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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 15, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Progress in Implementing National Policies and Strategies for Health Literacy—What Have We Learned so Far?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071554 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Health literacy has been a prominent issue on the agenda of the World Health Organization (WHO) for almost two decades. WHO recently established a strong global mandate for public policy action on health literacy by positioning it as one of three key pillars
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Health literacy has been a prominent issue on the agenda of the World Health Organization (WHO) for almost two decades. WHO recently established a strong global mandate for public policy action on health literacy by positioning it as one of three key pillars for achieving sustainable development and health equity in the Shanghai Declaration on Health Promotion. Several countries have national health literacy policies, with many others expected to develop them in the immediate future. It is, therefore, timely to examine current policy approaches to health literacy. The purpose of this study was to analyze a selection of existing policy documents for their strengths, limitations and themes, and offer observations about their potential to improve health literacy and health outcomes. In doing so our intention is to offer lessons and advice from early adopters that will have usefulness for future policy development and implementation. We selected six policies for review; Australia, Austria, China, New Zealand, Scotland, and the United States. We used a set of criteria to guide a systematic analysis of policy documents for their context, intended target audiences, objectives, proposed actions and interventions, evidence of financial investment and intentions to monitor outcomes. We observed a number of common features that provide helpful signposting for future policy development in other countries. All represent a response to perceived deficiencies in the quality of patient communication and patient engagement. Most present health literacy as a universal challenge, with some also identifying groups who are of higher priority. They all recognize the importance of professional education in improving the quality of communication, and most recognize that the health literacy responsiveness of the health system needs to be improved. However, there was significant variability in linking resources to specific strategies and actions, as well as in the systems for monitoring progress and accountability for progress. This variability reflects important contextual differences between countries and health systems. However, this lack of specificity will likely have an impact on the priority given to improving health literacy and on the long-term sustainability of defined actions to improve health literacy in populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Literacy in Context—Settings, Media, and Populations)
Open AccessArticle The Measurements and an Elaborated Understanding of Chinese eHealth Literacy (C-eHEALS) in Chronic Patients in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071553 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
The rapid rise of Internet-based technologies to disseminate health information and services has been shown to enhance online health information acquisition. A Chinese version of the electronic health literacy scale (C-eHEALS) was developed to measure patients’ combined knowledge and perceived skills at finding
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The rapid rise of Internet-based technologies to disseminate health information and services has been shown to enhance online health information acquisition. A Chinese version of the electronic health literacy scale (C-eHEALS) was developed to measure patients’ combined knowledge and perceived skills at finding and applying electronic health information to health problems. A valid sample of 352 interviewees responded to the online questionnaire, and their responses were analyzed. The C-eHEALS, by showing high internal consistency and predictive validity, is an effective screening tool for detecting levels of health literacy in clinical settings. Individuals’ sociodemographic status, perceived health status, and level of health literacy were identified for describing technology users’ characteristics. A strong association between eHealth literacy level, media information use, and computer literacy was found. The emphasis of face-to-face inquiry for obtaining health information was important in the low eHealth literacy group while Internet-based technologies crucially affected decision-making skills in the high eHealth literacy group. This information is timely because it implies that health care providers can use the C-eHEALS to screen eHealth literacy skills and empower patients with chronic diseases with online resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Literacy in Context—Settings, Media, and Populations)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Comparison of Prochloraz Residue on Garlic Sprouts after Soaking and Spraying Treatment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071552 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Prochloraz is a fungicide that is widely used on vegetables to maintain freshness during storage. To ensure that prochloraz is used in a safe way that reduces the levels of residue on the product, we evaluated two treatment methods (soaking and spraying) that
