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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 2 (February 2012), Pages 1269-2534

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Open AccessArticle Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts from Ligustrum vulgare L. as an Individual Treatment and in Combination with Palladium Complex
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2521-2534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022521
Received: 27 December 2011 / Revised: 23 January 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1040 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine the growth inhibitory effects of methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of L. vulgare on HCT-116 cells over different time periods and their synergistic effect with a Pd(apox) complex. The antiproliferative activity of plant extracts alone
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The aim of this study is to examine the growth inhibitory effects of methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of L. vulgare on HCT-116 cells over different time periods and their synergistic effect with a Pd(apox) complex. The antiproliferative activity of plant extracts alone or in combination with the Pd(apox) complex was determined using MTT cell viability assay, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter of cytotoxicity. Results show that antiproliferative effects of L. vulgare extracts increase with extension of exposure time, with decreasing IC50 values, except for 72 h where the IC50 values for methanolic leaf extract were lower than for the fruit extract. The Pd(apox) complex alone had a weak antiproliferative effect, but combination with L. vulgare extracts caused stronger effects with lower IC50 values than with L. vulgare extracts alone. The type of cell death was explored by fluorescence microscopy using the acridin orange/ethidium bromide method. Treatments with plant extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HCT-116 cells and co-treatments with Pd(apox) complex caused higher levels of apoptotic cells than treatment with plant extracts alone. The results indicate that L. vulgare is a considerable source of natural bioactive substances with antiproliferative activity on HCT-116 cells and which have a substantial synergistic effect with the Pd(apox) complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessCommunication Isolation and Characterization of New Microsatellite Markers for the Invasive Softshell Clam, Mya arenaria (L.) (Bivalvia: Myidae)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2515-2520; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022515
Received: 19 January 2012 / Revised: 7 February 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (88 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The invasive softshell clam (Mya arenaria Linnaeus, 1758) is native to the northwestern region of the Atlantic Ocean. This species has been introduced in the northeast Pacific and along the European coasts, due to intense naval transports and aquaculture, and it is
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The invasive softshell clam (Mya arenaria Linnaeus, 1758) is native to the northwestern region of the Atlantic Ocean. This species has been introduced in the northeast Pacific and along the European coasts, due to intense naval transports and aquaculture, and it is now present in all the European seas. In this paper we describe seven new microsatellite loci for Mya arenaria. The isolated loci are polymorphic with a number of alleles per locus between 6 and 14. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.417 to 0.951, and from 0.643 to 0.895, with an average of 0.716 and 0.775, respectively. These microsatellite markers should be useful in analyzing this species’ genetic diversity, which could explain various processes of its invasion history. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Spectroscopic Parameter and Molecular Constant Investigations on Low-Lying States of BeF Radical
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2501-2514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022501
Received: 12 December 2011 / Revised: 3 February 2012 / Accepted: 9 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The potential energy curves (PECs) of X2Σ+, A2Πr and B2Σ+ states of BeF radical have been investigated using the complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) method, followed by the highly accurate valence internally contracted
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The potential energy curves (PECs) of X2Σ+, A2Πr and B2Σ+ states of BeF radical have been investigated using the complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) method, followed by the highly accurate valence internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) approach at the correlation-consistent basis sets, cc-pV5Z for Be and aug-cc-pV6Z for F. Based on the PECs of X2Σ+, A2Πr and B2Σ+ states, the spectroscopic parameters (De, Re, ωe, ωeχe, αe and Be) have also been determined in the present work. With the PECs determined at the present level of theory, vibrational states have been predicted for each state when the rotational quantum number J equals zero (J = 0). The vibrational levels, inertial rotation and centrifugal distortion constants are determined for the three states, and the classical turning points are also calculated for the X2Σ+ state. Compared with the available experiments and other theories, it can be seen that the present spectroscopic parameter and molecular constant results are more fully in agreement with the experimental findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Electronic Structure Calculations)
Open AccessArticle The Expression Profiling of the Lipoxygenase (LOX) Family Genes During Fruit Development, Abiotic Stress and Hormonal Treatments in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2481-2500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022481
Received: 23 December 2011 / Revised: 8 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (2256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are non-haem iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipids to initiate the formation of a group of biologically active compounds called oxylipins. Plant oxylipins play important and diverse functions in the cells. In the current study, expression
