and repair, but also in devastating diseases such as cancer. However, unlike single-cell motility, collective motion of cell sheets involves complex cell-cell communication during migration; therefore, its mechanism is largely unknown.
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Collective motion of cell sheets plays a role not only in development and repair, but also in devastating diseases such as cancer. However, unlike single-cell motility, collective motion of cell sheets involves complex cell-cell communication during migration; therefore, its mechanism is largely unknown. To elucidate propagation of signaling transduced by cell-cell interaction, we designed a hydrogel substrate that can cause local mechanical stretching of cell sheets. Poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogel is a temperature-responsive polymer gel whose volume changes isotropically in response to temperature changes below 37 °C. We designed a combined hydrogel substrate consisting of collagen-immobilized PNIPAAm as the local stimulation side and polyacrylamide (PAAm) as the non-stimulation side to assess propagation of mechanical transduction. Mardin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells adhered to the collagen-immobilized PNIPAAm gel increased it area and were flattened as the gel swelled with temperature decrease. E-cadherin in these cells became undetectable in some domains, and actin stress fibers were more clearly observed at the cell base. In contrast, E-cadherin in cells adhered to the collagen-immobilized PAAm side was equally stained as that in cells adhered to the collagen-immobilized PAAm side even after temperature decrease. ERK1/2 MAPK activation of cells on the non-stimulated substrate occurred after partial stretching of the cell sheet suggesting the propagation of signaling. These results indicate that a change in the balance of mechanical tension induced by partial stretching of cell sheets leads to activation and propagation of the cell signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Programmable Materials for Mechanobiology)
Open AccessArticle On the Several Molecules and Nanostructures of Water
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1066-1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011066
Received: 30 September 2011 / Revised: 4 January 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 19 January 2012
PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the water molecule from a variety of viewpoints. Water can involve different isotopes of Hydrogen and Oxygen, it can form differently shaped isomer molecules, and, when frozen, it occupies space differently than most other substances do. The tool for conducting
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This paper investigates the water molecule from a variety of viewpoints. Water can involve different isotopes of Hydrogen and Oxygen, it can form differently shaped isomer molecules, and, when frozen, it occupies space differently than most other substances do. The tool for conducting the investigation of all this is called ‘Algebraic Chemistry’. This tool is a quantitative model for predicting the energy budget for all sorts of changes between different ionization states of atoms that are involved in chemical reactions and in changes of physical state. The model is based on consistent patterns seen in empirical data about ionization potentials, together with rational scaling laws that can interpolate and extrapolate for situations where no data are available. The results of the investigation of the water molecule include comments, both positive and negative, about technologies involving heavy water, poly water, Brown’s gas, and cold fusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atoms in Molecules and in Nanostructures)
Open AccessArticle Studies on Bioflocculant Production by Arthrobacter sp. Raats, a Freshwater Bacteria Isolated from Tyume River, South Africa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1054-1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011054
Received: 24 November 2011 / Revised: 6 January 2012 / Accepted: 17 January 2012 / Published: 19 January 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A bioflocculant-producing bacteria was isolated from Tyume River in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa and identified by 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence to have 91% similarity to Arthrobacter sp. 5J12A, and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Arthrobacter sp. Raats
[...] Read more.
A bioflocculant-producing bacteria was isolated from Tyume River in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa and identified by 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence to have 91% similarity to Arthrobacter sp. 5J12A, and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Arthrobacter sp. Raats (accession number HQ875723). The bacteria produced an extracellular bioflocculant when grown aerobically in a production medium containing glucose as sole carbon source and had an initial pH of 7.0. Influences of carbon, nitrogen and metal ions sources, as well as initial pH on flocculating activity were investigated. The bacteria optimally produced the bioflocullant when lactose and urea were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen respectively with flocculating activities of 75.4% and 83.4% respectively. Also, the bacteria produced the bioflocculant optimally when initial pH of the medium was 7.0 (flocculating activity 84%), and when Mg2+ was used as cation (flocculating activity 77%). Composition analyses indicated the bioflocculant to be principally a glycoprotein made up of about 56% protein and 25% total carbohydrate. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cloning and Expression Analysis of a PISTILLATA Homologous Gene from Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1039-1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011039
Received: 6 December 2011 / Revised: 27 December 2011 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 19 January 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
PISTILLATA (PI)-like genes are crucial regulators of flowering in angiosperms. A homologue of PI, designated as AcPI (Genbank accession number HQ717796), was isolated from pineapple cultivar Comte de Paris by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid
[...] Read more.
PISTILLATA (PI)-like genes are crucial regulators of flowering in angiosperms. A homologue of PI, designated as AcPI (Genbank accession number HQ717796), was isolated from pineapple cultivar Comte de Paris by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of AcPI is 907 bp in length and contains an open reading frame of 594 bp, which encodes a protein of 197 amino acids. The molecular weight was 2.29 kDa and the isoelectric point was 9.28. The alignment showed that AcPI had a high identity with CsPIC2 (78.6%), AoPI (77.4%), OrcPI (75.7%) and HPI2 (72.4%). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses in different tissues showed that the expression pattern of AcPI was different from the B-class genes in eudicots. AcPI was expressed in all the tissues investigated. The expression level was very low in fruit stems, bracts, leaves and sepals, high in petals and carpels, and moderate in apical meristems, flesh and stamens. The qRT-PCR analyses in different stages indicated that the expression of AcPI reached the highest level at 40 days after flower inducement, when the multiple fruit and floral organs were forming. It proved the important role of AcPI in floral organs and fruit development. The 35S::AcPI transgenic Arabidopsis plants flowered earlier and had more inflorescences or branches than wild type plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structural Elucidation and Bioactivity of Biflavonoids from the Stems of Wikstroemia taiwanensis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 1029-1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13011029
Received: 6 December 2011 / Revised: 1 January 2012 / Accepted: 10 January 2012 / Published: 18 January 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three new biflavonoids, wikstaiwanones A–C (13), along with four known compounds (47) were isolated from the stems of Wikstroemia taiwanensis (Thymelaeaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 4 and 5 showed antitubercular activity
[...] Read more.
Three new biflavonoids, wikstaiwanones A–C (13), along with four known compounds (47) were isolated from the stems of Wikstroemia taiwanensis (Thymelaeaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 4 and 5 showed antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values of 15 μg/mL, respectively. Full article
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