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Diversity, Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2016)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Megadiverse Australian Ant Genus Melophorus: Using CO1 Barcoding to Assess Species Richness
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 30; doi:10.3390/d8040030
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
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Abstract
Melophorus is an exceptionally diverse ant genus from arid Australia that has received little taxonomic attention, such that just a fraction of its remarkable number of species is described. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization’s Tropical Ecosystems Research Centre (TERC) in Darwin
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Melophorus is an exceptionally diverse ant genus from arid Australia that has received little taxonomic attention, such that just a fraction of its remarkable number of species is described. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization’s Tropical Ecosystems Research Centre (TERC) in Darwin holds by far the most extensive collection of Melophorus, and as of September 2016 this comprised >850 sorted morphospecies. However, the reliability of such morphospecies is open to question because species delimitation is extremely challenging due to highly generalized morphology and worker polymorphism. Here we use CO1 barcoding of 401 Melophorus specimens from 188 morphospecies in the TERC collection to determine the reliability of morphologically-based species delimitations as a basis for assessing true diversity within the genus. Our CO1 data confirm the extremely challenging nature of morphologically-based species delimitation within Melophorus, and suggest substantially higher diversity than that indicated by morphospecies. We found many cases where combinations of high (>10%) CO1 divergence, polyphyly, sympatric association, and morphological differentiation indicated that single morphospecies represented multiple lineages. Overall, our analysis indicates that the 188 morphospecies barcoded represent at least 225 independent CO1 lineages. We discuss these results in terms of both their limitations and implications for estimating the total number of species in this exceptionally diverse, arid-adapted ant genus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity of the Macaw Palm Ex Situ Germplasm Collection Revealed by Microsatellite Markers
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 20; doi:10.3390/d8040020
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
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Abstract
Macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata) is native to tropical forests in South America and highly abundant in Brazil. It is cited as a highly productive oleaginous palm tree presenting high potential for biodiesel production. The aim of this work was to characterize
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Macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata) is native to tropical forests in South America and highly abundant in Brazil. It is cited as a highly productive oleaginous palm tree presenting high potential for biodiesel production. The aim of this work was to characterize and study the genetic diversity of A. aculeata ex situ collections from different geographical states in Brazil using microsatellite (Simple Sequence Repeats, SSR) markers. A total of 192 accessions from 10 provenances were analyzed with 10 SSR, and variations were detected in allelic diversity, polymorphism, and heterozygosity in the collections. Three major groups of accessions were formed using PCoA—principal coordinate analysis, UPGMA—unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean, and Tocher. The Mantel test revealed a weak correlation (r = 0.07) between genetic and geographic distances among the provenances reaffirming the result of the grouping. Reduced average heterozygosity (Ho < 50%) per locus (or provenance) confirmed the predominance of endogamy (or inbreeding) in the germplasm collections as evidenced by positive inbreeding coefficient (F > 0) per locus (or per provenance). AMOVA—Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed higher (48.2%) genetic variation within population than among populations (36.5%). SSR are useful molecular markers in characterizing A. aculeata germplasm and could facilitate the process of identifying, grouping, and selecting genotypes. Present results could be used to formulate appropriate conservation strategies in the genebank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Genetics and Conservation of Plant Species of Extremely Narrow Geographic Range
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 31; doi:10.3390/d8040031
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
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Abstract
The endemic plant species with extremely narrow geographical range (<100 km2) often have few populations of small size and tend to be more vulnerable to extinction by genetic drift and inbreeding effects. For these species, we tested if intraspecific genetic diversity
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The endemic plant species with extremely narrow geographical range (<100 km2) often have few populations of small size and tend to be more vulnerable to extinction by genetic drift and inbreeding effects. For these species, we tested if intraspecific genetic diversity can be applied to identify conservation priorities. The biological model was Mammillaria albiflora—a Mexican cactus that numbers ~1000 individuals distributed in four nearby patches covering 4.3 km2. A total of 96 individuals were genotyped with 10 microsatellite loci to describe the genetic substructure and diversity. There is significant population substructure: the genetic diversity is distributed in three genetic neighbors and varies among the patches, the genotypes are not randomly distributed and three genetic barriers restrict the gene flow. The current population size is 15 times smaller than in the past. The restricted gene flow and genetic drift are the processes that have shaped population substructure. To conserve the genetic diversity of this cactus we recommend that two patches, which are not private property, be legally protected; to include M. albiflora in the Red List Species of Mexico in the category of extinction risk; and a legal propagation program may help to diminish the illegal harvesting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Patterns of Sponge Biodiversity in the Pilbara, Northwestern Australia
