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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 18, Issue 7 (July 2017)

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Cover Story After determining the 3D structure of Littorina littorea metallothionein (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial Current Knowledge in Thyroid Cancer—From Bench to Bedside
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1529; doi:10.3390/ijms18071529
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
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Research

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Open AccessArticle FRET-Mediated Long-Range Wavelength Transformation by Photoconvertible Fluorescent Proteins as an Efficient Mechanism to Generate Orange-Red Light in Symbiotic Deep Water Corals
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1174; doi:10.3390/ijms18071174
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Photoconvertible fluorescent proteins (pcRFPs) are a group of fluorophores that undergo an irreversible green-to-red shift in emission colour upon irradiation with near-ultraviolet (near-UV) light. Despite their wide application in biotechnology, the high-level expression of pcRFPs in mesophotic and depth-generalist coral species currently lacks
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Photoconvertible fluorescent proteins (pcRFPs) are a group of fluorophores that undergo an irreversible green-to-red shift in emission colour upon irradiation with near-ultraviolet (near-UV) light. Despite their wide application in biotechnology, the high-level expression of pcRFPs in mesophotic and depth-generalist coral species currently lacks a biological explanation. Additionally, reduced penetration of near-UV wavelengths in water poses the question whether light-driven photoconversion is relevant in the mesophotic zone, or whether a different mechanism is involved in the post-translational pigment modification in vivo. Here, we show in a long-term mesocosm experiment that photoconversion in vivo is entirely dependent on near-UV wavelengths. However, a near-UV intensity equivalent to the mesophotic underwater light field at 80 m depth is sufficient to drive the process in vitro, suggesting that photoconversion can occur near the lower distribution limits of these corals. Furthermore, live coral colonies showed evidence of efficient Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). Our simulated mesophotic light field maintained the pcRFP pool in a partially photoconverted state in vivo, maximising intra-tetrameric FRET and creating a long-range wavelength conversion system with higher quantum yield than other native RFPs. We hypothesise that efficient conversion of blue wavelengths, abundant at depth, into orange-red light could constitute an adaptation of corals to life in light-limited environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Proteins)
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Open AccessArticle Colonization and Maize Growth Promotion Induced by Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Isolates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1253; doi:10.3390/ijms18071253
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Phosphorus (P) limits the production of maize, one of the major food crops in China. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the capacity to solubilize phosphate complexes into plant absorbable and utilizable forms by the process of acidification, chelation, and exchange reactions. In this study,
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Phosphorus (P) limits the production of maize, one of the major food crops in China. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the capacity to solubilize phosphate complexes into plant absorbable and utilizable forms by the process of acidification, chelation, and exchange reactions. In this study, six bacteria, including one Paenibacillus sp. B1 strain, four Pseudomonas sp. strains (B10, B14, SX1, and SX2) and one Sphingobium sp. SX14 strain, were those isolated from the maize rhizosphere and identified based on their 16S rRNA sequences. All strains could solubilize inorganic P (Ca3(PO4)2, FePO4 and AlPO4), and only B1 and B10 organic P (lecithin). All strains, except of SX1, produced IAA, and SX14 and B1 showed the highest level. B1 incited the highest increase in root length and the second increase in shoot and total dry weight, shoot length, and total P and nitrogen (N), along with increased root length. In addition, by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we found that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled B1 mainly colonized root surfaces and in epidermal and cortical tissue. Importantly, B1 can survive through forming spores under adverse conditions and prolong quality guarantee period of bio-fertilizer. Therefore, it can act as a good substitute for bio-fertilizer to promote agricultural sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Botany)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Light-Independent Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Mutants Induced by Ethyl Methane Sulfonate in Turnip “Tsuda” (Brassica rapa)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1288; doi:10.3390/ijms18071288
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
The epidermis of swollen storage roots in purple cultivars of turnip “Tsuda” (Brassica rapa) accumulates anthocyanin in a light-dependent manner, especially in response to UV-A light, of which the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we mutagenized 15,000 seeds by 0.5%
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The epidermis of swollen storage roots in purple cultivars of turnip “Tsuda” (Brassica rapa) accumulates anthocyanin in a light-dependent manner, especially in response to UV-A light, of which the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we mutagenized 15,000 seeds by 0.5% (v/v) ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and obtained 14 mutants with abnormal anthocyanin production in their epidermis of swollen storage roots. These mutants were classified into two groups: the red mutants with constitutive anthocyanin accumulation in their epidermis of storage roots even in underground parts in darkness and the white mutants without anthocyanin accumulation in the epidermis of storage roots in aboveground parts exposed to sunlight. Test cross analysis demonstrated that w9, w68, w204, r15, r21, r30 and r57 contained different mutations responsible for their phenotypic variations. Further genetic analysis of four target mutants (w9, w68, w204 and r15) indicated that each of them was controlled by a different recessive gene. Intriguingly, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, including structural and regulatory genes, coincided with their anthocyanin levels in the epidermis of storage roots in the four target mutants. We proposed that potential genes responsible for the mutations should be upstream factors of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway in turnips, which provided resources to further investigate the mechanisms of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins)
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Open AccessArticle Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1330; doi:10.3390/ijms18071330
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks,
[...] Read more.
To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG) with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001), consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005). Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacogenomic Variants May Influence the Urinary Excretion of Novel Kidney Injury Biomarkers in Patients Receiving Cisplatin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1333; doi:10.3390/ijms18071333
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting side effect associated with the use of cisplatin in the treatment of solid tumors. The degree of nephrotoxicity is dictated by the selective accumulation of cisplatin in renal tubule cells due to: (1) uptake by organic cation transporter
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Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting side effect associated with the use of cisplatin in the treatment of solid tumors. The degree of nephrotoxicity is dictated by the selective accumulation of cisplatin in renal tubule cells due to: (1) uptake by organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and copper transporter 1 (CTR1); (2) metabolism by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and γ-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1); and (3) efflux by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1). The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms that regulate the expression and function of transporters and metabolism genes implicated in development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cisplatin treated patients. Changes in the kidney function were assessed using novel urinary protein biomarkers and traditional markers. Genotyping was conducted by the QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System using a custom open array chip with metabolism, transport, and transcription factor polymorphisms of interest to cisplatin disposition and toxicity. Traditional and novel biomarker assays for kidney toxicity were assessed for differences according to genotype by ANOVA. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined based on Caucasian population frequencies. The polymorphisms rs596881 (SLC22A2/OCT2), and rs12686377 and rs7851395 (SLC31A1/CTR1) were associated with renoprotection and maintenance of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Polymorphisms in SLC22A2/OCT2, SLC31A1/CTRI, SLC47A1/MATE1, ABCC2/MRP2, and GSTP1 were significantly associated with increases in the urinary excretion of novel AKI biomarkers: KIM-1, TFF3, MCP1, NGAL, clusterin, cystatin C, and calbindin. Knowledge concerning which genotypes in drug transporters are associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity may help to identify at-risk patients and initiate strategies, such as using lower or fractionated cisplatin doses or avoiding cisplatin altogether, in order to prevent AKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nephrotoxicity)
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Open AccessArticle Associations of Drug Lipophilicity and Extent of Metabolism with Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1335; doi:10.3390/ijms18071335
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI), although rare, is a frequent cause of adverse drug reactions resulting in warnings and withdrawals of numerous medications. Despite the research community’s best efforts, current testing strategies aimed at identifying hepatotoxic drugs prior to human trials are not sufficiently
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Drug-induced liver injury (DILI), although rare, is a frequent cause of adverse drug reactions resulting in warnings and withdrawals of numerous medications. Despite the research community’s best efforts, current testing strategies aimed at identifying hepatotoxic drugs prior to human trials are not sufficiently powered to predict the complex mechanisms leading to DILI. In our previous studies, we demonstrated lipophilicity and dose to be associated with increased DILI risk and, and in our latest work, we factored reactive metabolites into the algorithm to predict DILI. Given the inconsistency in determining the potential for drugs to cause DILI, the present study comprehensively assesses the relationship between DILI risk and lipophilicity and the extent of metabolism using a large published dataset of 1036 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs by considering five independent DILI annotations. We found that lipophilicity and the extent of metabolism alone were associated with increased risk for DILI. Moreover, when analyzed in combination with high daily dose (≥100 mg), lipophilicity was statistically significantly associated with the risk of DILI across all datasets (p < 0.05). Similarly, the combination of extensive hepatic metabolism (≥50%) and high daily dose (≥100 mg) was also strongly associated with an increased risk of DILI among all datasets analyzed (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that both lipophilicity and the extent of hepatic metabolism can be considered important risk factors for DILI in humans, and that this relationship to DILI risk is much stronger when considered in combination with dose. The proposed paradigm allows the convergence of different published annotations to a more uniform assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Drug Induced Liver Injury)
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Open AccessArticle Quinolin-6-Yloxyacetamides Are Microtubule Destabilizing Agents That Bind to the Colchicine Site of Tubulin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1336; doi:10.3390/ijms18071336
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Quinolin-6-yloxyacetamides (QAs) are a chemical class of tubulin polymerization inhibitors that were initially identified as fungicides. Here, we report that QAs are potent anti-proliferative agents against human cancer cells including ones that are drug-resistant. QAs act by disrupting the microtubule cytoskeleton and by
[...] Read more.
Quinolin-6-yloxyacetamides (QAs) are a chemical class of tubulin polymerization inhibitors that were initially identified as fungicides. Here, we report that QAs are potent anti-proliferative agents against human cancer cells including ones that are drug-resistant. QAs act by disrupting the microtubule cytoskeleton and by causing severe mitotic defects. We further demonstrate that QAs inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The high resolution crystal structure of the tubulin-QA complex revealed that QAs bind to the colchicine site on tubulin, which is targeted by microtubule-destabilizing agents such as colchicine and nocodazole. Together, our data establish QAs as colchicine-site ligands and explain the molecular mechanism of microtubule destabilization by this class of compounds. They further extend our structural knowledge on antitubulin agents and thus should aid in the development of new strategies for the rational design of ligands against multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microtubule-Targeting Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Nomegestrol Acetate Suppresses Human Endometrial Cancer RL95-2 Cells Proliferation In Vitro and In Vivo Possibly Related to Upregulating Expression of SUFU and Wnt7a
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1337; doi:10.3390/ijms18071337
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) has been successfully used for the treatment of some gynecological disorders, and as a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of NOMAC on human endometrial cancer cells in vitro and in
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Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) has been successfully used for the treatment of some gynecological disorders, and as a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of NOMAC on human endometrial cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells (RL95-2 and KLE) were assessed using CCK-8 and EdU incorporation assays. Whole-genome cDNA microarray analysis was used to identify the effects of NOMAC on gene expression profiles in RL95-2 cells. RL95-2 xenograft nude mice were treated with NOMAC (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days. The results showed that NOMAC significantly inhibited the growth of RL95-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but not in KLE cells. Further investigation demonstrated that NOMAC produced a stronger inhibition of tumor growth (inhibition rates for 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg NOMAC were 24.74%, 47.04%, and 58.06%, respectively) than did MPA (inhibition rates for 100 and 200 mg/kg MPA were 41.06% and 27.01%, respectively) in the nude mice bearing the cell line of RL95-2. NOMAC altered the expression of several genes related to cancer cell proliferation, including SUFU and Wnt7a. The upregulation of SUFU and Wnt7a was confirmed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in RL95-2 cells and RL95-2 xenograft tumor tissues, but not in KLE cells. These data indicate that NOMAC can inhibit the proliferation of RL95-2 cell in vitro and suppress the growth of xenografts in the nude mice bearing the cell line of RL95-2 in vivo. This effect could be related to the upregulating expression of SUFU and Wnt7a. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecologic Oncology: From Molecular Mechanisms to Targeted Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle Reverse Gyrase Functions in Genome Integrity Maintenance by Protecting DNA Breaks In Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1340; doi:10.3390/ijms18071340
Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Reverse gyrase introduces positive supercoils to circular DNA and is implicated in genome stability maintenance in thermophiles. The extremely thermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus encodes two reverse gyrase proteins, TopR1 (topoisomerase reverse gyrase 1) and TopR2, whose functions in thermophilic life remain to be demonstrated.
[...] Read more.
Reverse gyrase introduces positive supercoils to circular DNA and is implicated in genome stability maintenance in thermophiles. The extremely thermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus encodes two reverse gyrase proteins, TopR1 (topoisomerase reverse gyrase 1) and TopR2, whose functions in thermophilic life remain to be demonstrated. Here, we investigated the roles of TopR1 in genome stability maintenance in S. islandicus in response to the treatment of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), a DNA alkylation agent. Lethal MMS treatment induced two successive events: massive chromosomal DNA backbone breakage and subsequent DNA degradation. The former occurred immediately after drug treatment, leading to chromosomal DNA degradation that concurred with TopR1 degradation, followed by chromatin protein degradation and DNA-less cell formation. To gain a further insight into TopR1 function, the expression of the enzyme was reduced in S. islandicus cells using a CRISPR-mediated mRNA interference approach (CRISPRi) in which topR1 mRNAs were targeted for degradation by endogenous III-B CRISPR-Cas systems. We found that the TopR1 level was reduced in the S. islandicus CRISPRi cells and that the cells underwent accelerated genomic DNA degradation during MMS treatment, accompanied by a higher rate of cell death. Taken together, these results indicate that TopR1 probably facilitates genome integrity maintenance by protecting DNA breaks from thermo-degradation in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Injury and Repair Systems)
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Open AccessArticle GC-MS Fingerprinting Combined with Chemometric Methods Reveals Key Bioactive Components in Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1342; doi:10.3390/ijms18071342
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
This present study aims to identify the key bioactive components in acorus tatarinowii rhizoma (ATR), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with various bioactivities. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was employed to describe the relationship between the radical scavenging activity and the volatile components.
[...] Read more.
This present study aims to identify the key bioactive components in acorus tatarinowii rhizoma (ATR), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with various bioactivities. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was employed to describe the relationship between the radical scavenging activity and the volatile components. The PLSR model was improved by outlier elimination and variable selection and was evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation and external validation in this study. Based on the PLSR model, eleven chemical components were identified as the key bioactive components by variable importance in projection. The final PLS regression model with these components has good predictive ability. The Q2 was 0.8284, and the root mean square error for prediction was 2.9641. The results indicated that the eleven components could be a pattern to predict the radical scavenging activity of ATR. In addition, we did not find any specific relationship between the radical scavenging ability and the habitat of the ATRs. This study proposed an efficient strategy to predict bioactive components using the combination of quantitative chromatography fingerprints and PLS regression, and has potential perspective for screening bioactive components in complex analytical systems, such as TCM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Capsaicin Induces Autophagy and Apoptosis in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells by Downregulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1343; doi:10.3390/ijms18071343
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
Capsaicin is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for different human cancers. In Southeast China, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest incidence of all cancers, but final treatment outcomes are unsatisfactory. However, there is a lack of information regarding the anticancer activity of capsaicin in
[...] Read more.
Capsaicin is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for different human cancers. In Southeast China, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest incidence of all cancers, but final treatment outcomes are unsatisfactory. However, there is a lack of information regarding the anticancer activity of capsaicin in NPC cells, and its effects on the signaling transduction pathways related to apoptosis and autophagy remain unclear. In the present study, the precise mechanisms by which capsaicin exerts anti-proliferative effects, cell cycle arrest, autophagy and apoptosis were investigated in NPC-TW01 cells. Exposure to capsaicin inhibited cancer cell growth and increased G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Western blotting and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to measure capsaicin-induced autophagy via involvement of the class III PI3K/Beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Capsaicin induced autophagy by increasing levels of the autophagy markers LC3-II and Atg5, enhancing p62 and Fap-1 degradation and increasing caspase-3 activity to induce apoptosis, suggesting a correlation of blocking the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway with the above-mentioned anticancer activities. Taken together, these data confirm that capsaicin inhibited the growth of human NPC cells and induced autophagy, supporting its potential as a therapeutic agent for cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cotton Ascorbate Oxidase Promotes Cell Growth in Cultured Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 Cells through Generation of Apoplast Oxidation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1346; doi:10.3390/ijms18071346
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
Ascorbate oxidase (AO) plays an important role in cell growth through the modulation of reduction/oxidation (redox) control of the apoplast. Here, a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) apoplastic ascorbate oxidase gene (GhAO1) was obtained from fast elongating fiber tissues. GhAO1 belongs
[...] Read more.