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Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are non-haem iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipids to initiate the formation of a group of biologically active compounds called oxylipins. Plant oxylipins play important and diverse functions in the cells. In the current study, expression analysis during cucumber development using semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that 13 of 23 CsLOX genes were detectable, and were tissue specific or preferential accumulation. In total, 12 genes were found to be differentially expressed during fruit development and have different patterns of expression in exocarp, endocarp and pulp at day 5 after anthesis. The expression analysis of these 12 cucumber LOX genes in response to abiotic stresses and plant growth regulator treatments revealed their differential transcript in response to more than one treatment, indicating their diverse functions in abiotic stress and hormone responses. Results suggest that in cucumber the expanded LOX genes may play more diverse roles in life cycle and comprehensive data generated will be helpful in conducting functional genomic studies to understand their precise roles in cucumber fruit development and stress responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2472-2480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022472
Received: 13 December 2011 / Revised: 16 February 2012 / Accepted: 16 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH
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Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle First Insights on Organic Cosolvent Effects on FhuA Wildtype and FhuA Δ1-159
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2459-2471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022459
Received: 6 January 2012 / Revised: 9 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Circular dichroism (CD) and deconvolution were used to study the structural integrity of a “plugged” and an “open” FhuA transmembrane channel protein in the presence of varied concentrations of tetrahydrofuran (THF), ethanol (EtOH) and chloroform/methanol (C/M). FhuA is an Escherichia coli outer membrane
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Circular dichroism (CD) and deconvolution were used to study the structural integrity of a “plugged” and an “open” FhuA transmembrane channel protein in the presence of varied concentrations of tetrahydrofuran (THF), ethanol (EtOH) and chloroform/methanol (C/M). FhuA is an Escherichia coli outer membrane protein (78.9 kDa) consisting of 22 β-sheets and an internal globular cork domain which acts as an iron transporter. FhuA and the deletion variant FhuA Δ1-159 showed comparable and remarkable resistance in the presence of THF (≤40 vol%) and EtOH (≤10 vol%). In C/M, significant differences in structural resistance were observed (FhuA stable ≤10 vol%; FhuA Δ1-159 ≤1 vol%). Deconvolution of CD-spectra for FhuA and FhuA Δ1-159 yielded β-sheet contents of 61 % (FhuA) and 58% (FhuA Δ1-159). Interestingly, FhuA and FhuA Δ1-159 had comparable β-sheet contents in the presence and absence of all three organic cosolvents. Additionally, precipitated FhuA and FhuA Δ1-159 (in 40 vol% C/M or 65 vol% THF) redissolved by supplementing the detergent n-octyl-oligo-oxyethylene (oPOE). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Circular Dichroism)
Open AccessArticle Enhancing Osteoconduction of PLLA-Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration Using Different Biomimetic Signals to MSCs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2439-2458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022439
Received: 27 December 2011 / Revised: 13 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In bone engineering, the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells rely on signaling from chemico-physical structure of the substrate, therefore prompting the design of mimetic “extracellular matrix”-like scaffolds. In this study, three-dimensional porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds have been mixed with
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In bone engineering, the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells rely on signaling from chemico-physical structure of the substrate, therefore prompting the design of mimetic “extracellular matrix”-like scaffolds. In this study, three-dimensional porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds have been mixed with different components, including single walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), micro-hydroxyapatite particles (HA), and BMP2, and treated with plasma (PT), to obtain four different nanocomposites: PLLA + CNT, PLLA + CNTHA, PLLA + CNT + HA + BMP2 and PLLA + CNT + HA + PT. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were derived from the femur of orthopaedic patients, seeded on the scaffolds and cultured under osteogenic induction up to differentiation and mineralization. The release of specific metabolites and temporal gene expression profiles of marrow-derived osteoprogenitors were analyzed at definite time points, relevant to in vitro culture as well as in vivo differentiation. As a result, the role of the different biomimetic components added to the PLLA matrix was deciphered, with BMP2-added scaffolds showing the highest biomimetic activity on cells differentiating to mature osteoblasts. The modification of a polymeric scaffold with reinforcing components which also work as biomimetic cues for cells can effectively direct osteoprogenitor cells differentiation, so as to shorten the time required for mineralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composite Materials in Skeletal Engineering)
Open AccessArticle DNA Barcodes of Asian Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2425-2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022425
Received: 21 December 2011 / Revised: 13 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Populations of Houbara Bustards have dramatically declined in recent years. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs have had limited success in reviving population numbers and thus new technological solutions involving molecular methods are essential for the long term survival of this species. In this
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Populations of Houbara Bustards have dramatically declined in recent years. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs have had limited success in reviving population numbers and thus new technological solutions involving molecular methods are essential for the long term survival of this species. In this study, we sequenced the 694 bp segment of COI gene of the four specimens of Asian Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii). We also compared these sequences with earlier published barcodes of 11 individuals comprising different families of the orders Gruiformes, Ciconiiformes, Podicipediformes and Crocodylia (out group). The pair-wise sequence comparison showed a total of 254 variable sites across all the 15 sequences from different taxa. Three of the four specimens of Houbara Bustard had an identical sequence of COI gene and one individual showed a single nucleotide difference (G > A transition at position 83). Within the bustard family (Otididae), comparison among the three species (Asian Houbara Bustard, Great Bustard (Otis tarda) and the Little Bustard (Tetrax tetrax)), representing three different genera, showed 116 variable sites. For another family (Rallidae), the intra-family variable sites among the individuals of four different genera were found to be 146. The COI genetic distances among the 15 individuals varied from 0.000 to 0.431. Phylogenetic analysis using 619 bp nucleotide segment of COI clearly discriminated all the species representing different genera, families and orders. All the four specimens of Houbara Bustard formed a single clade and are clearly separated from other two individuals of the same family (Otis tarda and Tetrax tetrax). The nucleotide sequence of partial segment of COI gene effectively discriminated the closely related species. This is the first study reporting the barcodes of Houbara Bustard and would be helpful in future molecular studies, particularly for the conservation of this threatened bird in Saudi Arabia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Different Functionalized Lipidic Nanocapsules as Potential Drug Carriers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2405-2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022405
Received: 21 December 2011 / Revised: 14 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lipid nanocapsules (LNC) based on a core-shell structure consisting of an oil-filled core with a surrounding polymer layer are known to be promising vehicles for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs in the new therapeutic strategies in anti-cancer treatments. The present work has been
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Lipid nanocapsules (LNC) based on a core-shell structure consisting of an oil-filled core with a surrounding polymer layer are known to be promising vehicles for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs in the new therapeutic strategies in anti-cancer treatments. The present work has been designed as basic research about different LNC systems. We have synthesized—and physico-chemically characterized—three different LNC systems in which the core was constituted by olive oil and the shell by different phospholipids (phosphatidyl-serine or lecithin) and other biocompatible molecules such as Pluronic® F68 or chitosan. It is notable that the olive-oil-phosphatidyl-serine LCN is a novel formulation presented in this work and was designed to generate an enriched carboxylic surface. This carboxylic layer is meant to link specific antibodies, which could facilitate the specific nanocapsule uptake by cancer cells. This is why nanoparticles with phosphatidyl-serine in their shell have also been used in this work to form immuno-nanocapsules containing a polyclonal IgG against a model antigen (C-reactive protein) covalently bounded by means of a simple and reproducible carbodiimide method. An immunological study was made to verify that these IgG-LNC complexes showed the expected specific immune response. Finally, a preliminary in vitro study was performed by culturing a breast-carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) with Nile-Red-loaded LNC. We found that these cancer cells take up the fluorescent Nile-Red molecule in a process dependent on the surface properties of the nanocarriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Molecules to Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine Derivatives as Type II Kinase Insert Domain Receptor (KDR) Inhibitors: CoMFA and CoMSIA Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2387-2404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022387
Received: 21 December 2011 / Revised: 13 February 2012 / Accepted: 16 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) inhibitors have been proved to be very effective anticancer agents. Molecular docking, 3D-QSAR methods, CoMFA and CoMSIA were performed on pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives as non-ATP competitive KDR inhibitors (type II). The bioactive conformation was explored by docking
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Kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) inhibitors have been proved to be very effective anticancer agents. Molecular docking, 3D-QSAR methods, CoMFA and CoMSIA were performed on pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives as non-ATP competitive KDR inhibitors (type II). The bioactive conformation was explored by docking one potent compound 20 into the active site of KDR in its DFG-out inactive conformation. The constructed CoMFA and CoMSIA models produced statistically significant results with the cross-validated correlation coefficients q2 of 0.542 and 0.552, non-cross-validated correlation coefficients r2 of 0.912 and 0.955, and predicted correction coefficients r2pred of 0.913 and 0.897, respectively. These results ensure the CoMFA and CoMSIA models as a tool to guide the design of a series of new potent KDR inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessReview Impaired Iron Status in Aging Research
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2368-2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022368
Received: 17 November 2011 / Revised: 18 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aging is associated with disturbances in iron metabolism and storage. During the last decade, remarkable progress has been made toward understanding their cellular and molecular mechanisms in aging and age-associated diseases using both cultured cells and animal models. The field has moved beyond
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Aging is associated with disturbances in iron metabolism and storage. During the last decade, remarkable progress has been made toward understanding their cellular and molecular mechanisms in aging and age-associated diseases using both cultured cells and animal models. The field has moved beyond descriptive studies to potential intervention studies focusing on iron chelation and removal. However, some findings remain controversial and inconsistent. This review summarizes important features of iron dyshomeostasis in aging research with a particular emphasis on current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying age-associated disorders in rodent models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
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Open AccessArticle Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of the Oak Silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) Pupal Oil: Process Optimization and Composition Determination
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2354-2367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022354
Received: 22 November 2011 / Revised: 19 January 2012 / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of oil from oak silkworm pupae was performed in the present research. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of SC-CO2 extraction, including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow rate
[...] Read more.