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Prochloraz is a fungicide that is widely used on vegetables to maintain freshness during storage. To ensure that prochloraz is used in a safe way that reduces the levels of residue on the product, we evaluated two treatment methods (soaking and spraying) that are commonly used for garlic sprouts. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for prochloraz residue on garlic sprouts. The linear range of the method was 5–500 μg/kg and the correlation coefficient was 0.9983. The average recovery range was 88–94%, and the relative standard deviation range was 2.6–9.7%. Garlic sprout samples that had been soaked in or sprayed with prochloraz were collected from cold storage facilities in Laixi and Pingdu, China. For the soaked samples, the ranges for the levels of prochloraz residue on the whole garlic sprouts and stems (edible portion) were 15.76–25.14 mg/kg and 0.58–1.62 mg/kg, respectively. For the sprayed samples, the ranges for the levels of prochloraz residue on the whole garlic sprouts and stems were 1.85–7.89 mg/kg and 0.01–1.29 mg/kg, respectively. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for rationalizing the use of prochloraz and improving the safety of edible garlic sprouts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Lead, Zinc, Copper, and Cadmium Content of Water from South Australian Rainwater Tanks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071551 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Rainwater is consumed for drinking water in many parts of Australia, either preferentially over municipal water or in regional or remote areas, because rainwater is the primary source of water. Previous rainwater studies in other areas in Australia have shown the levels of
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Rainwater is consumed for drinking water in many parts of Australia, either preferentially over municipal water or in regional or remote areas, because rainwater is the primary source of water. Previous rainwater studies in other areas in Australia have shown the levels of some metals to be above the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG). This study assessed the level of metals in rainwater harvested in the Adelaide region. Water samples were collected from 53 tanks from three different sampling corridors. A total of 365 water samples were analysed for lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In 47 out of the 53 tanks, lead was above the ADWG of 0.01 ppm in at least one sample (with 180/365 samples above 0.01 ppm). Zinc was above the ADWG (3.0 ppm) in 53/365 samples, copper was above the ADWG (2.0 ppm) in eight samples out of 365 samples, and cadmium was above the ADWG (0.002 ppm) in 19 samples out of 365 samples. These data are consistent with other studies of rainwater quality in Australia. Comparisons of levels of metals and volume of rainfall in the sampling and preceding month, roof material, and tank material, the presence of a first-flush device, sampling corridor, and sample pH showed that the roof material was related to higher levels of metals. There was a significant relationship between sampling corridors and the levels of lead and zinc. Nine of the tanks surveyed had filters installed. There was a small, but statistically significant, decrease in the levels of metals that passed through a filter prior to collection but, in those samples, filters did not remove metals to below guideline concentrations. An estimate of exposure, and a brief discussion of health risks as a result of exposure to metals, is presented. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary Linkage to Care Is Important and Necessary When Identifying Infections in Migrants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071550 (registering DOI)
Received: 23 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
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Abstract
Migration is an important driver of population dynamics in Europe. Although migrants are generally healthy, subgroups of migrants are at increased risk of a range of infectious diseases. Early identification of infections is important as it prevents morbidity and mortality. However, identifying infections
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Migration is an important driver of population dynamics in Europe. Although migrants are generally healthy, subgroups of migrants are at increased risk of a range of infectious diseases. Early identification of infections is important as it prevents morbidity and mortality. However, identifying infections needs to be supported by appropriate systems to link individuals to specialist care where they can receive further diagnostic tests and clinical management. In this commentary we will discuss the importance of linkage to care and how to minimise attrition in clinical pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refugee, Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health)
Open AccessArticle A Potential Way to Decrease the Know-Do Gap in Hospital Infection Control in Vietnam: “Providing Specific Figures on Healthcare-Associated Infections to the Hospital Staff Can ‘Wake Them Up’ to Change Their Behaviour”
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071549 (registering DOI)
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
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Abstract
Adequate infection control plays a key role in preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). This study aimed to explore staff perceptions of hospital infection control in a rural and an urban hospital in Vietnam. Individual interviews were conducted with hospital managers, and focus group discussions
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Adequate infection control plays a key role in preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). This study aimed to explore staff perceptions of hospital infection control in a rural and an urban hospital in Vietnam. Individual interviews were conducted with hospital managers, and focus group discussions were conducted with doctors, nurses and cleaning workers separately. Content analysis was applied. An interview guide including discussion points on HAIs, hand hygiene and healthcare waste management was used. Generally, the staff were knowledgeable of hospital infection control, but they were not aware of the situation in their own hospital, and infection control practices in the hospitals remained poor. Reported difficulties in infection control included lack of resources, poor awareness and patient overload. A main theme emerged: ‘Making data on HAIs available for health workers can improve their awareness and motivate them to put their existing knowledge into practice, thus decreasing the know-do gap in infection control’. This could be a feasible intervention to improve infection control practice in the hospitals with limited resources, high workload and patient overload. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Open AccessArticle It Doesn’t End There: Workplace Bullying, Work-to-Family Conflict, and Employee Well-Being in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071548 (registering DOI)