Ascorbate oxidase (AO) plays an important role in cell growth through the modulation of reduction/oxidation (redox) control of the apoplast. Here, a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) apoplastic ascorbate oxidase gene (GhAO1) was obtained from fast elongating fiber tissues. GhAO1 belongs to the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family and includes a signal peptide and several transmembrane regions. Analyses of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) and enzyme activity showed that GhAO1 was expressed abundantly in 15-day post-anthesis (dpa) wild-type (WT) fibers in comparison with fuzzless-lintless (fl) mutant ovules. Subcellular distribution analysis in onion cells demonstrated that GhAO1 is localized in the cell wall. In transgenic tobacco bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells with ectopic overexpression of GhAO1, the enhancement of cell growth with 1.52-fold increase in length versus controls was indicated, as well as the enrichment of both total ascorbate in whole-cells and dehydroascorbate acid (DHA) in apoplasts. In addition, promoted activities of AO and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) in apoplasts and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) in whole-cells were displayed in transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells. Accumulation of H2O2, and influenced expressions of Ca2+ channel genes with the activation of NtMPK9 and NtCPK5 and the suppression of NtTPC1B were also demonstrated in transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells. Finally, significant induced expression of the tobacco NtAO gene in WT BY-2 cells under indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatment appeared; however, the sensitivity of the NtAO gene expression to IAA disappeared in transgenic BY-2 cells, revealing that the regulated expression of the AO gene is under the control of IAA. Taken together, these results provide evidence that GhAO1 plays an important role in fiber cell elongation and may promote cell growth by generating the oxidation of apoplasts, via the auxin-mediated signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle New MT2 Melatonin Receptor-Selective Ligands: Agonists and Partial Agonists
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1347; doi:10.3390/ijms18071347
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
The search for melatonin receptor agonists and antagonists specific towards one of the receptor subtypes will extend our understanding of the role of this system in relaying circadian information to the body. A series of compounds derived from a hit compound discovered in
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The search for melatonin receptor agonists and antagonists specific towards one of the receptor subtypes will extend our understanding of the role of this system in relaying circadian information to the body. A series of compounds derived from a hit compound discovered in a screening process led to powerful agonists specific for one of the isoform of the melatonin receptor namely, MT2. The compounds are based on a poorly explored skeleton in the molecular pharmacology of melatonin. By changing the steric hindrance of one substituent (i.e., from a hydrogen atom to a tributylstannyl group), we identified a possible partial agonist that could lead to antagonist analogues. The functionalities of these compounds were measured with a series of assays, including the binding of GTPγS, the inhibition of the cyclic AMP production, the β-arrestin recruitment, and the cell shape changes as determined by cellular dielectric spectroscopy (CellKey®). The variations between the compounds are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Its Analogues: Experimental and Clinical Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle RUNX1 Plays an Important Role in Mediating BMP9-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Line C3H10T1/2, Murine Multi-Lineage Cells Lines C2C12 and MEFs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1348; doi:10.3390/ijms18071348
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
As one of the least studied bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), BMP9 is highly capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation. However, the underlying mechanism involved remains largely unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that RUNX1 (runt-related transcription factor 1) is essential in osteoblast/chondrocyte maturation. In this
[...] Read more.
As one of the least studied bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), BMP9 is highly capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation. However, the underlying mechanism involved remains largely unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that RUNX1 (runt-related transcription factor 1) is essential in osteoblast/chondrocyte maturation. In this study, we investigated the function of RUNX1 in BMP9-induced osteogenic of murine mesenchymal stem cell line (C3H10T1/2) and murine multi-lineage cell lines (C2C12 and MEFs). Our data showed that BMP9 promoted the endogenous expression of RUNX1 in C3H10T1/2, C2C12 and MEFs. Moreover, RUNX1 was probably a direct target of BMP9/Smad signaling. BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation was enhanced by overexpression of RUNX1, whereas inhibited by knockdown RUNX1 in C3H10T1/2, C2C12 and MEFs. Further mechanism studies demonstrated that RUNX1 might affect BMP9-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8, but not the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2.Our results suggest that RUNX1 may be an essential modulator in BMP9- induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs (Mesenchymal stem cells). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell Research)
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Open AccessArticle Tear Film Steroid Profiling in Dry Eye Disease by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1349; doi:10.3390/ijms18071349
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disorder of the ocular surface unit resulting in eye discomfort, visual disturbance, and ocular surface damage; the risk of DED increases with age in both sexes, while its incidence is higher among females caused by an
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Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disorder of the ocular surface unit resulting in eye discomfort, visual disturbance, and ocular surface damage; the risk of DED increases with age in both sexes, while its incidence is higher among females caused by an overall hormonal imbalance. The role of androgens has recently investigated and these hormones were considered to have a protective function on the ocular surface. In order to correlate DED to tear steroid levels, a robust, specific, and selective method for the simultaneous quantification of cortisol (CORT), corticosterone (CCONE), 11-deoxycortisol (11-DECOL), 4-androstene-3,17-dione (ADIONE), testosterone (TESTO), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), and progesterone (PROG) was developed and applied for the analysis of tear samples. The method involves a simple extraction procedure of steroids from tears collected on Schirmer strips, followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis. In total, tear samples from 14 DED female patients and 13 healthy female controls were analysed and, CORT, ADIONE, and 17-OHP response levels resulted significantly decreased in dry eye patients respect to controls. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by the combination of these three steroids (AUC = 0.964) demonstrated the good diagnostic power of the differential tear steroids in identifying DED. In conclusion, the present method made it possible, for the first time, to study steroid profiling directly in tear fluid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dry Eye and Ocular Surface Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle Integrity and Quantity of Total Cell-Free DNA in the Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer: Correlation with Cytological Classification
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1350; doi:10.3390/ijms18071350
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) quantity and quality in plasma has been investigated as a non-invasive biomarker in cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated increased cfDNA amount and length in different types of cancer with respect to healthy controls. The present study aims to test the
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Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) quantity and quality in plasma has been investigated as a non-invasive biomarker in cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated increased cfDNA amount and length in different types of cancer with respect to healthy controls. The present study aims to test the hypothesis that the presence of longer DNA strands circulating in plasma can be considered a biomarker for tumor presence in thyroid cancer. We adopted a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) approach based on the quantification of two amplicons of different length (67 and 180 bp respectively) to evaluate the integrity index 180/67. Cell-free DNA quantity and integrity were higher in patients affected by nodular thyroid diseases than in healthy controls. Importantly, cfDNA integrity index was higher in patients with cytological diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma (Thy4/Thy5) than in subjects with benign nodules (Thy2). Therefore, cfDNA integrity index 180/67 is a suitable parameter for monitoring cfDNA fragmentation in thyroid cancer patients and a promising circulating biomarker in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Differential Metabolic Profiles during the Developmental Stages of Plant-Parasitic Nematode Meloidogyne incognita
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1351; doi:10.3390/ijms18071351
Received: 22 May 2017 / Revised: 17 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Meloidogyne incognita is a common root-knot nematode with a wide range of plant hosts. We aimed to study the metabolites produced at each stage of the nematode life cycle to understand its development. Metabolites of Meloidogyne incognita were extracted at egg, J2, J3,
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Meloidogyne incognita is a common root-knot nematode with a wide range of plant hosts. We aimed to study the metabolites produced at each stage of the nematode life cycle to understand its development. Metabolites of Meloidogyne incognita were extracted at egg, J2, J3, J4, and female stages and 110 metabolites with available standards were quantified using CE-TOF/MS. Analyses indicated abundance of stage-specific metabolites with the exception of J3 and J4 stages which shared similar metabolic profiles. The egg stage showed increased abundance in glycolysis and energy metabolism related metabolites while the J2 metabolites are associated with tissue formation, motility, and neurotransmission. The J3 and J4 stages indicated amino acid metabolism and urea cycle- related metabolites. The female stage was characterized with polyamine synthesis, antioxidant activity, and synthesis of reproduction related metabolites. Such metabolic profiling helps us understand the dynamic physiological changes related to each developmental stage of the root-knot nematode life cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Montelukast Induces Apoptosis-Inducing Factor-Mediated Cell Death of Lung Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1353; doi:10.3390/ijms18071353
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Developing novel chemo-prevention techniques and advancing treatment are key elements to beating lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Our previous cohort study showed that cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists, mainly montelukast, decreased the lung cancer risk in asthma patients. In
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Developing novel chemo-prevention techniques and advancing treatment are key elements to beating lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Our previous cohort study showed that cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists, mainly montelukast, decreased the lung cancer risk in asthma patients. In the current study, we conducted in vivo and in vitro experiments to demonstrate the inhibiting effect of montelukast on lung cancer and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Using Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice, we showed that feeding montelukast significantly delayed the tumor growth in mice (p < 0.0001). Montelukast inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and induced the cell death of lung cancer cells. Further investigation showed the down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), up-regulation of Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in montelukast-treated lung cancer cells. Montelukast also markedly decreased the phosphorylation of several proteins, such as with no lysine 1 (WNK1), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), MAPK/Erk kinase (MEK), and proline-rich Akt substrate of 40-kDa (PRAS40), which might contribute to cell death. In conclusion, montelukast induced lung cancer cell death via the nuclear translocation of AIF. This study confirmed the chemo-preventive effect of montelukast shown in our previous cohort study. The utility of montelukast in cancer prevention and treatment thus deserves further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Targeting Therapy and Selective Killing)
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Open AccessArticle Gallic Acid Inhibited Matrix Invasion and AP-1/ETS-1-Mediated MMP-1 Transcription in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1354; doi:10.3390/ijms18071354
Received: 4 June 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid found in natural herbal plants. Gallic acid has been reported to inhibit the migration and invasive capability of various cancers. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of invasion responsible for cancer metastasis via gallic acid. The
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Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid found in natural herbal plants. Gallic acid has been reported to inhibit the migration and invasive capability of various cancers. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of invasion responsible for cancer metastasis via gallic acid. The present study was intended to investigate the anti-invasive effect of gallic acid on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC-BM1) and its related mechanism. Gallic acid inhibited the invasion of NPC-BM1 cells dose- and time-dependently without significant cytotoxic effect. Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) as the most down-regulated gene in NPC-BM1 cells by gallic acid. The cytosolic and secreted MMP-1 levels were both found to be inhibited by gallic acid as demonstrated by western blot analysis and ELISA respectively. The mRNA expression and transcription of MMP-1 gene was also down-regulated as determined by RT/real-time PCR and promoter activity assay. The expression of two major transcription binding factors in the MMP-1 promoter, AP-1 and ETS-1, were demonstrated to be reduced by gallic acid in NPC-BM1 cells. The effect of gallic acid was associated with the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, gallic acid enhanced the gene expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) which further suppressed the MMP-1 activity. These findings may be useful to develop a novel chemotherapeutic agent to inhibit the metastasis of nasopharyngeal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle In-Depth Proteomic Analysis of the Hippocampus in a Rat Model after Cerebral Ischaemic Injury and Repair by Danhong Injection (DHI)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1355; doi:10.3390/ijms18071355
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 17 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide. A systematic description and characterization of the strokes and the effects induced in the hippocampus have not been performed so far. Here, we analysed the protein expression in the hippocampus 24 h after
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Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide. A systematic description and characterization of the strokes and the effects induced in the hippocampus have not been performed so far. Here, we analysed the protein expression in the hippocampus 24 h after cerebral ischaemic injury and repair. Drug intervention using Danhong injection (DHI), which has been reported to have good therapeutic effects in a clinical setting, was selected for our study of cerebral ischaemia repair in rat models. A larger proteome dataset and total 4091 unique proteins were confidently identified in three biological replicates by combining tissue extraction for rat hippocampus and LC-MS/MS analysis. A label-free approach was then used to quantify the differences among the four experimental groups (Naive, Sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and MCAO + DHI groups) and showed that about 2500 proteins on average were quantified in each of the experiment group. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that in total 280 unique proteins identified above were differentially expressed (P < 0.05). By combining the subcellular localization, hierarchical clustering and pathway information with the results from injury and repair phase, 12 significant expressed proteins were chosen and verified with respect to their potential as candidates for cerebral ischaemic injury by Western blot. The primary three signalling pathways of the candidates related may be involved in molecular mechanisms related to cerebral ischaemic injury. In addition, a glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Gsk-3β) inhibitor of the candidates with the best corresponding expression trends between western blotting (WB) and label-free quantitative results were chosen for further validation. The results of Western blot analysis of protein expression and 2,3,5- chloride three phenyl tetrazole (TTC) staining of rat brains showed that DHI treatment and Gsk-3β inhibitor are both able to confer protection against ischaemic injury in rat MCAO model. The observations of the present study provide a novel understanding regarding the regulatory mechanism of cerebral ischaemic injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA-210 Suppresses Junction Proteins and Disrupts Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Neonatal Rat Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1356; doi:10.3390/ijms18071356
Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Cerebral edema, primarily caused by disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), is one of the serious complications associated with brain injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our recent study demonstrated that the hypoxic-ischemic (HI) treatment significantly increased microRNA-210 (miR-210) in the neonatal rat
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Cerebral edema, primarily caused by disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), is one of the serious complications associated with brain injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our recent study demonstrated that the hypoxic-ischemic (HI) treatment significantly increased microRNA-210 (miR-210) in the neonatal rat brain and inhibition of miR-210 provided neuroprotection in neonatal HI brain injury. The present study aims to determine the role of miR-210 in the regulation of BBB integrity in the developing brain. miR-210 mimic was administered via intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) into the brain of rat pups. Forty-eight hours after the injection, a modified Rice-Vannucci model was conducted to produce HI brain injury. Post-assays included cerebral edema analysis, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining for serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) leakage. The results showed that miR-210 mimic exacerbated cerebral edema and IgG leakage into the brain parenchyma. In contrast, inhibition of miR-210 with its complementary locked nucleic acid oligonucleotides (miR-210-LNA) significantly reduced cerebral edema and IgG leakage. These findings suggest that miR-210 negatively regulates BBB integrity i n the neonatal brain. Mechanistically, the seed sequences of miR-210 were identified complementary to the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of the mRNA transcripts of tight junction protein occludin and adherens junction protein β-catenin, indicating downstream targets of miR-210. This was further validated by in vivo data showing that miR-210 mimic significantly reduced the expression of these junction proteins in rat pup brains. Of importance, miR-210-LNA preserved the expression of junction proteins occludin and β-catenin from neonatal HI insult. Altogether, the present study reveals a novel mechanism of miR-210 in impairing BBB integrity that contributes to cerebral edema formation after neonatal HI insult, and provides new insights in miR-210-LNA mediated neuroprotection in neonatal HI brain injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics of Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle Fexofenadine Suppresses Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity in the Murine Model of Palladium Allergy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1357; doi:10.3390/ijms18071357
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 25 June 2017
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Abstract
Palladium is frequently used in dental materials, and sometimes causes metal allergy. It has been suggested that the immune response by palladium-specific T cells may be responsible for the pathogenesis of delayed-type hypersensitivity in study of palladium allergic model mice. In the clinical
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Palladium is frequently used in dental materials, and sometimes causes metal allergy. It has been suggested that the immune response by palladium-specific T cells may be responsible for the pathogenesis of delayed-type hypersensitivity in study of palladium allergic model mice. In the clinical setting, glucocorticoids and antihistamine drugs are commonly used for treatment of contact dermatitis. However, the precise mechanism of immune suppression in palladium allergy remains unknown. We investigated inhibition of the immune response in palladium allergic mice by administration of prednisolone as a glucocorticoid and fexofenadine hydrochloride as an antihistamine. Compared with glucocorticoids, fexofenadine hydrochloride significantly suppressed the number of T cells by interfering with the development of antigen-presenting cells from the sensitization phase. Our results suggest that antihistamine has a beneficial effect on the treatment of palladium allergy compared to glucocorticoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Metabolism in Animals II)