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of oil from oak silkworm pupae was performed in the present research. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of SC-CO2 extraction, including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow rate on the yield of oak silkworm pupal oil (OSPO). The optimal extraction condition for oil yield within the experimental range of the variables researched was at 28.03 MPa, 1.83 h, 35.31 °C and 20.26 L/h as flow rate of CO2. Under this condition, the oil yield was predicted to be 26.18%. The oak silkworm pupal oil contains eight fatty acids, and is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and α-linolenic acid (ALA), accounting for 77.29% and 34.27% in the total oil respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Fluid Extraction)
Open AccessReview Epigenetic Disregulation in Oral Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2331-2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022331
Received: 6 December 2011 / Revised: 9 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral region (OSCC) is one of the most common and highly aggressive malignancies worldwide, despite the fact that significant results have been achieved during the last decades in its detection, prevention and treatment. Although many efforts have been
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral region (OSCC) is one of the most common and highly aggressive malignancies worldwide, despite the fact that significant results have been achieved during the last decades in its detection, prevention and treatment. Although many efforts have been made to define the molecular signatures that identify the clinical outcome of oral cancers, OSCC still lacks reliable prognostic molecular markers. Scientific evidence indicates that transition from normal epithelium to pre-malignancy, and finally to oral carcinoma, depends on the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a multistep process. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic changes are heritable and potentially reversible. The most common examples of such changes are DNA methylation, histone modification, and small non-coding RNAs. Although several epigenetic changes have been currently linked to OSCC initiation and progression, they have been only partially characterized. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that especially aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in oral cancer. The major goal of the present paper is to review the recent literature about the epigenetic modifications contribution in early and later phases of OSCC malignant transformation; in particular we point out the current evidence of epigenetic marks as novel markers for early diagnosis and prognosis as well as potential therapeutic targets in oral cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Pathology)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Red Ginseng Essential Oil in H2O2-Treated HepG2 Cells and CCl4-Treated Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2314-2330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022314
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 10 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant mechanisms of red ginseng essential oil (REO) in cells as well as in an animal model. REO was prepared by a supercritical CO2 extraction of waste-products generated after hot water extraction of
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant mechanisms of red ginseng essential oil (REO) in cells as well as in an animal model. REO was prepared by a supercritical CO2 extraction of waste-products generated after hot water extraction of red ginseng. In HepG2 cells, REO diminished the H2O2-mediated oxidative stress and also restored both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Administration of REO inhibited the phosphorylation of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38. In mice, the CCl4-mediated elevation of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the induction of hepatic lipid peroxidation were decreased by REO administration. REO treatments also resulted in up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme expression in the liver. Moreover, increased phosphorylations of MAPKs were inhibited after REO administration. Overall, REO seems to protect the liver from oxidative stress through the activation and induction of antioxidant enzymes via inhibition of MAPKs pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in the Defense and Stress Response of Spiroplasma citri Infected Madagascar Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2301-2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022301
Received: 26 September 2011 / Revised: 1 January 2012 / Accepted: 9 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Madagascar periwinkle is an ornamental and a medicinal plant, and is also an indicator plant that is highly susceptible to phytoplasma and spiroplasma infections from different crops. Periwinkle lethal yellows, caused by Spiroplasma citri, is one of the most devastating diseases of
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Madagascar periwinkle is an ornamental and a medicinal plant, and is also an indicator plant that is highly susceptible to phytoplasma and spiroplasma infections from different crops. Periwinkle lethal yellows, caused by Spiroplasma citri, is one of the most devastating diseases of periwinkle. The response of plants to S. citri infection is very little known at the transcriptome level. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to investigate the expression levels of four selected genes involved in defense and stress responses in naturally and experimentally Spiroplasma citri infected periwinkles. Strictosidine β-glucosidase involved in terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) biosynthesis pathway showed significant upregulation in experimentally and naturally infected periwinkles. The transcript level of extensin increased in leaves of periwinkles experimentally infected by S. citri in comparison to healthy ones. A similar level of heat shock protein 90 and metallothionein expression was observed in healthy, naturally and experimentally spiroplasma-diseased periwinkles. Overexpression of Strictosidine β-glucosidase demonstrates the potential utility of this gene as a host biomarker to increase the fidelity of S. citri detection and can also be used in breeding programs to develop stable disease-resistance varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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