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
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Abstract
Workplace bullying entails negative consequences on workers’ life. Yet, there is lack of research on workplace bullying in an Asian context. Moreover, less is known about the potential mechanisms linking workplace bullying and employee well-being. This study examined the associations between workplace bullying
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Workplace bullying entails negative consequences on workers’ life. Yet, there is lack of research on workplace bullying in an Asian context. Moreover, less is known about the potential mechanisms linking workplace bullying and employee well-being. This study examined the associations between workplace bullying and Korean employees’ well-being (quality of life, occupational health) and whether the associations were mediated by work-to-family conflict. Cross-sectional data came from 307 workers in South Korea who were employed in healthcare, education, and banking industries. Analyses adjusted for industry, age, gender, education, marital status, and work hours. Employees who had more exposure to workplace bullying reported lower levels of quality of life and occupational health. These associations were mediated by work-to-family conflict, such that more exposure to workplace bullying was associated with greater work-to-family conflict, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of quality of life and occupational health. These mediating pathways were consistent across the three industries. Korean employees who experience more workplace bullying may bring unfinished work stress to the home (thus greater work-to-family conflict), which impairs their well-being. Future research may need to consider the role of work-to-family conflict when targeting to reduce the negative consequences of workplace bullying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Using Total Worker Health to Advance Worker Health and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Cool Communities—Urban Density, Trees, and Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071547 (registering DOI)
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 22 July 2018
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Abstract
A move towards more compact and climate-resilient cities is being encouraged around the world. As part of these plans, there is a need to manage the potential conflict between increasing urban densities and the extent of tree canopy in cities. Reductions in tree
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A move towards more compact and climate-resilient cities is being encouraged around the world. As part of these plans, there is a need to manage the potential conflict between increasing urban densities and the extent of tree canopy in cities. Reductions in tree canopy are a major contributor to the urban heat island (UHI) effect, which will act to reduce rather than increase climate resilience in many cities. A systems thinking approach called Collaborative Conceptual Modelling was used to study the interaction between urban infill, tree canopy, and human health in Perth, Australia. The results indicated that under current planning policies and development practices, the behaviour of the system is dominated by the drive towards higher housing densities. While this may result in the attainment of urban infill targets, it is likely to lead to a reduction in tree canopy, higher temperatures, and a decrease in a range of other benefits provided by trees. Recommended actions to overcome this behaviour were determined by the identification of leverage points in the system. These included a shift to a sustainable development paradigm that places greater value on the environmental and social benefits provided by trees and a greater emphasis on a climate-resilient future. Market and legislative mechanisms should be integrated into the city’s greening strategy and development plans to ensure the protection of existing trees and the inclusion of new trees on public and private land. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for the Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Buildings in Hong Kong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071546 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
With the economic restructuring during the 1980s and 1990s in Hong Kong, most manufacturing plants were relocated to China and many industrial buildings were left neglected or vacant. At the same time, owing to limited land supply, a shortage of affordable housing has
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With the economic restructuring during the 1980s and 1990s in Hong Kong, most manufacturing plants were relocated to China and many industrial buildings were left neglected or vacant. At the same time, owing to limited land supply, a shortage of affordable housing has been a problem in Hong Kong for many years. Adaptive reuse of industrial buildings may be a way of solving this problem. However, adaptive reuse is not an easy decision because there are many factors affecting adaptive reuse. Therefore, this paper examines the current situation of adaptive reuse of industrial buildings in Hong Kong and identifies a list of factors affecting the adaptive reuse of industrial buildings. Six factors are considered Critical Success Factors (CSFs). Based on a Principal Component Analysis, 33 factors are grouped into eight principal components, namely, sustainability, economics and finance, the market, changeability, location and neighborhood, culture and public interests, legal and regulatory matters, and the physical condition of the building. The identified CSFs and principal factors provide a useful reference for various stakeholders to have a clear understanding of the adaptive reuse of industrial buildings in Hong Kong, especially for the government to review current policies of adaptive reuse. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Implementing Supported Employment. Lessons from the Making IPS Work Project