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Open AccessArticle FGF-2 Gene Polymorphism in Osteoporosis among Guangxi’s Zhuang Chinese
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1358; doi:10.3390/ijms18071358
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 17 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Osteoporosis is a complex multifactorial disorder of gradual bone loss and increased fracture risk. While previous studies have shown the importance of many genetic factors in determining peak bone mass and fragility fractures and in suggesting involvement of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2
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Osteoporosis is a complex multifactorial disorder of gradual bone loss and increased fracture risk. While previous studies have shown the importance of many genetic factors in determining peak bone mass and fragility fractures and in suggesting involvement of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in bone metabolism and bone mass, the relationship of FGF-2 genetic diversity with bone mass/osteoporosis has not yet been revealed. The current study investigated the potential relevance of FGF-2 gene polymorphism in osteoporosis among a Zhuang ethnic Chinese cohort of 623, including 237 normal bone mass controls, 227 osteopenia, and 159 osteoporosis of different ages. Bone density was examined by calcaneus ultrasound attenuation measurement, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and linkage disequilibrium analyses were performed on five SNP loci of FGF-2 gene. Significant differences were found in bone mass in males between the 45-year-old and ≥70-year-old groups (p < 0.01), and in females among 55, 60, 65 and 70-year-old groups (p < 0.05). Males had higher bone mass values than females in the same age (over 55-year-old) (p < 0.05). The proportions of individuals with normal bone mass decreased with age (65.2% to 40% in males, and 50% to 0% in females), whereas prevalence of osteoporosis increased with age (15.4% to 30% in men, and 7.7% to 82% in women). Out of five FGF-2 SNP loci, the TA genotype of rs308442 in the osteoporosis group (40.2%) was higher than in the control group (29.5%) (p < 0.05). The TA genotype was significantly correlated with the risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio OR = 1.653), 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.968–1.441). Strong linkage disequilibrium in FGF-2 gene was also detected between rs12644427 and rs3747676, between rs12644427 and rs3789138, and between rs3747676 and rs3789138 (D’ > 0.8, and r2 > 0.33). Thus, the rs308442 locus of FGF-2 gene is closely correlated to osteoporosis in this Zhuang ethnic Chinese cohort, and the TA may be the risk genotype of osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bone and Cartilage Research)
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Open AccessArticle Immune Modulating Topical S100A8/A9 Inhibits Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mitigates Biofilm Infection in Chronic Wounds
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1359; doi:10.3390/ijms18071359
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
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Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm maintains and perturbs local host defense, hindering timely wound healing. Previously, we showed that P. aeruginosa suppressed S100A8/A9 of the murine innate host defense. We assessed the potential antimicrobial effect of S100A8/A9 on biofilm-infected wounds in a murine model and
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm maintains and perturbs local host defense, hindering timely wound healing. Previously, we showed that P. aeruginosa suppressed S100A8/A9 of the murine innate host defense. We assessed the potential antimicrobial effect of S100A8/A9 on biofilm-infected wounds in a murine model and P. aeruginosa growth in vitro. Seventy-six mice, inflicted with a full-thickness burn wound were challenged subcutaneously (s.c.) by 106 colony-forming units (CFUs) of P. aeruginosa biofilm. Mice were subsequently randomized into two treatment groups, one group receiving recombinant murine S100A8/A9 and a group of vehicle controls (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS) all treated with s.c. injections daily for up to five days. Wounds were analyzed for quantitative bacteriology and contents of key inflammatory markers. Count of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes was included. S100A8/A9-treatment ameliorated wound infection, as evaluated by quantitative bacteriology (p ≤ 0.05). In vitro, growth of P. aeruginosa was inhibited dose-dependently by S100A8/A9 in concentrations from 5 to 40 μg/mL, as determined by optical density-measurement (OD-measurement) and quantitative bacteriology. Treatment slightly augmented key inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), but dampened interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels and blood polymorphonuclear count. In conclusion, topical S100A8/A9 displays remarkable novel immune stimulatory and anti-infective properties in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, treatment by S100A8/A9 provides local infection control. Implications for a role as adjunctive treatment in healing of chronic biofilm-infected wounds are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Repair and Regeneration)
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Open AccessArticle The Co-Expression Pattern of p63 and HDAC1: A Potential Way to Disclose Stem Cells in Interfollicular Epidermis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1360; doi:10.3390/ijms18071360
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
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Abstract
Stem cell markers of interfollicular epidermis (IEF) have not been established thus far. The aim of this study is to suggest a new way to disclose IFE-stem cells by combining the expression of histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1 and p63. Immunohistochemical staining of HDAC1
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Stem cell markers of interfollicular epidermis (IEF) have not been established thus far. The aim of this study is to suggest a new way to disclose IFE-stem cells by combining the expression of histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1 and p63. Immunohistochemical staining of HDAC1 and p63 was performed in six normal human samples. Moreover, a skin equivalent (SE) model was treated with suberoylanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA, an HDAC inhibitor) to elucidate the role of HDAC1. Finally, rapidly adhering (RA) keratinocytes to a type IV collagen, which have been identified to represent epidermal stem cells, were subjected to Western blot analysis with antibodies against HDAC1. In normal samples, there was a minor subpopulation comprised of p63-positive and HDAC1-negative cells in the basal layers. The proportion of this subpopulation was decreased with age. In the SE model, SAHA treatment increased the epidermal thickness and number of p63-positive cells in a dose dependent manner. After SAHA treatment, the expression of differentiation markers was decreased, while that of basement membrane markers was increased. In a Western blot analysis, HDAC1 was not expressed in RA cells. In conclusion, the combination of p63-positive and HDAC1-negative expressions can be a potential new way for distinguishing epidermal stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research of Epidermal Stem Cells 2017)
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Open AccessArticle 5-(3′,4′-Dihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone), a Major Microbial Metabolite of Proanthocyanidin, Attenuates THP-1 Monocyte-Endothelial Adhesion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1363; doi:10.3390/ijms18071363
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
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Abstract
Several metabolomics of polymeric flavan-3-ols have reported that proanthocyanidins are extensively metabolized by gut microbiota. 5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone (DHPV) has been reported to be the major microbial metabolite of proanthocyanidins. We demonstrated that DHPV has stronger prevention effect on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated adhesion of
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Several metabolomics of polymeric flavan-3-ols have reported that proanthocyanidins are extensively metabolized by gut microbiota. 5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone (DHPV) has been reported to be the major microbial metabolite of proanthocyanidins. We demonstrated that DHPV has stronger prevention effect on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated adhesion of THP-1 human monocytic cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells compared to its potential precursors such as procyanidin A1, A2, B1 and B2, (+)catechin, (−)epicatechin and its microbial metabolites such as 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid. Mechanism study showed that DHPV prevents THP-1 monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion by downregulating TNF-α-stimulated expressions of the two biomarkers of atherosclerosis such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, activation of nuclear factor kappa B transcription and phosphorylation of I kappa-B kinase and IκBα. We suggested that DHPV has higher potentiality in prevention of atherosclerosis among the proanthocyanidin metabolites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ginsenoside Rh2 Improves Cardiac Fibrosis via PPARδ–STAT3 Signaling in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1364; doi:10.3390/ijms18071364
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
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Abstract
Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is an active principal ingredient contained in ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer), a medicinal herb used to enhance health worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of Rh2 on myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats. In a streptozotocin-induced
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Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is an active principal ingredient contained in ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer), a medicinal herb used to enhance health worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of Rh2 on myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats. In a streptozotocin-induced model of type-1 diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats), the increased fasting blood glucose levels and heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio were substantially alleviated by Rh2. Moreover, Rh2 improved cardiac performance in STZ-diabetic rats. Histological results from Masson staining showed that Rh2 attenuated cardiac fibrosis in STZ-diabetic rats. The effects of Rh2 were reversed by GSK0660 at a dose sufficient to inhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) in STZ-diabetic rats. The role of PPARδ was subsequently investigated in vitro. Rh2 restored the decreased PPARδ expression level in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, increased protein levels of fibrotic signals, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) and fibronectin, were reduced by Rh2 in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes. These effects of Rh2 were reversed by GSK0660 or siRNA specific for PPARδ Taken together, PPARδ activation may inhibit STAT3 activation to reduce CCN2 and fibronectin expression in diabetic rats with cardiac fibrosis. Moreover, Rh2 improves cardiac function and fibrosis by increasing PPARδ signaling. Therefore, Rh2 is suitable to develop as an alternative remedy for cardiac fibrosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Thiazolo[5,4-b]phenothiazine Derivatives: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity against Human Leukaemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1365; doi:10.3390/ijms18071365
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
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Abstract
The molecular frame of the reported series of new polyheterocyclic compounds was intended to combine the potent phenothiazine and benzothiazole pharmacophoric units. The synthetic strategy applied was based on oxidative cyclization of N-(phenothiazin-3-yl)-thioamides and it was validated by the preparation of new
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The molecular frame of the reported series of new polyheterocyclic compounds was intended to combine the potent phenothiazine and benzothiazole pharmacophoric units. The synthetic strategy applied was based on oxidative cyclization of N-(phenothiazin-3-yl)-thioamides and it was validated by the preparation of new 2-alkyl- and 2-aryl-thiazolo[5,4-b]phenothiazine derivatives. Optical properties of the series were experimentally emphasized by UV-Vis absorption/emission spectroscopy and structural features were theoretically modelled using density functional theory (DFT). In vitro activity as antileukemic agents of thiazolo[5,4-b]phenothiazine and N-(phenothiazine-3-yl)-thioamides were comparatively evaluated using cultivated HL-60 human promyelocytic and THP-1 human monocytic leukaemia cell lines. Some representatives proved selectivity against tumour cell lines, cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and cellular metabolism impairment capacity. 2-Naphthyl-thiazolo[5,4-b]phenothiazine was identified as the most effective of the series by displaying against THP-1 cell lines a cytotoxicity close to cytarabine antineoplastic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle HLA-G 3′UTR Polymorphisms Predict Drug-Induced G3-4 Toxicity Related to Folinic Acid/5-Fluorouracil/Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) Chemotherapy in Non-Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1366; doi:10.3390/ijms18071366
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes might not completely explain inter-individual differences in toxicity profiles of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) that receive folinic acid/5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4). Recent data indicate that the immune system could contribute to FOLFOX4 outcomes. In light of the immune inhibitory nature
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Polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes might not completely explain inter-individual differences in toxicity profiles of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) that receive folinic acid/5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4). Recent data indicate that the immune system could contribute to FOLFOX4 outcomes. In light of the immune inhibitory nature of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule, we aimed to identify novel genomic markers of grades 3 and 4 (G3-4) toxicity related to FOLFOX4 therapy in patients with CRC. We retrospectively analyzed data for 144 patients with stages II-III CRC to identify HLA-G 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) polymorphisms and related haplotypes and evaluate their impact on the risk of developing G3-4 toxicities (i.e., neutropenia, hematological/non-hematological toxicity, neurotoxicity) with logistic regression. The rs1610696-G/G polymorphism was associated with increased risk of G3-4 neutropenia (OR = 3.76, p = 0.015) and neurotoxicity (OR = 8.78, p = 0.016); rs371194629-Ins/Ins was associated with increased risk of neurotoxicity (OR = 5.49, p = 0.027). HLA-G 3′UTR-2, which contains rs1610696-G/G and rs371194629-Ins/Ins polymorphisms, was associated with increased risk of G3-4 neutropenia (OR = 3.92, p = 0.017) and neurotoxicity (OR = 11.29, p = 0.009). A bootstrap analysis confirmed the predictive value of rs1610696 and rs371194629, but the UTR-2 haplotype was validated only for neurotoxicity. This exploratory study identified new HLA-G 3′UTR polymorphisms/haplotypes as potential predictive markers of G3-4 toxicities in CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Major Histocompatibility Complex)
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Open AccessArticle The Emerging Role of Zfp217 in Adipogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1367; doi:10.3390/ijms18071367
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Zinc finger protein 217 (Zfp217), a member of the krüppel-type zinc finger protein family, plays diverse roles in cell differentiation and development of mammals. Despite extensive research on the functions of Zfp217 in cancer, pluripotency and reprogramming, its physiological roles in adipogenesis remain
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Zinc finger protein 217 (Zfp217), a member of the krüppel-type zinc finger protein family, plays diverse roles in cell differentiation and development of mammals. Despite extensive research on the functions of Zfp217 in cancer, pluripotency and reprogramming, its physiological roles in adipogenesis remain unknown. Our previous RNA sequencing data suggest the involvement of Zfp217 in adipogenesis. In this study, the potential function of Zfp217 in adipogenesis was investigated through bioinformatics analysis and a series of experiments. The expression of Zfp217 was found to be gradually upregulated during the adipogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2 cells, which was consistent with that of the adipogenic marker gene Pparg2. Furthermore, there was a positive, significant relationship between Zfp217 expression and adipocyte differentiation. It was also observed that Zfp217 could not only trigger proliferative defect in C3H10T1/2 cells, but also interact with Ezh2 and suppress the downstream target genes of Ezh2. Besides, three microRNAs (miR-503-5p, miR-135a-5p and miR-19a-3p) which target Zfp217 were found to suppress the process of adipogenesis. This is the first report showing that Zfp217 has the capacity to regulate adipogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Pup Separation on Stress Response in Postpartum Female Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1370; doi:10.3390/ijms18071370
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 18 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
There is a complex collection of neuroendocrine function during the postpartum period. Prolactin (PRL) released by suckling stimulus and its PRL receptors (PRL-R) in the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in lactating mammals including rodents
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There is a complex collection of neuroendocrine function during the postpartum period. Prolactin (PRL) released by suckling stimulus and its PRL receptors (PRL-R) in the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in lactating mammals including rodents and humans. It is not clear how long it takes to reestablish the attenuated HPA axis activity of lactating rats to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation. We first tested the hypothesis that HPA axis activity in response to an acute stress in postpartum rats would return to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation. Restraint stress for 30 min was performed at the end of pup separation as an acute stressor. Plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were measured following restraint stress or no-stress (control) in virgin rats and postpartum rats housed with their pups or with pup removal for different periods of time of one hour, 24 h, or eight days. We then tested the hypothesis that circulating PRL level and CNS PRL-R gene expression were involved in mediating the acute stress response in postpartum rats. Plasma levels of PRL and PRL-R mRNA levels in the choroid plexus of the CNS were determined in both no-stress and stress, virgin rats, and postpartum rats housed with their pups or with pup removal for various periods, and their correlation with plasma CORT levels was assessed. The results demonstrated that PRL levels declined to virgin state in all postpartum rats separated from their pups, including the dams with one-hour pup separation. Stress-induced HPA activity dampened in lactating rats housed with pups, and returned to the pre-pregnancy state after 24 h of pup separation when both circulating PRL level and CNS PRL-R expression were restored to a pre-pregnancy state. Additionally, basal plasma CORT and CNS PRL-R expression were significantly correlated in rats with various pup status. This study suggested that stress-induced HPA activation occurred when PRL-R expression was similar to the level of virgin females, indicating that PRL-R upregulation contributes to an attenuated HPA response to acute stress. Understanding neuroendocrine responses to stress during the postpartum period is critical to understand postpartum-related neuropsychiatric illnesses and to maintain mental health in postpartum women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Profiling the Extended Cleavage Specificity of the House Dust Mite Protease Allergens Der p 1, Der p 3 and Der p 6 for the Prediction of New Cell Surface Protein Substrates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1373; doi:10.3390/ijms18071373
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
House dust mite (HDM) protease allergens, through cleavages of critical surface proteins, drastically influence the initiation of the Th2 type immune responses. However, few human protein substrates for HDM proteases have been identified so far, mainly by applying time-consuming target-specific individual studies. Therefore,
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House dust mite (HDM) protease allergens, through cleavages of critical surface proteins, drastically influence the initiation of the Th2 type immune responses. However, few human protein substrates for HDM proteases have been identified so far, mainly by applying time-consuming target-specific individual studies. Therefore, the identification of substrate repertoires for HDM proteases would represent an unprecedented key step toward a better understanding of the mechanism of HDM allergic response. In this study, phage display screenings using totally or partially randomized nonameric peptide substrate libraries were performed to characterize the extended substrate specificities (P5–P4′) of the HDM proteases Der p 1, Der p 3 and Der p 6. The bioinformatics interface PoPS (Prediction of Protease Specificity) was then applied to define the proteolytic specificity profile of each protease and to predict new protein substrates within the human cell surface proteome, with a special focus on immune receptors. Specificity profiling showed that the nature of residues in P1 but also downstream the cleavage sites (P′ positions) are important for effective cleavages by all three HDM proteases. Strikingly, Der p 1 and Der p 3 display partially overlapping specificities. Analysis with PoPS interface predicted 50 new targets for the HDM proteases, including 21 cell surface receptors whose extracellular domains are potentially cleaved by Der p 1, Der p 3 and/or Der p 6. Twelve protein substrate candidates were confirmed by phage ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay). This extensive study of the natural protein substrate specificities of the HDM protease allergens unveils new cell surface target receptors for a better understanding on the role of these proteases in the HDM allergic response and paves the way for the design of specific protease inhibitors for future anti-allergic treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteolysis in Allergic Sensitization and Th2 Response)