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 21; doi:10.3390/d8040021
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
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Abstract
This study assessed the biodiversity of sponges within the Integrated Marine and Coastal Regionalisation for Australia (IMCRA) bioregions of the Pilbara using datasets amalgamated from the Western Australian Museum and the Atlas of Living Australia. The Pilbara accounts for a total of 1164
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This study assessed the biodiversity of sponges within the Integrated Marine and Coastal Regionalisation for Australia (IMCRA) bioregions of the Pilbara using datasets amalgamated from the Western Australian Museum and the Atlas of Living Australia. The Pilbara accounts for a total of 1164 Linnean and morphospecies. A high level of “apparent endemism” was recorded with 78% of species found in only one of six bioregions, with less than 10% confirmed as widely distributed. The Ningaloo, Pilbara Nearshore and Pilbara Offshore bioregions are biodiversity hotspots (>250 species) and are recognised as having the highest conservation value, followed by North West Shelf containing 232 species. Species compositions differed between bioregions, with those that are less spatially separated sharing more species. Notably, the North West Province bioregion (110 species) exhibited the most distinct species composition, highlighting it as a unique habitat within the Pilbara. While sponge biodiversity is apparently high, incomplete sampling effort for the region was identified, with only two sampling events recorded for the Central West Transition bioregion. Furthermore, only 15% of records in the dataset are presently described (Linnean) species, highlighting the continuing need for taxonomic expertise for the conservation and management of marine biodiversity resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coral Reef Biodiversity and Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle Phylogeography of Rattus norvegicus in the South Atlantic Ocean
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 32; doi:10.3390/d8040032
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
Norway rats are a globally distributed invasive species, which have colonized many islands around the world, including in the South Atlantic Ocean. We investigated the phylogeography of Norway rats across the South Atlantic Ocean and bordering continental countries. We identified haplotypes from 517
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Norway rats are a globally distributed invasive species, which have colonized many islands around the world, including in the South Atlantic Ocean. We investigated the phylogeography of Norway rats across the South Atlantic Ocean and bordering continental countries. We identified haplotypes from 517 bp of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial D-loop and constructed a Bayesian consensus tree and median-joining network incorporating all other publicly available haplotypes via an alignment of 364 bp. Three Norway rat haplotypes are present across the islands of the South Atlantic Ocean, including multiple haplotypes separated by geographic barriers within island groups. All three haplotypes have been previously recorded from European countries. Our results support the hypothesis of rapid Norway rat colonization of South Atlantic Ocean islands by sea-faring European nations from multiple European ports of origin. This seems to have been the predominant pathway for repeated Norway rat invasions of islands, even within the same archipelago, rather than within-island dispersal across geographic barriers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ecology of the River Darter in Canadian Waters: Distribution, Relative Abundance, Life-History Traits, Diet, and Habitat Characteristics
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 22; doi:10.3390/d8040022
Received: 2 June 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
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Abstract
The River Darter (Percina shumardi) is a native, rarely sampled fish that has been detected in relatively small numbers since the 1930s. It has a wide North American distribution, but little is known about the species biology and distribution across the
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The River Darter (Percina shumardi) is a native, rarely sampled fish that has been detected in relatively small numbers since the 1930s. It has a wide North American distribution, but little is known about the species biology and distribution across the Canadian portion of its range. We revisited many historic sampling locations and sampled additional areas to (i) confirm and update the distribution of River Darters in Canadian waters; (ii) assess relative abundance; (iii) update life history characteristics; (iv) collect diet information; and (v) identify characteristics of River Darter habitat. Since 1990, a total of 1032 River Darters were recorded from 29 waterbodies across three ecoregions. River Darters were observed in relatively high abundances in both the Saskatchewan-Nelson River and Southern Hudson Bay-James Bay ecoregions. While still extant in the Great Lakes-Upper St. Lawrence ecoregion, River Darters persist at low abundance. Life history analyses indicate similar maximum age (age 4) and growth (10 mm/year) to conspecific populations in the United States, while sex ratios are generally skewed towards female dominance. River Darter populations had high flexibility in habitat use and diet, using a range of flows and depths and a variety of seasonally available prey types. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Genetic Variations of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2, 4, and 6 with Next-Generation Sequencing in Native Cattle Breeds of Anatolia and Holstein Friesian
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 23; doi:10.3390/d8040023
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract
In recent years, the focus of disease resistance and susceptibility studies in cattle have been on determining patterns in the innate immune response of key proteins, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). In the bovine genome, there are 10 TLR family members and, of
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In recent years, the focus of disease resistance and susceptibility studies in cattle have been on determining patterns in the innate immune response of key proteins, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). In the bovine genome, there are 10 TLR family members and, of these, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 are specialized in the recognition of bacterial ligands. Indigenous cattle breeds of Anatolia have been reported to show fewer signs of clinical bacterial infections, such as bovine tuberculosis and mastitis, and it is hypothesized that this might be due to a less stringent genetic selection during breeding. In contrast, Holstein-Friesian cattle have been under strong selection for milk production, which may have resulted in greater susceptibility to diseases. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 genes of Anatolian Black (AB), East Anatolian Red (EAR), South Anatolian Red (SAR), Turkish Grey (TG), and Holstein (HOL) cattle using next-generation sequencing. The SAR breed had the most variations overall, followed by EAR, AB, TG, and HOL. TG had the most variations for TLR2, whereas SAR had the most variations in TLR4 and TLR6. We compared these variants with those associated with disease and susceptibility traits. We used exon variants to construct haplotypes, investigated shared haplotypes within breeds, and proposed candidate haplotypes for a disease resistance phenotype in Anatolian cattle breeds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using Long-Term Removal Data to Manage a Crown-of-Thorns Starfish Population
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 24; doi:10.3390/d8040024
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1062 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Removal programs are effective strategies for short-term management of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster spp.) populations, especially on a small scale. However, management programs are costly, and, in order to be effective, they must be based on local Acanthaster spp. population dynamics. We
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Background: Removal programs are effective strategies for short-term management of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster spp.) populations, especially on a small scale. However, management programs are costly, and, in order to be effective, they must be based on local Acanthaster spp. population dynamics. We have developed simple models to predict the annual number of removable A. cf. solaris along the Onna coast of western central Okinawa Island, where chronic outbreaks have continued for several decades. Methods: The Onna coastal area was divided into five sectors, and annual abundance of small A. cf. solaris individuals was used to predict the total number of removable individuals of a cohort in each sector. Three models were developed, based on size class data collected by the Onna Village Fisheries Cooperative (OVFC) for 2003–2015, according to possible patterns of recruitment and adult occurrence. Using the best-fit models selected for each of the five sectors, the number of individuals that potentially escaped removal was calculated. Results: Best-fit models were likely to differ among the five sectors instead of small differences in the coefficients of determination. The models predict differences in the number of residual starfish among sectors; the northernmost sector was predicted to have a high number of residuals and the potential density of A. cf. solaris in the sector exceeded the outbreak criterion. Conclusions: These results suggest how to allocate resources to reduce the population of A. cf. solaris along the Onna coast in 2016. The OVFC implemented a control program for A. cf. solaris based on three model predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology, Ecology and Management of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Water Currents on Movement Patterns on Sand in the Crown-of-Thorns Seastar (Acanthaster cf. solaris)
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 25; doi:10.3390/d8040025
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns seastar (Acanthaster cf. solaris) threaten coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific. Movement patterns may play an important role in the spread of outbreak populations, but studies investigating adult movement behavior are scarce. It remains unknown if Acanthaster
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Outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns seastar (Acanthaster cf. solaris) threaten coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific. Movement patterns may play an important role in the spread of outbreak populations, but studies investigating adult movement behavior are scarce. It remains unknown if Acanthaster cf. solaris orientates in inter-reef areas using chemical, visual, or mechanical cues (e.g., water currents) or which trigger is used for the onset of movement. We investigated the movement patterns of adult starved, fed, and blinded A. cf. solaris on sand at two sites with different unidirectional water current strengths. We found that the movement direction of the seastars in strong currents was downstream, whereas movement in weaker currents was random and independent from the current direction. However, the directionality of movement was consistently high, independent of the nutritional state, its visual abilities, or current strength. Starved A. cf. solaris started to move significantly faster compared to fed individuals. Therefore, starvation might trigger the onset of movement. Our findings indicate that navigation of A. cf. solaris in inter-reef areas is inefficient. Movements between reefs may be random or current-dependent and finding a new reef from a distance subject to chance, unless it is only few meters away. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology, Ecology and Management of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Differential Physiological Responses of Portuguese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes under Aluminium Stress
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 26; doi:10.3390/d8040026