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071545 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is an internationally accepted and effective form of supported employment for people with severe mental health conditions. Despite its strong evidence base, the implementation of IPS has been slow and inconsistent. In England, a demonstration project, Making IPS
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Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is an internationally accepted and effective form of supported employment for people with severe mental health conditions. Despite its strong evidence base, the implementation of IPS has been slow and inconsistent. In England, a demonstration project, Making IPS Work, was developed to offer support for the implementation of IPS in six local sites National Health Service Mental Health trusts. The project aimed to: Establish Individual Placement and Support services within clinical teams; develop high fidelity practice and leave a sustainable IPS service beyond the project. The number of people gaining open employment in each site was monitored. Fidelity checks were carried out at three sites by independent assessors. Stakeholders were interviewed over the 18-month lifetime of the implementation period to examine the experience of developing the services in the six sites. A total of 421 jobs were found for people with mental health conditions over 18 months with a large variation between the highest and lowest performing sites. The sites assessed for fidelity all attained the threshold for a ‘Good Fidelity’ service. The new services were readily accepted by mental health service users, clinical staff and managers across the trust sites. Maintaining the funding for the Individual Placement and Support services beyond the project period proved to be problematic for many sites. Placing the services within a broader strategy of improving psychosocial services and bringing together decision making at the corporate, commissioning and clinical management level were helpful in achieving success. The growth and maintenance of these services is difficult to achieve whilst the current cost pressures on the NHS continue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Social Care and Social Interventions)
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Open AccessArticle Uncertainty in Estimates, Incentives, and Emission Reductions in REDD+ Projects
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071544 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
The accurate monitoring and measurement of emission reductions is a critical step in Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+). However, the existence of uncertainty in emission reduction estimates affects the performance of REDD+ projects. We assert that incentive could be a valuable
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The accurate monitoring and measurement of emission reductions is a critical step in Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+). However, the existence of uncertainty in emission reduction estimates affects the performance of REDD+ projects. We assert that incentive could be a valuable policy tool for reducing monitoring errors and transaction costs. Using Stackelberg models and simulation research, this paper examines the effects of uncertainty and incentive on performance and stakeholder benefits of REDD+ projects. Finally, the uncertainties in REDD+ projects are further discussed, and equilibrium errors, emission reductions, and stakeholder benefits in different scenarios are compared. The results show that errors do affect the measured value of carbon emissions and compensation payments. However, incentive for investors can reduce monitoring errors and improve the performance of REDD+ projects. Therefore, in the future, incentive should be provided to investors rather than landholders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Associations between History of Hospitalization for Violence Victimization and Substance-Use Patterns among Adolescents: A 2017 Korean National Representative Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071543 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Violence victimization can adversely affect adolescents’ long-term health. Existing research has mainly focused on the link between victimization and substance use; however, the evidence obtained to date has been inconsistent. This study, using a Korean national representative sample, examined the association between violence
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Violence victimization can adversely affect adolescents’ long-term health. Existing research has mainly focused on the link between victimization and substance use; however, the evidence obtained to date has been inconsistent. This study, using a Korean national representative sample, examined the association between violence victimization and substance-use patterns (including tobacco, alcohol, and drug use) in terms of sex and number of violence victimization experiences. We analyzed secondary data from the 2017 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Chi-squared test analyses and logistic regression analysis were used to examine substance use in terms of violence victimization; additionally, p-values for trends were calculated to reveal the dose-response relationship per number of violence victimization experiences. We consequently found that participants’ rates of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use were higher among those who experienced violence victimization than among those who did not. For each substance-use-related variable, the greater the violence victimization experience, the higher the odds of substance use (p for trend < 0.001). Early intervention may help prevent the development of substance use, especially among adolescents who have experienced violence victimization. Prevention efforts regarding substance abuse and violence prevention should be included in school curricula to effectively prevent adverse health consequences among adolescents. Full article