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Open AccessArticle Induction of miR-3648 Upon ER Stress and Its Regulatory Role in Cell Proliferation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1375; doi:10.3390/ijms18071375
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles under multiple cellular conditions including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We found that miR-3648, a human specific microRNA, was induced under ER stress. Moreover, Adenomatous polyposis coli 2 (APC2), a tumor suppressor and a negative regulator of Wnt signaling,
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles under multiple cellular conditions including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We found that miR-3648, a human specific microRNA, was induced under ER stress. Moreover, Adenomatous polyposis coli 2 (APC2), a tumor suppressor and a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, was found to be the direct target of miR-3648. Levels of APC2 were downregulated when cells were under ER stress or after overexpressing miR-3648. Inhibition of miR-3648 by antagomir increased APC2 levels and decreased cell proliferation. Conversely, when miR-3648 was overexpressed, APC2 levels were decreased and the cell growth increased. Our data demonstrated that ER stress mediated induction of miR-3648 in human cells, which then downregulated APC2 to increase cell proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Open AccessArticle A Quantitative Acetylomic Analysis of Early Seed Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1376; doi:10.3390/ijms18071376
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first
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PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first quantitative acetylproteomic study focused on rice early seed development by employing a mass spectral-based (MS-based), label-free approach. A total of 1817 acetylsites on 1688 acetylpeptides from 972 acetylproteins were identified in pistils and seeds at three and seven days after pollination, including 268 acetyproteins differentially acetylated among the three stages. Motif-X analysis revealed that six significantly enriched motifs, such as (DxkK), (kH) and (kY) around the acetylsites of the identified rice seed acetylproteins. Differentially acetylated proteins among the three stages, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP) -glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPs), PDIL1-1 (protein disulfide isomerase like 1-1), hexokinases, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and numerous other regulators that are extensively involved in the starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and photosynthesis pathways during early seed development. This study greatly expanded the rice acetylome dataset, and shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of PKA in rice early seed development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 6th National Plant Protein Research Congress)
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Open AccessArticle Ligand Shaping in Induced Fit Docking of MraY Inhibitors. Polynomial Discriminant and Laplacian Operator as Biological Activity Descriptors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1377; doi:10.3390/ijms18071377
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Docking—i.e., interaction of a small molecule (ligand) with a proteic structure (receptor)—represents the ground of drug action mechanism of the vast majority of bioactive chemicals. Ligand and receptor accommodate their geometry and energy, within this interaction, in the benefit of receptor–ligand complex. In
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Docking—i.e., interaction of a small molecule (ligand) with a proteic structure (receptor)—represents the ground of drug action mechanism of the vast majority of bioactive chemicals. Ligand and receptor accommodate their geometry and energy, within this interaction, in the benefit of receptor–ligand complex. In an induced fit docking, the structure of ligand is most susceptible to changes in topology and energy, comparative to the receptor. These changes can be described by manifold hypersurfaces, in terms of polynomial discriminant and Laplacian operator. Such topological surfaces were represented for each MraY (phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase) inhibitor, studied before and after docking with MraY. Binding affinities of all ligands were calculated by this procedure. For each ligand, Laplacian and polynomial discriminant were correlated with the ligand minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) retrieved from literature. It was observed that MIC is correlated with Laplacian and polynomial discriminant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Recognition)
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Open AccessArticle Multiple Isoforms of ANRIL in Melanoma Cells: Structural Complexity Suggests Variations in Processing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1378; doi:10.3390/ijms18071378
Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
The long non-coding RNA ANRIL, antisense to the CDKN2B locus, is transcribed from a gene that encompasses multiple disease-associated polymorphisms. Despite the identification of multiple isoforms of ANRIL, expression of certain transcripts has been found to be tissue-specific and the characterisation
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The long non-coding RNA ANRIL, antisense to the CDKN2B locus, is transcribed from a gene that encompasses multiple disease-associated polymorphisms. Despite the identification of multiple isoforms of ANRIL, expression of certain transcripts has been found to be tissue-specific and the characterisation of ANRIL transcripts remains incomplete. Several functions have been associated with ANRIL. In our judgement, studies on ANRIL functionality are premature pending a more complete appreciation of the profusion of isoforms. We found differential expression of ANRIL exons, which indicates that multiple isoforms exist in melanoma cells. In addition to linear isoforms, we identified circular forms of ANRIL (circANRIL). Further characterisation of circANRIL in two patient-derived metastatic melanoma cell lines (NZM7 and NZM37) revealed the existence of a rich assortment of circular isoforms. Moreover, in the two melanoma cell lines investigated, the complements of circANRIL isoforms were almost completely different. Novel exons were also discovered. We also found the family of linear ANRIL was enriched in the nucleus, whilst the circular isoforms were enriched in the cytoplasm and they differed markedly in stability. With respect to the variable processing of circANRIL species, bioinformatic analysis indicated that intronic Arthrobacter luteus (Alu) restriction endonuclease inverted repeats and exon skipping were not involved in selection of back-spliced exon junctions. Based on our findings, we hypothesise that “ANRIL” has wholly distinct dual sets of functions in melanoma. This reveals the dynamic nature of the locus and constitutes a basis for investigating the functions of ANRIL in melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Proteomic Profiling Reveals Molecular Characteristics Associated with Oogenesis and Oocyte Maturation during Ovarian Development of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1379; doi:10.3390/ijms18071379
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Time-dependent expression of proteins in ovary is important to understand oogenesis in insects. Here, we profiled the proteomes of developing ovaries from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to obtain information about ovarian development with particular emphasis on differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) involved in oogenesis. A
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Time-dependent expression of proteins in ovary is important to understand oogenesis in insects. Here, we profiled the proteomes of developing ovaries from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to obtain information about ovarian development with particular emphasis on differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) involved in oogenesis. A total of 4838 proteins were identified with an average peptide number of 8.15 and sequence coverage of 20.79%. Quantitative proteomic analysis showed that a total of 612 and 196 proteins were differentially expressed in developing and mature ovaries, respectively. Furthermore, 153, 196 and 59 potential target proteins were highly expressed in early, vitellogenic and mature ovaries and most tested DEPs had the similar trends consistent with the respective transcriptional profiles. These proteins were abundantly expressed in pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic stages, including tropomyosin, vitellogenin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, heat shock protein, importin protein, vitelline membrane protein, and chorion protein. Several hormone and signal pathway related proteins were also identified during ovarian development including piRNA, notch, insulin, juvenile, and ecdysone hormone signal pathways. This is the first report of a global ovary proteome of a tephritid fruit fly, and may contribute to understanding the complicate processes of ovarian development and exploring the potentially novel pest control targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle 3D-QSAR and Molecular Docking Studies on the TcPMCA1-Mediated Detoxification of Scopoletin and Coumarin Derivatives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1380; doi:10.3390/ijms18071380
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval), is an economically important agricultural pest that is difficult to prevent and control. Scopoletin is a botanical coumarin derivative that targets Ca2+-ATPase to exert a strong acaricidal effect on carmine spider mites. In this
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The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval), is an economically important agricultural pest that is difficult to prevent and control. Scopoletin is a botanical coumarin derivative that targets Ca2+-ATPase to exert a strong acaricidal effect on carmine spider mites. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of a plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 1 gene (TcPMCA1) was cloned. The sequence contains an open reading frame of 3750 bp and encodes a putative protein of 1249 amino acids. The effects of scopoletin on TcPMCA1 expression were investigated. TcPMCA1 was significantly upregulated after it was exposed to 10%, 30%, and 50% of the lethal concentration of scopoletin. Homology modeling, molecular docking, and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships were then studied to explore the relationship between scopoletin structure and TcPMCA1-inhibiting activity of scopoletin and other 30 coumarin derivatives. Results showed that scopoletin inserts into the binding cavity and interacts with amino acid residues at the binding site of the TcPMCA1 protein through the driving forces of hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, CoMFA (comparative molecular field analysis)- and CoMSIA (comparative molecular similarity index analysis)-derived models showed that the steric and H-bond fields of these compounds exert important influences on the activities of the coumarin compounds.Notably, the C3, C6, and C7 positions in the skeletal structure of the coumarins are the most suitable active sites. This work provides insights into the mechanism underlying the interaction of scopoletin with TcPMCA1. The present results can improve the understanding on plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase-mediated (PMCA-mediated) detoxification of scopoletin and coumarin derivatives in T. cinnabarinus, as well as provide valuable information for the design of novel PMCA-inhibiting acaricides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Protein Molecules Computational Identification)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Hypericin-Mediated Effects and Implications for Targeted Photodynamic Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1388; doi:10.3390/ijms18071388
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
The phototoxic effect of hypericin can be utilized for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of cancer. After intravenous application and systemic distribution of the drug in the patient’s body, the tumor site is exposed to light. Subsequently, toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated, inducing
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The phototoxic effect of hypericin can be utilized for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of cancer. After intravenous application and systemic distribution of the drug in the patient’s body, the tumor site is exposed to light. Subsequently, toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated, inducing tumor cell death. To prevent unwanted activation of the drug in other regions of the body, patients have to avoid light during and after the treatment cycles, consequently impairing quality of life. Here, we characterize toxicity and hypericin-mediated effects on cancer cells in vitro and confirm that its effect clearly depends on concentration and illumination time. To reduce side effects and to increase therapy success, selective accumulation of hypericin in the tumor region is a promising solution. Loading hypericin on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and guiding them to the desired place using an external magnetic field might accomplish this task (referred to as Magnetic Drug Targeting (MDT)). Thus, using a double targeting strategy, namely magnetic accumulation and laser induced photoactivation, might improve treatment effectivity as well as specificity and reduce toxic side effects in future clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Targeting Therapy and Selective Killing)
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Open AccessArticle Oral Supplementation of Melatonin Protects against Fibromyalgia-Related Skeletal Muscle Alterations in Reserpine-Induced Myalgia Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1389; doi:10.3390/ijms18071389
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and an extensive array of other symptoms including disordered sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety. Important factors involved in the pathogenic process of fibromyalgia are inflammation and oxidative stress, suggesting that ant-inflammatory and/or antioxidant
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Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and an extensive array of other symptoms including disordered sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety. Important factors involved in the pathogenic process of fibromyalgia are inflammation and oxidative stress, suggesting that ant-inflammatory and/or antioxidant supplementation might be effective in the management and modulation of this syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that melatonin may be suitable for this purpose due to its well known ant-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic effects. Thus, in the current study, the effects of the oral supplementation of melatonin against fibromyalgia-related skeletal muscle alterations were evaluated. In detail, 90 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly treated with reserpine, to reproduce the pathogenic process of fibromyalgia and thereafter they received melatonin. The animals treated with reserpine showed moderate alterations at hind limb skeletal muscles level and had difficulty in moving, together with significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations and expression of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the gastrocnemius muscle. Interestingly, melatonin, dose and/or time dependently, reduced the difficulties in spontaneous motor activity and the musculoskeletal morphostructural, inflammatory, and oxidative stress alterations. This study suggests that melatonin in vivo may be an effective tool in the management of fibromyalgia-related musculoskeletal morphofunctional damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Its Analogues: Experimental and Clinical Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Ageing on T-Bet and Eomes Expression on T-Cell Subsets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1391; doi:10.3390/ijms18071391
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
The differential impact of ageing and cytomegalovirus (CMV) latent infection on human T-cell subsets remains to some extent controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the expression of the transcription factors T-bet and Eomes and CD57 on CD4+, CD4hiCD8
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The differential impact of ageing and cytomegalovirus (CMV) latent infection on human T-cell subsets remains to some extent controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the expression of the transcription factors T-bet and Eomes and CD57 on CD4+, CD4hiCD8lo and CD8+ T-cell subsets in healthy individuals, stratified by age and CMV serostatus. The percentage of CD4+ T-cells expressing T-bet or Eomes was very low, in particular in CD4+ T-cells from young CMV-seronegative individuals, and were higher in CMV-seropositive older individuals, in both CD57− and CD57+ CD4+ T-cells. The study of the minor peripheral blood double-positive CD4hiCD8lo T-cells showed that the percentage of these T-cells expressing both Eomes and T-bet was higher compared to CD4+ T-cells. The percentage of CD4hiCD8lo T-cells expressing T-bet was also associated with CMV seropositivity and the coexpression of Eomes, T-bet and CD57 on CD4hiCD8lo T-cells was only observed in CMV-seropositive donors, supporting the hypothesis that these cells are mature effector memory cells. The percentage of T-cells expressing Eomes and T-bet was higher in CD8+ T-cells than in CD4+ T-cells. The percentages of CD8+ T-cells expressing Eomes and T-bet increased with age in CMV-seronegative and -seropositive individuals and the percentages of CD57− CD8+ and CD57+ CD8+ T-cells coexpressing both transcription factors were similar in the different groups studied. These results support that CMV chronic infection and/or ageing are associated to the expansion of highly differentiated CD4+, CD4hiCD8lo and CD8+ T-cells that differentially express T-bet and Eomes suggesting that the expression of these transcription factors is essential for the generation and development of an effector-memory and effector T lymphocytes involved in conferring protection against chronic CMV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology of Aging)
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Open AccessArticle Plantago asiatica L. Seed Extract Improves Lipid Accumulation and Hyperglycemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1393; doi:10.3390/ijms18071393
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Obesity and its common association with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases are worldwide epidemics. Currently, to prevent or treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders, herbal dietary supplements or medicines have attracted more and more attention owing to their relative effectiveness with
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Obesity and its common association with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases are worldwide epidemics. Currently, to prevent or treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders, herbal dietary supplements or medicines have attracted more and more attention owing to their relative effectiveness with fewer significant side effects. We investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of Plantago asiatica L. seed extract (PSE) on obesity and associated metabolic disorders in high-fat (HF) diet-induced mice. Our results displayed that PSE did not modify food intake or body weight but decreased abdominal white adipose tissue ratio, white/brown adipocyte size, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acid, and hepatic TG concentrations when compared with the HF group. The levels of fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance were improved in the PSE group when compared with the HF group. Furthermore, PSE upregulated mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) and target genes related to fatty acid metabolism and energy expenditure in liver and adipose tissue of obese mice when compared with the HF group. PSE treatment effectively improved lipid and glucose metabolism in HF diet-induced obese mice. These effects might be attributed to the upregulation of PPAR signaling Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle The Novel HDAC8 Inhibitor WK2-16 Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression in Human Monocytic Cells and Improves Hypercytokinemia In Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1394; doi:10.3390/ijms18071394
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Dysregulated human monocytes/macrophages can synthesize and secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play important roles in the progression of sepsis. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC8) inhibitor, (E)-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-2-(biphenyl-4-yl)cinnamide (WK2-16), on MMP-9