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
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Abstract
The major limitation of cereal production in acidic soils is aluminium (Al) phytotoxicity which inhibits root growth. Recent evidence indicates that different genotypes within the same species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with this stress. With these facts in mind, root responses
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The major limitation of cereal production in acidic soils is aluminium (Al) phytotoxicity which inhibits root growth. Recent evidence indicates that different genotypes within the same species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with this stress. With these facts in mind, root responses of two highly Al tolerant Portuguese bread wheat genotypes—Barbela 7/72/92 and Viloso mole—were investigated along with check genotype Anahuac (Al sensitive), using different physiological and histochemical assays. All the assays confirmed that Barbela 7/72/92 is much more tolerant to Al phytotoxicity than Viloso Mole. Our results demonstrate that the greater tolerance to Al phytotoxicity in Barbela 7/72/92 than in Viloso Mole relies on numerous factors, including higher levels of organic acid (OAs) efflux, particularly citrate efflux. This might be associated with the lower accumulation of Al in the root tips, restricting the Al-induced lipid peroxidation and the consequent plasma membrane integrity loss, thus allowing better root regrowth under Al stress conditions. Furthermore, the presence of root hairs in Barbela 7/72/92 might also help to circumvent Al toxicity by facilitating a more efficient uptake of water and nutrients, particularly under Al stress on acid soils. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that Portuguese bread wheat genotype Barbela 7/72/92 represents an alternative source of Al tolerance in bread wheat and could potentially be used to improve the wheat productivity in acidic soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Benthic Predators Influence Microhabitat Preferences and Settlement Success of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster cf. solaris)
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 27; doi:10.3390/d8040027
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
Like most coral reef organisms, crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster spp.) are expected to be highly vulnerable to predation as they transition from a planktonic larval phase to settling among reef habitats. Accordingly, crown-of-thorns starfish might be expected to exhibit behavioural adaptations which moderate
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Like most coral reef organisms, crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster spp.) are expected to be highly vulnerable to predation as they transition from a planktonic larval phase to settling among reef habitats. Accordingly, crown-of-thorns starfish might be expected to exhibit behavioural adaptations which moderate exposure to predation at this critical stage in their life history. Using pairwise choice experiments and settlement assays, we explored the ability of competent larvae of Acanthaster cf. solaris to first detect and then actively avoid benthic predators during settlement. Pairwise choice experiments revealed that late stage brachiolaria larvae are able to detect predators in the substrate and where possible, will preferentially settle in microhabitats without predators. Settlement assays (without choices) revealed that larvae do not necessarily delay settlement in the presence of predators, but high levels of predation on settling larvae by benthic predators significantly reduce the number of larvae that settle successfully. Taken together, these results show that crown-of-thorns starfish are highly vulnerable to benthic predators during settlement, and that variation in the abundance of benthic predators may exert a significant influence on patterns of settlement for crown-of-thorns starfish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology, Ecology and Management of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish)
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Open AccessCommunication Crown-of-Thorns Starfish Larvae Can Feed on Organic Matter Released from Corals
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 18; doi:10.3390/d8040018
Received: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 28 September 2016 / Published: 6 October 2016
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Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that Crown-of-Thorns starfish (COTS) larvae may be able to survive in the absence of abundant phytoplankton resources suggesting that they may be able to utilize alternative food sources. Here, we tested the hypothesis that COTS larvae are able to
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Previous studies have suggested that Crown-of-Thorns starfish (COTS) larvae may be able to survive in the absence of abundant phytoplankton resources suggesting that they may be able to utilize alternative food sources. Here, we tested the hypothesis that COTS larvae are able to feed on coral-derived organic matter using labeled stable isotope tracers (13C and 15N). Our results show that coral-derived organic matter (coral mucus and associated microorganisms) can be assimilated by COTS larvae and may be an important alternative or additional food resource for COTS larvae through periods of low phytoplankton biomass. This additional food resource could potentially facilitate COTS outbreaks by reducing resource limitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology, Ecology and Management of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish)
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Open AccessArticle Citric Acid Injections: An Accessible and Efficient Method for Controlling Outbreaks of the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish Acanthaster cf. solaris
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 28; doi:10.3390/d8040028
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster cf. solaris, COTS) are one of the primary causes of coral decline in the Indo-Pacific region. Effective methods to control COTS outbreaks may therefore be one of the most direct and immediate ways to reduce
[...] Read more.
Outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster cf. solaris, COTS) are one of the primary causes of coral decline in the Indo-Pacific region. Effective methods to control COTS outbreaks may therefore be one of the most direct and immediate ways to reduce coral loss. However, the cost and logistical challenges associated with current control methods have undermined the effectiveness of many control efforts. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using powdered citric acid, which is widely available and low-cost, as an injection chemical for COTS control. We tested what combination of concentration, number of injections, volume, and water type were most efficient at killing COTS. All COTS injected in two or four sites died, irrespectively of the concentration of citric acid used, while single injections failed at reaching 100% mortality. The fastest combination was the injection of 150 g·L−1 citric acid solution in four injection sites (5 mL per site), which killed the starfish in 26.4 ± 4 h. These results suggest that injections of powdered citric acid are an effective, economical, and widely available alternative to current COTS control methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology, Ecology and Management of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Central and Eastern European Spring Pollen Allergens and Their Expression Analysis—State of the Art
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 19; doi:10.3390/d8040019
Received: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 6 October 2016
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Abstract
Spring pollinosis has become a part of life for many people throughout the world. A wide range of knowledge about the allergenic potential of individual pollen allergen types is documented well, but the starting point of the pollen allergens expression regulation in plants
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Spring pollinosis has become a part of life for many people throughout the world. A wide range of knowledge about the allergenic potential of individual pollen allergen types is documented well, but the starting point of the pollen allergens expression regulation in plants itself is still not fully answered. Expression analysis of pollen allergens does not yet have any specific protocols or methods developed, despite a very good sequence background available in public bioinformatics databases. However, research in this area of interest has a great application potential for breeding and biotechnology of allergenic plants that may benefit from the knowledge of the expression of allergen coding genes in individual varieties or genotypes. Here, a brief review of up-to-date knowledge about the coding sequences of central and eastern European spring pollen allergens is introduced together with real-time based analysis of the expression of two of the main pollen allergens–PR protein type and profilin type of birch and hazelnut. Full article
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Open AccessReview Sustainable Stewardship of the Landrace Diversity
Diversity 2016, 8(4), 29; doi:10.3390/d8040029
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
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Abstract
Landraces are heterogeneous populations and their variability goes through continuous alterations because of physical, genetic, and epigenetic procedures exacerbated by the ongoing climatic changes. Appropriate stewardship of landrace diversity is pivotal to promote its longevity in a manner that is sustainable from the
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Landraces are heterogeneous populations and their variability goes through continuous alterations because of physical, genetic, and epigenetic procedures exacerbated by the ongoing climatic changes. Appropriate stewardship of landrace diversity is pivotal to promote its longevity in a manner that is sustainable from the farming perspective. A seed multiplication procedure is presented based on the assumption that in order to improve effectiveness in resource use and increase seed productivity, landraces should comprise genotypes which minimize intra-species competition. These aforementioned genotypes should be of the “weak competitor” ideotype, which are selected so as to alleviate the interplant competition and reach as high as possible crop stand uniformity. Stand uniformity is essential to ensure the same growing conditions for each plant. Reduced intra-crop inequality and equal use of inputs by individual plants will optimize crop performance. Precisely, the “weak competitor” is most often of high yield potential due to a negative association between yielding and competitive ability. Therefore, the suggested procedure involves initial reproduction at nil-competition (widely spaced plants to preclude any plant-to-plant interference for inputs) where “off-type” and low yielding plants are omitted, followed by subsequent multiplication at dense stands. This may represent an effective cultural practice to improve also the landrace health status concerning seed-borne diseases in the absence of certification systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity)
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