Open AccessPerspective Management of Leishmaniases in the Era of Climate Change in Morocco
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071542 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
The proliferation of vector-borne diseases are predicted to increase in a changing climate and Leishmaniases, as a vector-borne diseases, are re-emerging diseases in several regions of the world. In Morocco, during the last decade, a sharp increase in cutaneous leishmaniases cases has been
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The proliferation of vector-borne diseases are predicted to increase in a changing climate and Leishmaniases, as a vector-borne diseases, are re-emerging diseases in several regions of the world. In Morocco, during the last decade, a sharp increase in cutaneous leishmaniases cases has been reported. Nevertheless, in Morocco, leishmaniases are a major public health problem, and little interest was given to climate change impacts on the distribution and spread of these diseases. As insect-borne diseases, the incidence and distribution of leishmaniases are influenced by environmental changes, but also by several socio-economic and cultural factors. From a biological point of view, environmental variables have effects on the survival of insect vectors and mammalian reservoirs, which, in turn, affects transmission. Here, we highlight the effects of climate change in Morocco and discuss its consequences on the epidemiology of leishmaniases to identify challenges and define targeted recommendations to fight this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Health: An Interdisciplinary Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Do Income, Race and Ethnicity, and Sprawl Influence the Greenspace-Human Health Link in City-Level Analyses? Findings from 496 Cities in the United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071541 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Examination of the greenspace—human health relationship operates in at least four dimensions: what is considered greenspace? which moderators and mediators are included? what outcomes are measured? and which units of analysis (e.g., individuals, cities) are studied? We examined three of these four dimensions
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Examination of the greenspace—human health relationship operates in at least four dimensions: what is considered greenspace? which moderators and mediators are included? what outcomes are measured? and which units of analysis (e.g., individuals, cities) are studied? We examined three of these four dimensions in a cross-sectional study of 496 of the 500 most populated US cities (total population size = 97,574,613, average population per city = 197,920). Spatial average models tested the effect of two greenspace measures (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index greenness and tree cover) on two outcomes (obesity and mental health), while adjusting for income, race and ethnicity, sprawl, age, sex, physical inactivity, median age of housing, and total population. We conducted analyses at the city scale, which is an understudied unit of analysis, and compared findings to individual- and neighborhood-level studies. In two of four models, greenspace was associated with better health. We found race and ethnicity moderated this relationship with varying results. In full sample analyses, cities with greater percentages of non-Hispanic Whites showed links between higher tree cover and lower obesity but marginal relationships between higher greenness and lower obesity. In subsample analyses with majority-non-Hispanic Black cities, higher tree cover was associated with lower obesity and better mental health. These findings advance previous research by showing that race and ethnicity moderate the greenspace—health link at the city level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Historical Sources of Heavy Metals in Lake Taihu Based on the Positive Matrix Factorization Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071540 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Analysis of sediment grain sizes and heavy metal correlations in the western part of Lake Taihu shows that the grain size of the sediment is stable as a whole. With increasing depth, the grain size tends to decrease. Heavy metals such as Cr,
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Analysis of sediment grain sizes and heavy metal correlations in the western part of Lake Taihu shows that the grain size of the sediment is stable as a whole. With increasing depth, the grain size tends to decrease. Heavy metals such as Cr, Cd, Pd and Sr are strongly correlated and influence each other. Based on the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, this study classified the origin of heavy metals in the sediments of western Lake Taihu into three major categories: Agricultural, industrial and geogenic. The contributions of the three heavy metal sources in each sample were analyzed and calculated. Overall, prior to the Chinese economic reform, the study area mainly practiced agriculture. The sources of heavy metals in the sediments were mostly of agricultural and geogenic origin, and remained relatively stable with contribution rates of 44.07 ± 11.84% (n = 30) and 35.67 ± 11.70% (n = 30), respectively. After the reform and opening up of China, as the economy experienced rapid development, industry and agriculture became the main sources of heavy metals in sediments, accounting for 56.99 ± 15.73% (n = 15) and 31.22 ± 14.31% (n = 15), respectively. The PMF model is convenient and efficient, and a good method to determine the origin of heavy metals in sediments. Full article
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