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Dysregulated human monocytes/macrophages can synthesize and secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play important roles in the progression of sepsis. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC8) inhibitor, (E)-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-2-(biphenyl-4-yl)cinnamide (WK2-16), on MMP-9 production and activation in stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells. Our results demonstrated that the acetylation level of structural maintenance of chromosomes 3 (SMC3) was up-regulated by WK2-16 in THP-1 cells. Consistently, an in vitro enzyme study demonstrated that WK2-16 selectively inhibited HDAC8 activity. Moreover, the WK2-16 concentration dependently suppressed MMP-9-mediated gelatinolysis induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, WK2-16 significantly inhibited both MMP-9 protein and mRNA expression without cellular toxicity. Nevertheless, WK2-16 suppressed the extracellular levels of interleukin (IL)-6 from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. For the signaling studies, WK2-16 had no effect on LPS/TLR4 downstream signaling pathways, such as the NF-κB and ERK/JNK/P38 MAPK pathways. On the other hand, WK2-16 enhanced the recruitment of acetylated Yin Yang 1 (YY1) with HDAC1. Finally, in vivo studies indicated that WK2-16 could reduce the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in endotoxemic mice. These results suggested that HDAC8 inhibition might provide a novel therapeutic strategy of hypercytokinemia in sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sepsis)
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Open AccessArticle Rational Design of Recombinant Papain-Like Cysteine Protease: Optimal Domain Structure and Expression Conditions for Wheat-Derived Enzyme Triticain-α
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1395; doi:10.3390/ijms18071395
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Triticain-α is a papain-like cysteine protease from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that possesses activity towards toxic gluten-derived peptides, and was thus proposed as a novel therapeutic tool for celiac disease. We report an original approach employing rational design of domain architecture of
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Triticain-α is a papain-like cysteine protease from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that possesses activity towards toxic gluten-derived peptides, and was thus proposed as a novel therapeutic tool for celiac disease. We report an original approach employing rational design of domain architecture of Triticain-α and selection of the appropriate expression system for development of cheap and efficient protocol yielding active recombinant enzyme. The segregated catalytic domain of Triticain-α did not adopt native structure in bacteria, neither being expressed as a single protein nor upon conjugation or co-expression with extrinsic chaperones. Meanwhile, its attachment to prodomain of the enzyme resulted in generation of insoluble (inclusion bodies) product that can be transformed into active protease upon refolding in vitro. The estimated yield of the product was affected by affinity six-histidine tag required for its single-step purification with the preferable N-terminal position of the tag. Expression of the two-domain Triticain-α construct in yeast (Pichia pastoris) strain GS115 and bacterial (Escherichia coli) strain Rosetta gami B (DE3) led to the accumulation of a soluble protein, which underwent autocatalytic maturation during expression (in yeast)/purification (in bacteria) procedures and exhibited pronounced protease activity. Furthermore, expression and solubility of such construct in Rosetta gami B (DE3) cells was improved by reducing the temperature of the bacterial growth yielding more active enzyme than yeast counterpart presumably due to facilitated formation of a characteristic disulfide bond critical for maintaining the catalytic site. We suggest that these findings are helpful for obtaining active Triticain-α preparations for scientific or medical applications, and can be employed for the design and production of beneficial recombinant products based on other papain-like cysteine proteases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recombinant Proteins)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Melatonin on Colon Cancer Cells’ Resistance to Doxorubicin in an in Vitro Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1396; doi:10.3390/ijms18071396
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is the main cause of low effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the main factors determining MDR. Some studies indicate the potential role of melatonin (MLT) in MDR. In this study, we examined the effect of MLT
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Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is the main cause of low effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the main factors determining MDR. Some studies indicate the potential role of melatonin (MLT) in MDR. In this study, we examined the effect of MLT on colon cancer cell’s resistance to doxorubicin (DOX). Using the sulforhodamine B (SRB), method the effect of tested substances on the survival of LoVo (colon cancer cells sensitive to DOX) and LoVoDX (colon cancer cells resistant to DOX) was rated. Using immunocytochemistry (ICC), the expression of P-gp in the LoVo and LoVoDX was determined. With the real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique, the ABCB1 expression in LoVoDX was evaluated. Based on the results, it was found that MLT in some concentrations intensified the cytotoxicity effect of DOX in the LoVoDX cells. In the ICC studies, it was demonstrated that certain concentrations of MLT and DOX cause an increase in the percentage of cells expressing P-gp, which correlates positively with ABCB1 expression (RT-PCR). The mechanism of overcoming resistance by MLT is probably not only associated with the expression of P-gp. It seems appropriate to carry out further research on the use of MLT as the substance supporting cancer chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Its Analogues: Experimental and Clinical Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle Loss of Bone Mineral Density Associated with Age in Male Rats Fed on Sunflower Oil Is Avoided by Virgin Olive Oil Intake or Coenzyme Q Supplementation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1397; doi:10.3390/ijms18071397
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
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Abstract
The role of dietary fat unsaturation and the supplementation of coenzyme Q have been evaluated in relation to bone health. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on two diets varying in the fat source, namely virgin olive oil, rich
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The role of dietary fat unsaturation and the supplementation of coenzyme Q have been evaluated in relation to bone health. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on two diets varying in the fat source, namely virgin olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, or sunflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both dietary fats were supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in the femur. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), as well as urinary F2-isoprostanes were measured. Aged animals fed on virgin olive oil showed higher BMD than those fed on sunflower oil. In addition, CoQ10 prevented the age-related decline in BMD in animals fed on sunflower oil. Urinary F2-isoprostanes analysis showed that sunflower oil led to the highest oxidative status in old animals, which was avoided by supplementation with CoQ10. In conclusion, lifelong feeding on virgin olive oil or the supplementation of sunflower oil on CoQ10 prevented, at least in part mediated by a low oxidative stress status, the age-related decrease in BMD found in sunflower oil fed animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Correlation between Nutrition, Oxidative Stress and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle ArtinM Mediates Murine T Cell Activation and Induces Cell Death in Jurkat Human Leukemic T Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1400; doi:10.3390/ijms18071400
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
The recognition of cell surface glycans by lectins may be critical for the innate and adaptive immune responses. ArtinM, a d-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, activates antigen-presenting cells by recognizing TLR2 N-glycans and induces Th1 immunity. We recently demonstrated that
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The recognition of cell surface glycans by lectins may be critical for the innate and adaptive immune responses. ArtinM, a d-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, activates antigen-presenting cells by recognizing TLR2 N-glycans and induces Th1 immunity. We recently demonstrated that ArtinM stimulated CD4+ T cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we further studied the effects of ArtinM on adaptive immune cells. We showed that ArtinM activates murine CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, augmenting their positivity for CD25, CD69, and CD95 and showed higher interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ production. The CD4+ T cells exhibited increased T-bet expression in response to ArtinM, and IL-2 production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells depended on the recognition of CD3εγ-chain glycans by ArtinM. The ArtinM effect on aberrantly-glycosylated neoplastic lymphocytes was studied in Jurkat T cells, in which ArtinM induced IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-1β production, but decreased cell viability and growth. A higher frequency of AnnexinV- and propidium iodide-stained cells demonstrated the induction of Jurkat T cells apoptosis by ArtinM, and this apoptotic response was reduced by caspases and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ArtinM effects on murine T cells corroborated with the immunomodulatory property of lectin, whereas the promotion of Jurkat T cells apoptosis may reflect a potential applicability of ArtinM in novel strategies for treating lymphocytic leukemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Lectins: From Model Species to Crop Plants)
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Open AccessArticle Capsaicin-Sensitive Sensory Nerves Are Necessary for the Protective Effect of Ghrelin in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1402; doi:10.3390/ijms18071402
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Ghrelin was shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of sensory nerves (SN) in the protective effect of ghrelin in acute pancreatitis (AP). Studies were performed on male Wistar rats or
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Ghrelin was shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of sensory nerves (SN) in the protective effect of ghrelin in acute pancreatitis (AP). Studies were performed on male Wistar rats or isolated pancreatic acinar cells. After capsaicin deactivation of sensory nerves (CDSN) or treatment with saline, rats were pretreated intraperitoneally with ghrelin or saline. In those rats, AP was induced by cerulein or pancreases were used for isolation of pancreatic acinar cells. Pancreatic acinar cells were incubated in cerulein-free or cerulein containing solution. In rats with intact SN, pretreatment with ghrelin led to a reversal of the cerulein-induced increase in pancreatic weight, plasma activity of lipase and plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These effects were associated with an increase in plasma interleukin-4 concentration and reduction in histological signs of pancreatic damage. CDSN tended to increase the severity of AP and abolished the protective effect of ghrelin. Exposure of pancreatic acinar cells to cerulein led to increase in cellular expression of mRNA for TNF-α and cellular synthesis of this cytokine. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced this alteration, but this effect was only observed in acinar cells obtained from rats with intact SN. Moreover, CDSN inhibited the cerulein- and ghrelin-induced increase in gene expression and synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in those cells. Ghrelin exhibits the protective effect in cerulein-induced AP on the organ and pancreatic acinar cell level. Sensory nerves ablation abolishes this effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Estrogen Promotes Hepatic Synthesis of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Regulating ELOVL5 at Post-Transcriptional Level in Laying Hens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1405; doi:10.3390/ijms18071405
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
The very long chain fatty acid elongase (ELOVL) plays an important role in the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Previous studies suggest that chicken could be an alternate source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we
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The very long chain fatty acid elongase (ELOVL) plays an important role in the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Previous studies suggest that chicken could be an alternate source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we detected that ELOVL5, which plays a key role in the biosynthesis of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), was highly expressed in the liver of laying hens and increased rapidly after sexual maturity. Bioinformatic analysis revealed ELOVL fatty acid elongase 5 (ELOVL5) gene as a putative target of miR-218-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-19b-3p, miR-30a-5p, miR-30b-5p, and miR-30e-5p. We demonstrated estrogen downregulated microRNA (miRNA), and that ELOVL5 is a direct target of miR-218-5p, which was located in intron 14 of the Slit guidance ligand 2 (SLIT2) gene and co-expressed with the host gene. Overall, estrogen enhanced hepatic synthesis of LCPUFA by functioning as a negative regulator of miRNA thereby augmenting the expression of these miRNA target genes, especially ELOVL5, which plays a key role in the biosynthesis of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. This study provides a novel model for the use of estrogen in the poultry industry as an inducer of ELOVL5 expression to enhance hepatic n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Nephroprotective Effects of Saponins from Leaves of Panax quinquefolius against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1407; doi:10.3390/ijms18071407
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Although cisplatin is an anticancer drug that has activity against malignant tumor, it often causes nephrotoxicity. Previous reports have confirmed that the saponins from the leaves of P. quinquefolium (PQS) exerted many pharmacological activities. However, the renoprotective effects of PQS were still unknown.
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Although cisplatin is an anticancer drug that has activity against malignant tumor, it often causes nephrotoxicity. Previous reports have confirmed that the saponins from the leaves of P. quinquefolium (PQS) exerted many pharmacological activities. However, the renoprotective effects of PQS were still unknown. The purpose of the present research was to discuss renoprotective effect of PQS in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (CRE) were evidently increased in cisplatin-intoxicated mice, which were reversed by PQS. Renal oxidative stress, evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and decline of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, was significantly alleviated by PQS pretreatment. The suppression of inflammatory response by PQS was realized through the decrease the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in kidney tissues, which were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Simultaneously, the overexpression of cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were attenuated by PQS. Furthermore, the effects of Western blotting demonstrated that PQS administration significantly suppressed the protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase type 4 (Nox4), cleaved Caspase-3, cleaved Caspase-9, Bax, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), suggesting the inhibition of apoptosis and inflammation response. Overall, PQS may possess protective effects in cisplatin-induced AKI through suppression of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Direct Activator of Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) by Structure-Based Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1408; doi:10.3390/ijms18071408
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism and has been targeted for drug development of therapeutic intervention in Type II diabetes and related diseases. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of direct
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Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism and has been targeted for drug development of therapeutic intervention in Type II diabetes and related diseases. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of direct β1-selective AMPK activators to treat patients with diabetic nephropathy. To investigate the details of AMPK domain structure, sequence alignment and structural comparison were used to identify the key amino acids involved in the interaction with activators and the structure difference between β1 and β2 subunits. Additionally, a series of potential β1-selective AMPK activators were identified by virtual screening using molecular docking. The retrieved hits were filtered on the basis of Lipinski’s rule of five and drug-likeness. Finally, 12 novel compounds with diverse scaffolds were obtained as potential starting points for the design of direct β1-selective AMPK activators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Protein Molecules Computational Identification)
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Open AccessArticle Dose-Dependent Responses of I3C and DIM on T-Cell Activation in the Human T Lymphocyte Jurkat Cell Line
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1409; doi:10.3390/ijms18071409
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimer diindolylmethane (DIM) are bioactive metabolites of a glucosinolate, glucobrassicin, found in cruciferous vegetables. Both I3C and DIM have been reported to possess pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative and anti-carcinogenic properties via modulation of immune pathways. However, results from these studies remain
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Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimer diindolylmethane (DIM) are bioactive metabolites of a glucosinolate, glucobrassicin, found in cruciferous vegetables. Both I3C and DIM have been reported to possess pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative and anti-carcinogenic properties via modulation of immune pathways. However, results from these studies remain inconclusive since they lack thorough evaluation of these bioactives’ physiological versus pharmacological effects. In the present study, we investigated I3C and DIM’s dose-dependent effects on cytokines production in human T lymphocytes Jurkat cell line (Clone E6-1). The results showed that I3C and DIM pretreatment, at higher concentrations of 50 and 10 μM, respectively, significantly increased PMA/ionomycin-induced interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, measured by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). As a plausible mechanism underlying such pronounced cytokine release, we found robust increase in downstream nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 (NFAT1) signaling with I3C pretreatment, whereas DIM pretreatment only significantly induced NF-κB activation, but not NFAT1. We hypothesize that I3C/DIM pretreatment primes the T cells to become hyperresponsive upon PMA/ionomycin stimulation which in turn differentially induces two major downstream Ca2+-dependent inflammatory pathways, NF-κB and NFAT1. Our data show novel insights into the mechanisms underlying induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine release by pharmacological concentrations of I3C and DIM, an effect negligible under physiological conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improving Processing and Performance of Pure Lignin Carbon Fibers through Hardwood and Herbaceous Lignin Blends
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1410; doi:10.3390/ijms18071410
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
Lignin/lignin blends were used to improve fiber spinning, stabilization rates, and properties of lignin-based carbon fibers. Organosolv lignin from Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) were used as blends for making lignin-based carbon fibers. Different ratios
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Lignin/lignin blends were used to improve fiber spinning, stabilization rates, and properties of lignin-based carbon fibers. Organosolv lignin from Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) were used as blends for making lignin-based carbon fibers. Different ratios of yellow poplar:switchgrass lignin blends were prepared (50:50, 75:25, and 85:15 w/w). Chemical composition and thermal properties of lignin samples were determined. Thermal properties of lignins were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal analysis confirmed switchgrass and yellow poplar lignin form miscible blends, as a single glass transition was observed. Lignin fibers were produced via melt-spinning by twin-screw extrusion. Lignin fibers were thermostabilized at different rates and subsequently carbonized. Spinnability of switchgrass lignin markedly improved by blending with yellow poplar lignin. On the other hand, switchgrass lignin significantly improved thermostabilization performance of yellow poplar fibers, preventing fusion of fibers during fast stabilization and improving mechanical properties of fibers. These results suggest a route towards a 100% renewable carbon fiber with significant decrease in production time and improved mechanical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Lignin Challenge: Exploring Innovative Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication An In Vitro Potency Assay for Monitoring the Immunomodulatory Potential of Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1413; doi:10.3390/ijms18071413
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
The regenerative and immunomodulatory activity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is partially mediated by secreted vesicular factors. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) exocytosed by MSCs are gaining increased attention as prospective non-cellular therapeutics for a variety of diseases. However, the lack of suitable in vitro
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The regenerative and immunomodulatory activity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is partially mediated by secreted vesicular factors. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) exocytosed by MSCs are gaining increased attention as prospective non-cellular therapeutics for a variety of diseases. However, the lack of suitable in vitro assays to monitor the therapeutic potential of EVs currently restricts their application in clinical studies. We have evaluated a dual in vitro immunomodulation potency assay that reproducibly reports the inhibitory effect of MSCs on induced T-cell proliferation and the alloantigen-driven mixed leukocyte reaction of pooled peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a dose-dependent manner. Phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-cell proliferation was inhibited by MSC-derived EVs in a dose-dependent manner comparable to MSCs. In contrast, inhibition of alloantigen-driven mixed leukocyte reaction was only observed for MSCs, but not for EVs. Our results support the application of a cell-based in vitro potency assay for reproducibly determining the immunomodulatory potential of EVs. Validation of this assay can help establish reliable release criteria for EVs for future clinical studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Theranostic Liposome–Nanoparticle Hybrids for Drug Delivery and Bioimaging
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1415; doi:10.3390/ijms18071415
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Advanced theranostic nanomedicine is a multifunctional approach which combines the diagnosis and effective therapy of diseased tissues. Here, we investigated the preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of theranostic liposomes. As is known, liposome–quantum dot (L–QD) hybrid vesicles are promising nanoconstructs for cell
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Advanced theranostic nanomedicine is a multifunctional approach which combines the diagnosis and effective therapy of diseased tissues. Here, we investigated the preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of theranostic liposomes. As is known, liposome–quantum dot (L–QD) hybrid vesicles are promising nanoconstructs for cell imaging and liposomal-topotecan (L-TPT) enhances the efficiency of TPT by providing protection against systemic clearance and allowing extended time for it to accumulate in tumors. In the present study, hydrophobic CdSe/ZnS QD and TPT were located in the bilayer membrane and inner core of liposomes, respectively. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential (ζ) measurements and fluorescence/absorption spectroscopy were performed to determine the vesicle size, charge and spectroscopic properties of the liposomes. Moreover, drug release was studied under neutral and acidic pH conditions. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis were used to examine the cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of the TPT-loaded L–QD formulation. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was utilized to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the formulations on HeLa cells. According to the results, the TPT-loaded L–QD hybrid has adequate physicochemical properties and is a promising multifunctional delivery vehicle which is capable of a simultaneous co-delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterial Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle Glycine-Binding Site Stimulants of NMDA Receptors Alleviate Extrapyramidal Motor Disorders by Activating the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1416; doi:10.3390/ijms18071416
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Although agonists for the glycine-binding sites of NMDA receptors have potential as new medication for schizophrenia, their modulation of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) has not
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Dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Although agonists for the glycine-binding sites of NMDA receptors have potential as new medication for schizophrenia, their modulation of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) has not yet been clarified. We herein evaluated the effects of glycine-binding site stimulants of NMDA receptors on antipsychotic-induced EPS in mice and rats. d-cycloserine (DCS) and d-serine significantly improved haloperidol (HAL)-induced bradykinesia in mice, whereas glycine showed no effects. Sodium benzoate, a d-amino acid oxidase inhibitor, also attenuated HAL-induced bradykinesia. Improvements in HAL-induced bradykinesia by DCS were antagonized by the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NG-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. In addition, DCS significantly reduced HAL-induced Fos expression in the dorsolateral striatum without affecting that in the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, a microinjection of DCS into the substantia nigra pars compacta significantly inhibited HAL-induced EPS concomitant with elevations in dopamine release in the striatum. The present results demonstrated for the first time that stimulating the glycine-binding sites of NMDA receptors alleviates antipsychotic-induced EPS by activating the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, suggesting that glycine-binding site stimulants are beneficial not only for efficacy, but also for side-effect management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mechanism Investigation of Rifampicin-Induced Liver Injury Using Comparative Toxicoproteomics in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1417; doi:10.3390/ijms18071417
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Tuberculosis is one of the top causes of death among curable infectious diseases; it is an airborne infectious disease that killed 1.1 million people worldwide in 2010. Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury is the primary cause of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Rifampicin is one
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Tuberculosis is one of the top causes of death among curable infectious diseases; it is an airborne infectious disease that killed 1.1 million people worldwide in 2010. Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury is the primary cause of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Rifampicin is one of the most common anti-tuberculosis therapies and has well-known hepatotoxicity. To understand the mechanism of rifampicin-induced liver injury, we performed a global proteomic analysis of liver proteins by LC-MS/MS in a mouse model after the oral administration of 177 and 442.5 mg/kg rifampicin (LD10 and LD25) for 14 days. Based on the biochemical parameters in the plasma after rifampicin treatment, the hepatotoxic effect of rifampicin in the mouse liver was defined as a mixed liver injury. In the present study, we identified 1101 proteins and quantified 1038 proteins. A total of 29 and 40 proteins were up-regulated and 27 and 118 proteins were down-regulated in response to 177 and 442.5 mg/kg rifampicin, respectively. Furthermore, we performed Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses to characterize the mechanism of rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity. In the molecular function category, glutathione transferase activity was up-regulated and proteins related to arachidonic acid metabolism were down-regulated. In the KEGG pathway enrichment-based clustering analysis, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) signaling pathway, cytochrome P450, glutathione metabolism, chemical carcinogenesis, and related proteins increased dose-dependently in rifampicin-treated livers. Taken together, this study showed in-depth molecular mechanism of rifampicin-induced liver injury by comparative toxicoproteomics approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Drug Induced Liver Injury)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of an Inhibitor of Monocyte Recruitment on Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Treated with Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1418; doi:10.3390/ijms18071418
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Administration of the hematopoietic growth factor granulocyte-colony stimulating Factor (G-CSF) has been reported to enhance recovery from controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rodent models. G-CSF exerts actions in both the periphery (stimulation of hematopoiesis) and in the brain, where it serves as a
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Administration of the hematopoietic growth factor granulocyte-colony stimulating Factor (G-CSF) has been reported to enhance recovery from controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rodent models. G-CSF exerts actions in both the periphery (stimulation of hematopoiesis) and in the brain, where it serves as a neurotrophic factor, promoting neuronal survival and stimulating neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus. In order to distinguish the direct CNS actions of G-CSF from its peripheral actions, experiments were designed to block the recruitment of peripheral monocytes to the site of the lesion produced by CCI. The selective C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist (RS504303) was co-administered with G-CSF for three days after CCI in a chimeric mouse previously transplanted with GFP-expressing (GFP+) blood stem-progenitor cells. Results: The drug significantly impaired infiltration of GFP+ bone marrow-derived cells to the frontal cortex and striatum without impeding recovery performance and hippocampal neurogenesis in the behavioral test, the Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM). Administration of the CCR2 antagonist alone, without G-CSF, was effective in promoting recovery in RAWM. These results support the hypothesis that the direct action of G-CSF on neural cells, independent of its hematopoietic effects, is primarily responsible for enhanced recovery from CCI. In addition, this study confirms the importance of CCR2 and its ligand, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), in mediating the inflammatory response following CCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Independent Preharvest Applications of Methyl Jasmonate and Chitosan Elicit Differential Upregulation of Defense-Related Genes with Reduced Incidence of Gray Mold Decay during Postharvest Storage of Fragaria chiloensis Fruit
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1420; doi:10.3390/ijms18071420
Received: 8 April 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
The Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) fruit has interesting organoleptic properties, but its postharvest life is affected by gray mold decay caused by Botrytis cinerea. The effect of preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or chitosan on the molecular defense-related responses
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The Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) fruit has interesting organoleptic properties, but its postharvest life is affected by gray mold decay caused by Botrytis cinerea. The effect of preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or chitosan on the molecular defense-related responses and protection against gray mold decay were investigated in Chilean strawberry fruit during postharvest storage. Specifically, we inoculated harvested fruit with B. cinerea spores and studied the expression of genes encoding for the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins β-1,3-glucanases (FcBG2-1, FcBG2-2 and FcBG2-3) and chitinases (FcCHI2-2 and FcCHI3-1), and for polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (FcPGIP1 and FcPGIP2) at 0, 2, 24, 48, and 72 h post inoculation (hpi). Remarkably, MeJA- and chitosan-treated fruit exhibited a lower incidence of B. cinerea infection than the control-treated at 48 and 72 hpi. At the molecular level, both are efficient elicitors for priming in F. chiloensis fruit since we observed an upregulation of the FcBG2-1, FcBG2-3, FcPGIP1, and FcPGIP2 at 0 hpi. Moreover, a chitosan-mediated upregulation of FcPGIPs at early times post inoculation (2–24 hpi) and MeJA upregulated FcBGs (24–72 hpi) and FcPGIP1 at later times could contribute to reduce B. cinerea incidence by differential upregulation of defense genes. We concluded that preharvest applications of MeJA or chitosan had a long-lasting effect on the reduction of B. cinerea incidence during postharvest as well as an enhancer effect on the induction of PR and PGIP gene expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ripening Control and Induction of the Defence and Antioxidant Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Lipotoxicity-Induced PRMT1 Exacerbates Mesangial Cell Apoptosis via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1421; doi:10.3390/ijms18071421
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Lipotoxicity-induced mesangial cell apoptosis is implicated in the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been known to regulate a variety of biological functions. Recently, it was reported that PRMT1 expression is increased in proximal tubule cells under diabetic conditions.
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Lipotoxicity-induced mesangial cell apoptosis is implicated in the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been known to regulate a variety of biological functions. Recently, it was reported that PRMT1 expression is increased in proximal tubule cells under diabetic conditions. However, their roles in mesangial cells remain unexplored. Thus, we examined the pathophysiological roles of PRMTs in mesangial cell apoptosis. Treatment with palmitate, which mimics cellular lipotoxicity, induced mesangial cell apoptosis via protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and ATF6-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling. Palmitate treatment increased PRMT1 expression and activity in mesangial cells as well. Moreover, palmitate-induced ER stress activation and mesangial cell apoptosis was diminished by PRMT1 knockdown. In the mice study, high fat diet-induced glomerular apoptosis was attenuated in PRMT1 haploinsufficient mice. Together, these results provide evidence that lipotoxicity-induced PRMT1 expression promotes ER stress-mediated mesangial cell apoptosis. Strategies to regulate PRMT1 expression or activity could be used to prevent the exacerbation of DN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Allyl Isothiocyanate through Attenuation of JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1423; doi:10.3390/ijms18071423
Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), present in Wasabia japonica (wasabi), is an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from the precursor sinigrin, which is a glucosinolate present in vegetables of the Brassica family. Traditionally, it has been used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, blood circulation, and pain. This study
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Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), present in Wasabia japonica (wasabi), is an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from the precursor sinigrin, which is a glucosinolate present in vegetables of the Brassica family. Traditionally, it has been used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, blood circulation, and pain. This study focuses on its anti-apoptotic activity through the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, we assessed its neuroprotective efficacy, which it achieves through the upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Pretreatment with AITC significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) production in activated microglia, and increased the nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells. AITC inhibited the nuclear factor (NF-κB-mediated transcription by modulating mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, particularly downregulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, which was followed by a reduction in the TNF-α expression in activated microglia. This promising effect of AITC in controlling JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α cross-linking maintains the Bcl-2 gene family and protects neuroblastoma cells from activated microglia-induced toxicity. These findings provide novel insights into the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of AITC on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Open AccessArticle Chrysin Attenuates VCAM-1 Expression and Monocyte Adhesion in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Brain Endothelial Cells by Preventing NF-κB Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1424; doi:10.3390/ijms18071424
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells plays an important role in neuroinflammation. Therefore, suppression of the expression of adhesion molecules in brain endothelial cells may inhibit neuroinflammation. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid component of propolis, blue passion flowers, and fruits. In the present
[...] Read more.
Adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells plays an important role in neuroinflammation. Therefore, suppression of the expression of adhesion molecules in brain endothelial cells may inhibit neuroinflammation. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid component of propolis, blue passion flowers, and fruits. In the present study, we examined the effects of chrysin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in mouse cerebral vascular endothelial (bEnd.3) cells. In bEnd.3 cells, LPS increased mRNA expression of VCAM-1 in a time-dependent manner, and chrysin significantly decreased LPS-induced mRNA expression of VCAM-1. Chrysin also reduced VCAM-1 protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, chrysin blocked adhesion of monocytes to bEnd.3 cells exposed to LPS. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which are all activated by LPS, were significantly inhibited by chrysin. These results indicate that chrysin inhibits the expression of VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB translocation and MAPK signaling, resulting in the attenuation of leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. The anti-inflammatory effects of chrysin suggest a possible therapeutic application of this agent to neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, septic encephalopathy, and allergic encephalomyelitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blood–Brain Barrier in CNS Injury and Repair)
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Open AccessArticle Abscopal Activation of Microglia in Embryonic Fish Brain Following Targeted Irradiation with Heavy-Ion Microbeam
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1428; doi:10.3390/ijms18071428
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Microglia remove apoptotic cells by phagocytosis when the central nervous system is injured in vertebrates. Ionizing irradiation (IR) induces apoptosis and microglial activation in embryonic midbrain of medaka (Oryzias latipes), where apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is upregulated in the later phase of
[...] Read more.
Microglia remove apoptotic cells by phagocytosis when the central nervous system is injured in vertebrates. Ionizing irradiation (IR) induces apoptosis and microglial activation in embryonic midbrain of medaka (Oryzias latipes), where apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is upregulated in the later phase of activation of microglia In this study, we found that another microglial marker, l-plastin (lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1), was upregulated at the initial phase of the IR-induced phagocytosis when activated microglia changed their morphology and increased motility to migrate. We further conducted targeted irradiation to the embryonic midbrain using a collimated microbeam of carbon ions (250 μm diameter) and found that the l-plastin upregulation was induced only in the microglia located in the irradiated area. Then, the activated microglia might migrate outside of the irradiated area and spread through over the embryonic brain, expressing ApoE and with activated morphology, for longer than 3 days after the irradiation. These findings suggest that l-plastin and ApoE can be the biomarkers of the activated microglia in the initial and later phase, respectively, in the medaka embryonic brain and that the abscopal and persisted activation of microglia by IR irradiation could be a cause of the abscopal and/or adverse effects following irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microglia in Aging and Neurodegenerative Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Inter-Strain Differences in LINE-1 DNA Methylation in the Mouse Hematopoietic System in Response to Exposure to Ionizing Radiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1430; doi:10.3390/ijms18071430
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are the major repetitive elements in mammalian genomes. LINE-1s are well-accepted as driving forces of evolution and critical regulators of the expression of genetic information. Alterations in LINE-1 DNA methylation may lead to its aberrant activity
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Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are the major repetitive elements in mammalian genomes. LINE-1s are well-accepted as driving forces of evolution and critical regulators of the expression of genetic information. Alterations in LINE-1 DNA methylation may lead to its aberrant activity and are reported in virtually all human cancers and in experimental carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the endogenous DNA methylation status of the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of LINE-1 elements in the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), and mononuclear cells (MNCs) in radioresistant C57BL/6J and radiosensitive CBA/J mice and in response to ionizing radiation (IR). We demonstrated that basal levels of DNA methylation within the 5′-UTRs of LINE-1 elements did not differ significantly between the two mouse strains and were negatively correlated with the evolutionary age of LINE-1 elements. Meanwhile, the expression of LINE-1 elements was higher in CBA/J mice. At two months after irradiation to 0.1 or 1 Gy of 137Cs (dose rate 1.21 Gy/min), significant decreases in LINE-1 DNA methylation in HSCs were observed in prone to radiation-induced carcinogenesis CBA/J, but not C57BL/6J mice. At the same time, no residual DNA damage, increased ROS, or changes in the cell cycle were detected in HSCs of CBA/J mice. These results suggest that epigenetic alterations may potentially serve as driving forces of radiation-induced carcinogenesis; however, future studies are needed to demonstrate the direct link between the LINE-1 DNA hypomethylation and radiation carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Methylation)
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Open AccessArticle LPS-Induced Low-Grade Inflammation Increases Hypothalamic JNK Expression and Causes Central Insulin Resistance Irrespective of Body Weight Changes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1431; doi:10.3390/ijms18071431
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Metabolic endotoxemia contributes to low-grade inflammation in obesity, which causes insulin resistance due to the activation of intracellular proinflammatory pathways, such as the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) cascade in the hypothalamus and other tissues. However, it remains unclear whether the proinflammatory process precedes
[...] Read more.
Metabolic endotoxemia contributes to low-grade inflammation in obesity, which causes insulin resistance due to the activation of intracellular proinflammatory pathways, such as the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) cascade in the hypothalamus and other tissues. However, it remains unclear whether the proinflammatory process precedes insulin resistance or it appears because of the development of obesity. Hypothalamic low-grade inflammation was induced by prolonged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure to investigate if central insulin resistance is induced by an inflammatory stimulus regardless of obesity. Male Wistar rats were treated with single (1 LPS) or repeated injections (6 LPS) of LPS (100 μg/kg, IP) to evaluate the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), Protein kinase B (AKT), and JNK in the hypothalamus. Single LPS increased the expression of pIRS1, pAKT, and pJNK, whereas the repeated LPS treatment failed to recruit pIRS1 and pAKT. The 6 LPS treated rats showed increased total JNK and pJNK. The 6 LPS rats became unresponsive to the hypophagic effect induced by central insulin administration (12 μM/5 μL, ICV). Prolonged exposure to LPS (24 h) impaired the insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation and the translocation of the transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the cultured hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. Central administration of the JNK inhibitor (20 μM/5 μL, ICV) restored the ability of insulin to phosphorylate IRS1 and AKT in 6 LPS rats. The present data suggest that an increased JNK activity in the hypothalamus underlies the development of insulin resistance during prolonged exposure to endotoxins. Our study reveals that weight gain is not mandatory for the development of hypothalamic insulin resistance and the blockade of proinflammatory pathways could be useful for restoring the insulin signaling during prolonged low-grade inflammation as seen in obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs))
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Open AccessArticle Polymorphisms within Genes Involved in Regulation of the NF-κB Pathway in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1432; doi:10.3390/ijms18071432
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Genes involved in regulation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)—pathway are suggested to play a role in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, genetic polymorphisms of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9 and NF-κB1 genes were investigated to assess their associations with
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Genes involved in regulation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)—pathway are suggested to play a role in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, genetic polymorphisms of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9 and NF-κB1 genes were investigated to assess their associations with RA susceptibility, progression and response to anti-TNF-α therapy. A group of 110 RA patients and 126 healthy individuals were genotyped for TLR2 (rs111200466), TLR4 (rs4986790, rs4986791), TLR9 (rs5743836, rs187084) and NF-κB1 (rs28362491) alleles. The presence of the TLR9 −1486 T variant (p < 0.0001) and its homozygosity (p < 0.0001) were found to be associated with disease susceptibility. The TLR9 −1237 C allele was associated with predisposition to RA in females only (p = 0.005). Moreover, the TLR4 rs4986791 G (rs4986790 T) alleles were more frequently detected among patients with the stage IV disease (p = 0.045), and were associated with more effective response to anti-TNF-α therapy (p = 0.012). More efficient response to anti-TNF-α treatment was also observed in patients with del within the NF-κB1 gene (p = 0.047), while for the TLR9 −1486 T homozygotes, the treatment was ineffective (p = 0.018). TLR polymorphisms affect disease susceptibility and response to therapy with TNF-α inhibitors in RA patients of Caucasian origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Diseases Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Approach Analysis for the Identification of Proteases within Birch Pollen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1433; doi:10.3390/ijms18071433
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Birch pollen allergy is highly prevalent, with up to 100 million reported cases worldwide. Proteases in such allergen sources have been suggested to contribute to primary sensitisation and exacerbation of allergic disorders. Until now the protease content of Betula verrucosa, a birch
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Birch pollen allergy is highly prevalent, with up to 100 million reported cases worldwide. Proteases in such allergen sources have been suggested to contribute to primary sensitisation and exacerbation of allergic disorders. Until now the protease content of Betula verrucosa, a birch species endemic to the northern hemisphere has not been studied in detail. Hence, we aim to identify and characterise pollen and bacteria-derived proteases found within birch pollen. The pollen transcriptome was constructed via de novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the proteome was achieved via mass spectrometry; a cross-comparison of the two databases was then performed. A total of 42 individual proteases were identified at the proteomic level. Further clustering of proteases into their distinct catalytic classes revealed serine, cysteine, aspartic, threonine, and metallo-proteases. Further to this, protease activity of the pollen was quantified using a fluorescently-labelled casein substrate protease assay, as 0.61 ng/mg of pollen. A large number of bacterial strains were isolated from freshly collected birch pollen and zymographic gels with gelatinase and casein, enabled visualisation of proteolytic activity of the pollen and the collected bacterial strains. We report the successful discovery of pollen and bacteria-derived proteases of Betula verrucosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteolysis in Allergic Sensitization and Th2 Response)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Evaluation of Drug Resistance Profile of Cells Expressing Wild-Type or Genetic Polymorphic Variants of the Human ABC Transporter ABCC4
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1435; doi:10.3390/ijms18071435
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Broad-spectrum resistance in cancer cells is often caused by the overexpression of ABC transporters; which varies across individuals because of genetic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In the present study; we focused on human ABCC4 and established cells expressing the wild-type (WT) or SNP variants
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Broad-spectrum resistance in cancer cells is often caused by the overexpression of ABC transporters; which varies across individuals because of genetic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In the present study; we focused on human ABCC4 and established cells expressing the wild-type (WT) or SNP variants of human ABCC4 using the Flp-In™ system (Invitrogen, Life Technologies Corp, Carlsbad, CA, USA) based on Flp recombinase-mediated transfection to quantitatively evaluate the effects of nonsynonymous SNPs on the drug resistance profiles of cells. The mRNA levels of the cells expressing each ABCC4 variant were comparable. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay clearly indicated that the EC50 values of azathioprine against cells expressing ABCC4 (WT) were 1.4–1.7-fold higher than those against cells expressing SNP variants of ABCC4 (M184K; N297S; K304N or E757K). EC50 values of 6-mercaptopurine or 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38) against cells expressing ABCC4 (WT) were also 1.4–2.0- or 1.9-fold higher than those against cells expressing the SNP variants of ABCC4 (K304N or E757K) or (K304N; P403L or E757K); respectively. These results indicate that the effects of nonsynonymous SNPs on the drug resistance profiles of cells expressing ABCC4 can be quantitatively evaluated using the Flp-In™ system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological and Pathological Roles of ABC Transporters)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Therapeutic Approach in the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Allium ursinum Liophylisate Alleviates Symptoms Comparably to Sildenafil
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1436; doi:10.3390/ijms18071436
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Right-sided heart failure—often caused by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure—is a chronic and progressive condition with particularly high mortality rates. Recent studies and our current findings suggest that components of Wild garlic (Allium ursinum, AU) may play a role in reducing blood
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Right-sided heart failure—often caused by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure—is a chronic and progressive condition with particularly high mortality rates. Recent studies and our current findings suggest that components of Wild garlic (Allium ursinum, AU) may play a role in reducing blood pressure, inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), as well as improving right ventricle function in rabbit models with heart failure. We hypothesize that AU may mitigate cardiovascular damage caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and has value in the supplementary treatment of the complications of the disease. In this present investigation, PAH was induced by a single dose of monocrotaline (MCT) injection in Sprague-Dawley rats, and animals were divided into 4 treatment groups as follows: I. healthy control animals (Control group); II. pulmonary hypertensive rats (PAH group); III. pulmonary hypertensive rats + daily sildenafil treatment (Sildenafil group); and IV. pulmonary hypertensive rats + Wild garlic liophylisate-enriched chow (WGLL group), for 8 weeks. Echocardiographic measurements were obtained on the 0 and 8 weeks with fundamental and Doppler imaging. Isolated working heart method was used to determinate cardiac functions ex vivo after thoracotomy on the 8th week. Histological analyses were carried out on excised lung samples, and Western blot technique was used to determine Phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme (PDE5) expression in both myocardial and pulmonary tissues. Our data demonstrate that right ventricle function measured by echocardiography was deteriorated in PAH animals compared to controls, which was counteracted by AU treatment. Isolated working heart measurements showed elevated aortic flow in WGLL group compared to PAH animals. Histological analysis revealed dramatic increase in medial wall thickness of pulmonary arteries harvested from PAH animals, but arteries of animals in sildenafil- and WGLL-treated groups showed physiological status. Our results suggest that bioactive compounds in Allium ursinum could have beneficial effects in pulmonary hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Correlation between Nutrition, Oxidative Stress and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Abnormally Increased Secretion in Olfactory Neuronal Precursors from a Case of Schizophrenia Is Modulated by Melatonin: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1439; doi:10.3390/ijms18071439
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
The alterations that underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) include the dysregulation of structural and functional properties of neurons. Among these, the secretion of neurotransmitters and hormones, which plays a key role for neuronal communication and development, is altered. Neuronal precursors from the
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The alterations that underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) include the dysregulation of structural and functional properties of neurons. Among these, the secretion of neurotransmitters and hormones, which plays a key role for neuronal communication and development, is altered. Neuronal precursors from the human olfactory epithelium have been recently characterized as a reliable model for studying the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Our previous work has shown that melatonin enhances the development of morphological and functional features of cloned olfactory neuronal precursors (ONPs) from a healthy subject. In this work we found that primary cultures of ONPs obtained from a schizophrenic patient display an increased potassium-evoked secretion, when compared with ONPs from an age- and gender-matched healthy control subject (HCS). Secretion was evaluated by FM1-43 fluorescence cumulative changes in response to depolarization. Interestingly, a 12 h-melatonin treatment modulated the abnormally increased secretion in SCZ ONPs and brought it to levels similar to those found in the HCS ONPs. Our results suggest that the actin cytoskeleton might be a target for melatonin effects, since it induces the thickening of actin microfilament bundles. Further research will address the mechanisms by which melatonin modulates neurochemical secretion from ONPs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Semi-Quantitative Mass Spectrometry in AML Cells Identifies New Non-Genomic Targets of the EZH2 Methyltransferase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1440; doi:10.3390/ijms18071440
Received: 10 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
Alterations to the gene encoding the EZH2 (KMT6A) methyltransferase, including both gain-of-function and loss-of-function, have been linked to a variety of haematological malignancies and solid tumours, suggesting a complex, context-dependent role of this methyltransferase. The successful implementation of molecularly targeted therapies against EZH2
[...] Read more.
Alterations to the gene encoding the EZH2 (KMT6A) methyltransferase, including both gain-of-function and loss-of-function, have been linked to a variety of haematological malignancies and solid tumours, suggesting a complex, context-dependent role of this methyltransferase. The successful implementation of molecularly targeted therapies against EZH2 requires a greater understanding of the potential mechanisms by which EZH2 contributes to cancer. One aspect of this effort is the mapping of EZH2 partner proteins and cellular targets. To this end we performed affinity-purification mass spectrometry in the FAB-M2 HL-60 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cell line before and after all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation. These studies identified new EZH2 interaction partners and potential non-histone substrates for EZH2-mediated methylation. Our results suggest that EZH2 is involved in the regulation of translation through interactions with a number of RNA binding proteins and by methylating key components of protein synthesis such as eEF1A1. Given that deregulated mRNA translation is a frequent feature of cancer and that eEF1A1 is highly expressed in many human tumours, these findings present new possibilities for the therapeutic targeting of EZH2 in AML. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Biology and Treatment of Myeloid Leukaemias)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular and Clinicopathological Differences by Age at the Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1441; doi:10.3390/ijms18071441
Received: 10 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
We compared the clinicopathological and molecular profiles between different age groups of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (age <50, 56–60, 60–70, 70–80, and >80); 1475 CRC patients were enrolled after excluding 30 individuals with Lynch syndrome. The mutation spectra for APC, TP53
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We compared the clinicopathological and molecular profiles between different age groups of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (age <50, 56–60, 60–70, 70–80, and >80); 1475 CRC patients were enrolled after excluding 30 individuals with Lynch syndrome. The mutation spectra for APC, TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, TGFbR, Akt1, and PTEN were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by MassArray and microsatellite (MSI-high) analysis by performing genotyping. Male patients (74.1%) were significantly predominant to females (25.9%) in the older age group (70–80, >80). There was an insignificantly linear trend between TNM staging and age-onset of CRC diagnosis. Patients aged < 50 had 58.7% diseases in the advanced stages (Stage III: 36.5% and IV: 22.2% respectively), while this decreased to 40.2% (Stage III: 26.2% and IV; 14.0% respectively) in patients >80. The distributions of mutation frequency were similar in majority of the genes studied among different age groups. Additionally, patients aged <50 had significantly higher frequency of MSI-high, PTEN, and HRAS mutations than those of other groups. Age-onset at diagnosis significantly affected overall survival (HR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.35–1.58), but not cancer-specific survival (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.99–1.18) in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, molecular and clinicopathological differences were not as significant among different age groups of CRC patients as previously suspected. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Early Hippocampal i-LTP and LOX-1 Overexpression Induced by Anoxia: A Potential Role in Neurodegeneration in NPC Mouse Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1442; doi:10.3390/ijms18071442
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPCD) is an autosomal recessive storage disorder, characterized by abnormal sequestration of unesterified cholesterol within the late endo-lysosomal compartment of cells. In the central nervous system, hypoxic insults could result in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and Lectin-like oxidized LDL
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Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPCD) is an autosomal recessive storage disorder, characterized by abnormal sequestration of unesterified cholesterol within the late endo-lysosomal compartment of cells. In the central nervous system, hypoxic insults could result in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) induction, leading to a pathological hippocampal response, namely, ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP). These events may correlate with the progressive neural loss observed in NPCD. To test these hypotheses, hippocampal slices from Wild Type (WT) and NPC1−/− mice were prepared, and field potential in the CA1 region was analyzed during transient oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). Moreover, LOX-1 expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR, immunocytochemical, and Western blot analyses before and after an anoxic episode. Our results demonstrate the development of a precocious i-LTP in NPC1−/− mice during OGD application. We also observed a higher expression of LOX-1 transcript and protein in NPC1−/− mice with respect to WT mice; after anoxic damage to LOX-1 expression, a further increase in both NPC1−/− and WT mice was observed, although the protein expression seems to be delayed, suggesting a different kinetic of induction. These data clearly suggest an elevated susceptibility to neurodegeneration in NPC1−/− mice due to oxidative stress. The observed up-regulation of LOX-1 in the hippocampus of NPC1−/− mice may also open a new scenario in which new biomarkers can be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Computational Investigation into the Interactions of Traditional Chinese Medicine Molecules of WenQingYin with GluR2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1443; doi:10.3390/ijms18071443
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 July 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
Docking and molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the interaction of a traditional Chinese medicine, WenQingYin, with the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor. Four representative drug components of WenQingYin, namely 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,6,7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one (PHF),
[...] Read more.
Docking and molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate the interaction of a traditional Chinese medicine, WenQingYin, with the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor. Four representative drug components of WenQingYin, namely 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,6,7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one (PHF), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (HMB), 4-(2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutoxy)-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one (DHMBP) and methyl 7-formylcyclopenta[c]pyran-4-carboxylate (cerbinal), and their complexes with GluR2 were simulated. Our results show that PHF, HMB, and DHMBP formed a partial hydrogen bond with GluR2 in its ligand-binding domain. However, cerbinal was not stable in the ligand-binding domain of GluR2 and induced a significant change in the structure of GluR2. Three-dimensional plots represent the contact and movement situation of the traditional Chinese medicine molecules in the ligand-binding domain. The combined results of the docking and molecular dynamics simulations provide insight into the interaction between these traditional Chinese medicine molecules and proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Lack of Association between Hepatitis C Virus core Gene Variation 70/91aa and Insulin Resistance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1444; doi:10.3390/ijms18071444
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in insulin resistance (IR) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of amino acid (aa) substitutions in the core region of HCV according to IR and to identify clinical
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The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in insulin resistance (IR) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of amino acid (aa) substitutions in the core region of HCV according to IR and to identify clinical and laboratory associations. Ninety-two treatment-naive HCV patients were recruited to determine laboratory data and blood cell count. IR was determined using Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index where IR was defined as HOMA ≥2. HCV RNA load and genotype were determined by Abbott Real time HCV. HCV core region was determined by direct nucleotide sequencing. Bivariate analysis was conducted using HOMA IR ≥2 as a dependent factor. IR prevalence was 43.5% (n = 40), vitamin D sufficiency was found in 76.1% (n = 70) and 72.8% (n = 67) had advanced liver fibrosis. In the bivariate analyses, elevated values of γGT (p = 0.024) and fibrosis staging (p = 0.004) were associated with IR, but IR was not related to core mutations. The presence of glutamine in position 70 was associated with low vitamin D concentration (p = 0.005). In the multivariate analysis, no variable was independently associated with HOMA-IR. In conclusion, lack of association between IR and HCV core mutations in positions 70 and 91 suggests that genetic variability of this region has little impact on IR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis Virus Infection and Research)
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Open AccessArticle The Immune Adjuvant Effects of Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Interleukin-6 on E. tarda Subunit Vaccine OmpV
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1445; doi:10.3390/ijms18071445
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 July 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a pleiotropic cytokine was widely used as an effective adjuvant for vaccines in mammals. In this study, the immune adjuvant effects of two forms of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) IL-6, including recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6) and pcDNA3.1-IL-6 (pcIL-6), were evaluated
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Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a pleiotropic cytokine was widely used as an effective adjuvant for vaccines in mammals. In this study, the immune adjuvant effects of two forms of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) IL-6, including recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6) and pcDNA3.1-IL-6 (pcIL-6), were evaluated and comparatively analyzed on E. tarda subunit vaccine recombinant outer membrane protein V (rOmpV). The results showed that the relative percent survivals of flounder vaccinated with rOmpV plus rIL-6 or pcIL-6 were significantly higher than that in the two control groups, rOmpV plus recombinant 6× histidine-tag (rHis) or empty expression vector pcDNA3.1 (pcN3). The levels of specific serum antibodies and surface membrane immunoglobulin-positive (sIg+) lymphocytes in peripheral blood, spleen, and head kidney in the two adjuvant groups were also much higher than that in the two control groups. Compared with the two control groups, higher upregulated expressions of major histocompatibility complex class Iα (MHCIα), cluster of differentiation 8α (CD8α), MHCIIα, CD4-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected in flounder vaccinated with rOmpV plus rIL-6 or pcIL-6 after challenge. In addition, the rOmpV plus rIL-6 could induce significant higher levels of specific serum antibodies, sIg+ lymphocytes and four genes expressions than rOmpV plus pcIL-6. These results demonstrated that both rIL-6 and pcIL-6 used as adjuvants could enhance the immune response and evoke immune protections against E. tarda infection, which has a significant value in controlling diseases using vaccines in flounder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Differential Effects of Histone Acetyltransferase GCN5 or PCAF Knockdown on Urothelial Carcinoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1449; doi:10.3390/ijms18071449
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
Disturbances in histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are common in cancers. In urothelial carcinoma (UC), p300 and CBP are often mutated, whereas the GNAT family HATs GCN5 and PCAF (General Control Nonderepressible 5, p300/CBP-Associated Factor) are often upregulated. Here, we explored the effects of specific
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Disturbances in histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are common in cancers. In urothelial carcinoma (UC), p300 and CBP are often mutated, whereas the GNAT family HATs GCN5 and PCAF (General Control Nonderepressible 5, p300/CBP-Associated Factor) are often upregulated. Here, we explored the effects of specific siRNA-mediated knockdown of GCN5, PCAF or both in four UC cell lines (UCCs). Expression of various HATs and marker proteins was measured by qRT-PCR and western blot. Cellular effects of knockdowns were analyzed by flow cytometry and ATP-, caspase-, and colony forming-assays. GCN5 was regularly upregulated in UCCs, whereas PCAF was variable. Knockdown of GCN5 or both GNATs, but not of PCAF alone, diminished viability and inhibited clonogenic growth in 2/4 UCCs, inducing cell cycle changes and caspase-3/7 activity. PCAF knockdown elicited GCN5 mRNA upregulation. Double knockdown increased c-MYC and MDM2 (Mouse Double Minute 2) in most cell lines. In conclusion, GCN5 upregulation is especially common in UCCs. GCN5 knockdown impeded growth of specific UCCs, whereas PCAF knockdown elicited minor effects. The limited sensitivity towards GNAT knockdown and its variation between the cell lines might be due to compensatory effects including HAT, c-MYC and MDM2 upregulation. Our results predict that developing drugs targeting individual HATs for UC treatment may be challenging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Urology)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Metal-Binding Features of the Wild Type and Two Domain-Truncated Mutant Variants of Littorina littorea Metallothionein Reveals Its Cd-Specific Character
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1452; doi:10.3390/ijms18071452
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
After the resolution of the 3D structure of the Cd9-aggregate of the Littorina littorea metallothionein (MT), we report here a detailed analysis of the metal binding capabilities of the wild type MT, LlwtMT, and of two truncated mutants lacking either the
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After the resolution of the 3D structure of the Cd9-aggregate of the Littorina littorea metallothionein (MT), we report here a detailed analysis of the metal binding capabilities of the wild type MT, LlwtMT, and of two truncated mutants lacking either the N-terminal domain, Lltr2MT, or both the N-terminal domain, plus four extra flanking residues (SSVF), Lltr1MT. The recombinant synthesis and in vitro studies of these three proteins revealed that LlwtMT forms unique M9-LlwtMT complexes with Zn(II) and Cd(II), while yielding a complex mixture of heteronuclear Zn,Cu-LlwtMT species with Cu(I). As expected, the truncated mutants gave rise to unique M6-LltrMT complexes and Zn,Cu-LltrMT mixtures of lower stoichiometry with respect to LlwtMT, with the SSVF fragment having an influence on their metal binding performance. Our results also revealed a major specificity, and therefore a better metal-coordinating performance of the three proteins for Cd(II) than for Zn(II), although the analysis of the Zn(II)/Cd(II) displacement reaction clearly demonstrates a lack of any type of cooperativity in Cd(II) binding. Contrarily, the analysis of their Cu(I) binding abilities revealed that every LlMT domain is prone to build Cu4-aggregates, the whole MT working by modules analogously to, as previously described, certain fungal MTs, like those of C. neoformans and T. mesenterica. It is concluded that the Littorina littorea MT is a Cd-specific protein that (beyond its extended binding capacity through an additional Cd-binding domain) confers to Littorina littorea a particular adaptive advantage in its changeable marine habitat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallothioneins in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Recent Developments)
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Open AccessArticle Biomphalaria glabrata Metallothionein: Lacking Metal Specificity of the Protein and Missing Gene Upregulation Suggest Metal Sequestration by Exchange Instead of through Selective Binding
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1457; doi:10.3390/ijms18071457
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
The wild-type metallothionein (MT) of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata and a natural allelic mutant of it in which a lysine residue was replaced by an asparagine residue, were recombinantly expressed and analyzed for their metal-binding features with respect to Cd2+,
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The wild-type metallothionein (MT) of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata and a natural allelic mutant of it in which a lysine residue was replaced by an asparagine residue, were recombinantly expressed and analyzed for their metal-binding features with respect to Cd2+, Zn2+ and Cu+, applying spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric methods. In addition, the upregulation of the Biomphalaria glabrata MT gene was assessed by quantitative real-time detection PCR. The two recombinant proteins revealed to be very similar in most of their metal binding features. They lacked a clear metal-binding preference for any of the three metal ions assayed—which, to this degree, is clearly unprecedented in the world of Gastropoda MTs. There were, however, slight differences in copper-binding abilities between the two allelic variants. Overall, the missing metal specificity of the two recombinant MTs goes hand in hand with lacking upregulation of the respective MT gene. This suggests that in vivo, the Biomphalaria glabrata MT may be more important for metal replacement reactions through a constitutively abundant form, rather than for metal sequestration by high binding specificity. There are indications that the MT of Biomphalaria glabrata may share its unspecific features with MTs from other freshwater snails of the Hygrophila family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallothioneins in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Recent Developments)
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Open AccessArticle Bevacizumab-Based Chemotherapy Combined with Regional Deep Capacitive Hyperthermia in Metastatic Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1458; doi:10.3390/ijms18071458
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
As an angiogenesis inhibitor, bevacizumab has been investigated in combination with different chemotherapeutic agents, achieving an established role for metastatic cancer treatment. However, potential synergic anti-angiogenic effects of hyperthermia have not tested to date in literature. The aim of our study was to
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As an angiogenesis inhibitor, bevacizumab has been investigated in combination with different chemotherapeutic agents, achieving an established role for metastatic cancer treatment. However, potential synergic anti-angiogenic effects of hyperthermia have not tested to date in literature. The aim of our study was to analyze efficacy, safety, and survival of anti-angiogenic-based chemotherapy associated to regional deep capacitive hyperthermia (HT) in metastatic cancer patients. Twenty-three patients with metastatic colorectal (n = 16), ovarian (n = 5), and breast (n = 2) cancer were treated with HT in addition to a standard bevacizumab-based chemotherapy regimen. Treatment response assessment was performed, according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors (mRECIST), at 80 days (timepoint-1) and at 160 days (timepoint-2) after therapy. Disease Response Rate (DRR), considered as the proportion of patients who had the best response rating (complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD)), was assessed at timepoint-1 and timepoint-2. Chi-squared for linear trend test was performed to evaluated the association between response groups (R/NR) and the number of previous treatment (none, 1, 2, 3), number of chemotherapy cycles (<6, 6, 12, >12), number of hyperthermia sessions (<12, 12, 24, >24), and lines of chemotherapy (I, II). Survival curves were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. DRR was 85.7% and 72.2% at timepoint-1 and timepoint-2, respectively. HT was well tolerated without additional adverse effects on chemotherapy-related toxicity. Chi-squared for linear trend test demonstrated that the percentage of responders grew in relation to the number of chemotherapy cycles (p = 0.015) and to number of HT sessions (p < 0.001) performed. Both overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP) were influenced by the number of chemotherapy cycles (p < 0.001) and HT sessions (p < 0.001) performed. Our preliminary data, that need to be confirmed in larger studies, suggest that the combined treatment of bevacizumab-based chemotherapy with HT has a favorable tumor response, is feasible and well tolerated, and offers a potentially promising option for metastatic cancer patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relationship of Triamine-Biocide Tolerance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg to Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Serum Resistance and Outer Membrane Proteins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1459; doi:10.3390/ijms18071459
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
A new emerging phenomenon is the association between the incorrect use of biocides in the process of disinfection in farms and the emergence of cross-resistance in Salmonella populations. Adaptation of the microorganisms to the sub-inhibitory concentrations of the disinfectants is not clear, but
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A new emerging phenomenon is the association between the incorrect use of biocides in the process of disinfection in farms and the emergence of cross-resistance in Salmonella populations. Adaptation of the microorganisms to the sub-inhibitory concentrations of the disinfectants is not clear, but may result in an increase of sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics, depending on the biocide used and the challenged Salmonella serovar. Exposure of five Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg (S. Senftenberg) strains to triamine-containing disinfectant did not result in variants with resistance to antibiotics, but has changed their susceptibility to normal human serum (NHS). Three biocide variants developed reduced sensitivity to NHS in comparison to the sensitive parental strains, while two isolates lost their resistance to serum. For S. Senftenberg, which exhibited the highest triamine tolerance (6 × MIC) and intrinsic sensitivity to 22.5% and 45% NHS, a downregulation of flagellin and enolase has been demonstrated, which might suggest a lower adhesion and virulence of the bacteria. This is the first report demonstrating the influence of biocide tolerance on NHS resistance. In conclusion, there was a potential in S. Senftenberg to adjust to the conditions, where the biocide containing triamine was present. However, the adaptation did not result in the increase of antibiotic resistance, but manifested in changes within outer membrane proteins’ patterns. The strategy of bacterial membrane proteins’ analysis provides an opportunity to adjust the ways of infection treatments, especially when it is connected to the life-threating bacteremia caused by Salmonella species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Protein Molecules Computational Identification)
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Open AccessArticle Transgenic Strategies for Sparse but Strong Expression of Genetically Encoded Voltage and Calcium Indicators
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1461; doi:10.3390/ijms18071461
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Rapidly progressing development of optogenetic tools, particularly genetically encoded optical indicators, enables monitoring activities of neuronal circuits of identified cell populations in longitudinal in vivo studies. Recently developed advanced transgenic approaches achieve high levels of indicator expression. However, targeting non-sparse cell populations leads
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Rapidly progressing development of optogenetic tools, particularly genetically encoded optical indicators, enables monitoring activities of neuronal circuits of identified cell populations in longitudinal in vivo studies. Recently developed advanced transgenic approaches achieve high levels of indicator expression. However, targeting non-sparse cell populations leads to dense expression patterns such that optical signals from neuronal processes cannot be allocated to individual neurons. This issue is particularly pertinent for the use of genetically encoded voltage indicators whose membrane-delimited signals arise largely from the neuropil where dendritic and axonal membranes of many cells intermingle. Here we address this need for sparse but strong expression of genetically encoded optical indicators using a titratable recombination-activated transgene transcription to achieve a Golgi staining-type indicator expression pattern in vivo. Using different transgenic strategies, we also illustrate that co-expression of genetically encoded voltage and calcium indicators can be achieved in vivo for studying neuronal circuit input–output relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optogenetic Approaches in Neuroscience)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Titanium Mesh Surfaces-Coated with Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Nanotubes on Acetabular Bone Defects in Rabbits
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1462; doi:10.3390/ijms18071462
Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
The management of severe acetabular bone defects in revision reconstructive orthopedic surgery is challenging. In this study, cyclic precalcification (CP) treatment was used on both nanotube-surface Ti-mesh and a bone graft substitute for the acetabular defect model, and its effects were assessed in
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The management of severe acetabular bone defects in revision reconstructive orthopedic surgery is challenging. In this study, cyclic precalcification (CP) treatment was used on both nanotube-surface Ti-mesh and a bone graft substitute for the acetabular defect model, and its effects were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Nanotube-Ti mesh coated with hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) was manufactured by an anodizing and a sintering method, respectively. An 8 mm diameter defect was created on each acetabulum of eight rabbits, then treated by grafting materials and covered by Ti meshes. At four and eight weeks, postoperatively, biopsies were performed for histomorphometric analyses. The newly-formed bone layers under cyclic precalcified anodized Ti (CP-AT) meshes were superior with regard to the mineralized area at both four and eight weeks, as compared with that under untreated Ti meshes. Active bone regeneration at 2–4 weeks was stronger than at 6–8 weeks, particularly with treated biphasic ceramic (p < 0.05). CP improved the bioactivity of Ti meshes and biphasic grafting materials. Moreover, the precalcified nanotubular Ti meshes could enhance early contact bone formation on the mesh and, therefore, may reduce the collapse of Ti meshes into the defect, increasing the sufficiency of acetabular reconstruction. Finally, cyclic precalcification did not affect bone regeneration by biphasic grafting materials in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Detailed Characterization of Sympathetic Chain Ganglia (SChG) Neurons Supplying the Skin of the Porcine Hindlimb
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1463; doi:10.3390/ijms18071463
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
It is generally known that in the skin sympathetic fibers innervate various dermal structures, including sweat glands, blood vessels, arrectores pilorum muscles and hair follicles. However, there is a lack of data about the distribution and chemical phenotyping of the sympathetic chain ganglia
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It is generally known that in the skin sympathetic fibers innervate various dermal structures, including sweat glands, blood vessels, arrectores pilorum muscles and hair follicles. However, there is a lack of data about the distribution and chemical phenotyping of the sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons projecting to the skin of the pig, a model that is physiologically and anatomically very representative for humans. Thus, the present study was designed to establish the origin of the sympathetic fibers supplying the porcine skin of the hind leg, and the pattern(s) of putative co-incidence of dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM), neuronal nitric oxide synthase, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leu5-enkephalin and galanin (GAL) using combined retrograde tracing and double-labeling immunohistochemistry. The Fast Blue-positive neurons were found in the L2–S2 ganglia. Most of them were small-sized and contained DβH with PACAP, SOM, NPY or GAL. The findings of the present study provide a detailed description of the distribution and chemical coding of the SChG neurons projecting to the skin of the porcine hind leg. Such data may be the basis for further studies concerning the plasticity of these ganglia under experimental or pathological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuronal Protein Homeostasis in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Elements Recognized by Abacavir-Induced T Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1464; doi:10.3390/ijms18071464
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Adverse drug reactions are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in health care worldwide. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles have been strongly associated with drug hypersensitivities, and the causative drugs have been shown to stimulate specific T cells at the
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Adverse drug reactions are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in health care worldwide. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles have been strongly associated with drug hypersensitivities, and the causative drugs have been shown to stimulate specific T cells at the sites of autoimmune destruction. The structural elements recognized by drug-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) in vivo are poorly defined. Drug-stimulated T cells express TCRs specific for peptide/HLA complexes, but the characteristics of peptides (sequence, or endogenous or exogenous origin) presented in the context of small molecule drugs are not well studied. Using HLA-B*57:01 mediated hypersensitivity to abacavir as a model system, this study examines structural similarities of HLA presented peptides recognized by drug-specific TCRs. Using the crystal structure of HLA-B*57:01 complexed with abacavir and an immunogenic self peptide, VTTDIQVKV SPT5a 976–984, peptide side chains exhibiting flexibility and solvent exposure were identified as potential drug-specific T cell recognition motifs. Viral sequences with structural motifs similar to the immunogenic self peptide were identified. Abacavir-specific T cell clones were used to determine if virus peptides presented in the context of abacavir stimulate T cell responsiveness. An abacavir-specific T cell clone was stimulated by VTQQAQVRL, corresponding to HSV1/2 230–238, in the context of HLA-B*57:01. These data suggest the T cell polyclonal response to abacavir consists of multiple subsets, including T cells that recognize self peptide/HLA-B*57:01 complexes and crossreact with viral peptide/HLA-B*57:01 complexes due to similarity in TCR contact residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Hypersensitivity)
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Open AccessArticle The Roles of β-Integrin of Chinese Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) in WSSV Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1465; doi:10.3390/ijms18071465
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Our previous study demonstrated that an integrin β subunit of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) (FcβInt) plays an important role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In the present work, in order to further elucidate the potential role of FcβInt in
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Our previous study demonstrated that an integrin β subunit of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) (FcβInt) plays an important role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In the present work, in order to further elucidate the potential role of FcβInt in WSSV infection, the recombinant extracellular domain of β integringene of F. Chinensis (rFcβInt-ER) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the eukaryotic expression plasmid PcDNA3.1-FcβInt-ER (PFcβInt-ER) was also constructed. Far-western blotting was performed to determine the binding specificity of rFcβInt-ER to WSSV envelope proteins, and results showed that rFcβInt-ER was able to specifically interact with rVP31, rVP37, rVP110 and rVP187. Moreover, the blocking effects of mouse anti-rFcβint-ER antibodies were both detected in vivo and in vitro. The ELISA and Dot-blotting in vitro assays both showed that mouse anti-rFcβInt-ER antibodies could partially block the binding of WSSV to the hemocyte membrane of F. chinensis. In the in vivo assays, the mortality of shrimp injected with WSSV mixed with anti-rFcβInt-ER antibodies was delayed, and was lower than in the control group. While the shrimp were intramuscularly injected with PFcβInt-ER, transcripts of PFcβInt-ER could be detected in different shrimp tissues within 7 days, and the mortality of shrimp injected with PFcβInt-ER was also delayed and lower compared with the control group post WSSV challenge. Furthermore, gene silencing technology was also used to verify the effect of FcβInt in WSSV infection, and results showed that the expression levels of the WSSV immediate early gene iel, early gene wsv477, and late gene VP28 and the mortality of F. Chinensis were all significantly decreased in the FcβInt knock-down hemocyctes compared to the control group. Taken together, these results suggest that FcβInt plays important roles in WSSV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Immunological and Inflammatory Impact of Non-Intubated Lung Metastasectomy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1466; doi:10.3390/ijms18071466
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Background: We hypothesized that video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lung metastasectomy under non-intubated anesthesia may have a lesser immunological and inflammatory impact than the same procedure under general anesthesia. Methods: Between December 2005 and October 2015, 55 patients with pulmonary oligometastases (at the first
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Background: We hypothesized that video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lung metastasectomy under non-intubated anesthesia may have a lesser immunological and inflammatory impact than the same procedure under general anesthesia. Methods: Between December 2005 and October 2015, 55 patients with pulmonary oligometastases (at the first episode) successfully underwent VATS metastasectomy under non-intubated anesthesia. Lymphocytes subpopulation and interleukins 6 and 10 were measured at different intervals and matched with a control group composed of 13 patients with similar clinical features who refused non-intubated surgery. Results: The non-intubated group demonstrated a lesser reduction of natural killer lymphocytes at 7 days from the procedure (p = 0.04) compared to control. Furthermore, the group revealed a lesser spillage of interleukin 6 after 1 (p = 0.03), 7 (p = 0.04), and 14 (p = 0.05) days. There was no mortality in any groups. Major morbidity rate was significantly higher in the general anesthesia group 3 (5%) vs. 3 (23%) (p = 0.04). The median hospital stay was 3.0 vs. 3.7 (p = 0.033) days, the estimated costs with the non-intubated procedure was significantly lower, even excluding the hospital stay. Conclusions: VATS lung metastasectomy in non-intubated anesthesia had significantly lesser impact on both immunological and inflammatory response compared to traditional procedure in intubated general anesthesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle The Chemokine Receptor CXCR6 Evokes Reverse Signaling via the Transmembrane Chemokine CXCL16
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1468; doi:10.3390/ijms18071468
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
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Abstract
Reverse signaling is a signaling mechanism where transmembrane or membrane-bound ligands transduce signals and exert biological effects upon binding of their specific receptors, enabling a bidirectional signaling between ligand and receptor-expressing cells. In this study, we address the question of whether the transmembrane
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Reverse signaling is a signaling mechanism where transmembrane or membrane-bound ligands transduce signals and exert biological effects upon binding of their specific receptors, enabling a bidirectional sign