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Materials, Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Powder-bed-fusion additive manufactured (PBFAM) parts exhibit a rough surface that has a [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Industrial-Graded Epoxy Nanocomposites with Mechanically Dispersed Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Static and Damping Properties
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101222
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2097 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The majority of currently published dispersion protocols of carbon nanotubes rely on techniques that are not scalable to an industrial level. This work shows how to obtain polymer nanocomposites with good mechanical characteristics using multi-walled carbon nanotubes epoxy resins obtained by mechanical mixing
[...] Read more.
The majority of currently published dispersion protocols of carbon nanotubes rely on techniques that are not scalable to an industrial level. This work shows how to obtain polymer nanocomposites with good mechanical characteristics using multi-walled carbon nanotubes epoxy resins obtained by mechanical mixing only. The mechanical dispersion method illustrated in this work is easily scalable to industrial level. The high shearing force due to the complex field of motion produces a good and reproducible carbon nanotube dispersion. We have tested an industrial epoxy matrix with good baseline mechanical characteristics at different carbon nanotube weight loads. ASTM-derived tensile and compressive tests show an increment in both Young’s modulus and compressive strength compared with the pristine resin from a starting low wt %. Comparative vibration tests show improvement in the damping capacity. The new carbon nanotube enhanced epoxy resin has superior mechanical proprieties compared to the market average competitor, and is among the top products in the bi-components epoxy resins market. The new dispersion method shows significant potential for the industrial use of CNTs in epoxy matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Performance of Nanocomposite Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview On the Hole Injection for III-Nitride Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101221
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The hole injection is one of the bottlenecks that strongly hinder the quantum efficiency and the optical power for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) with the emission wavelength smaller than 360 nm. The hole injection efficiency for DUV LEDs is co-affected by
[...] Read more.
The hole injection is one of the bottlenecks that strongly hinder the quantum efficiency and the optical power for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) with the emission wavelength smaller than 360 nm. The hole injection efficiency for DUV LEDs is co-affected by the p-type ohmic contact, the p-type hole injection layer, the p-type electron blocking layer and the multiple quantum wells. In this report, we review a large diversity of advances that are currently adopted to increase the hole injection efficiency for DUV LEDs. Moreover, by disclosing the underlying device physics, the design strategies that we can follow have also been suggested to improve the hole injection for DUV LEDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Growth, Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Wafer Level Underfill on the Microbump Reliability of Ultrathin-Chip Stacking Type 3D-IC Assembly during Thermal Cycling Tests
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101220
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
The microbump (μ-bump) reliability of 3D integrated circuit (3D-IC) packaging must be enhanced, in consideration of the multi-chip assembly, during temperature cycling tests (TCT). This research proposes vehicle fabrications, experimental implements, and a nonlinear finite element analysis to systematically investigate the assembled packaging
[...] Read more.
The microbump (μ-bump) reliability of 3D integrated circuit (3D-IC) packaging must be enhanced, in consideration of the multi-chip assembly, during temperature cycling tests (TCT). This research proposes vehicle fabrications, experimental implements, and a nonlinear finite element analysis to systematically investigate the assembled packaging architecture that stacks four thin chips through the wafer level underfill (WLUF) process. The assembly of μ-bump interconnects by daisy chain design shows good quality. Results of both TCT data and the simulation indicate that μ-bumps with residual SnAg solders can reach more than 1200 fatigue life cycles. Moreover, several important design factors in the present 3D-IC package influence μ-bump reliability. Analytical results show that the μ-bump’s thermo-mechanical reliability can be improved by setting proper chip thickness, along with a WLUF that has a low elastic modulus and a small coefficient of thermal expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IMETI2016)
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Open AccessReview Aspects of Solvent Chemistry for Calcium Hydroxide Medicaments
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101219
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used in endodontics since 1947. Most current calcium hydroxide endodontic pastes use water as the vehicle, which limits the dissolution of calcium hydroxide that can be achieved and, thereby, the maximum pH that can be achieved within the
[...] Read more.
Calcium hydroxide pastes have been used in endodontics since 1947. Most current calcium hydroxide endodontic pastes use water as the vehicle, which limits the dissolution of calcium hydroxide that can be achieved and, thereby, the maximum pH that can be achieved within the root canal system. Using polyethylene glycol as a solvent, rather than water, can achieve an increase in hydroxyl ions release compared to water or saline. By adopting non-aqueous solvents such as the polyethylene glycols (PEG), greater dissolution and faster hydroxyl ion release can be achieved, leading to enhanced antimicrobial actions, and other improvements in performance and biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Composite Filaments with High Dielectric Permittivity for Fused Deposition 3D Printing
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101218
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (16206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Additive manufacturing of complex structures with spatially varying electromagnetic properties can enable new applications in high-technology sectors such as communications and sensors. This work presents the fabrication method as well as microstructural and dielectric characterization of bespoke composite filaments for fused deposition modeling
[...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing of complex structures with spatially varying electromagnetic properties can enable new applications in high-technology sectors such as communications and sensors. This work presents the fabrication method as well as microstructural and dielectric characterization of bespoke composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing of microwave devices with a high relative dielectric permittivity ϵ = 11 in the GHz frequency range. The filament is composed of 32 vol % of ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) micro-particles in a polymeric acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) matrix. An ionic organic ester surfactant was added during formulation to enhance the compatibility between the polymer and the BaTiO 3 . To promote reproducible and robust printability of the fabricated filament, and to promote plasticity, dibutyl phthalate was additionally used. The combined effect of 1 wt % surfactant and 5 wt % plasticizer resulted in a uniform, many hundreds of meters, continuous filament of commercial quality capable of many hours of uninterrupted 3D printing. We demonstrate the feasibility of using the high dielectric constant filament for 3D printing through the fabrication of a range of optical devices. The approach herein may be used as a guide for the successful fabrication of many types of composite filament with varying functions for a broad range of applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Constitutive Relationship for Gravelly Soil Considering Fine Particle Suffusion
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101217
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Suffusion erosion may occur in sandy gravel dam foundations that use suspended cutoff walls. This erosion causes a loss of fine particles, degrades the soil strength and deformation moduli, and adversely impacts the cutoff walls of the dam foundation, as well as the
[...] Read more.
Suffusion erosion may occur in sandy gravel dam foundations that use suspended cutoff walls. This erosion causes a loss of fine particles, degrades the soil strength and deformation moduli, and adversely impacts the cutoff walls of the dam foundation, as well as the overlying dam body. A comprehensive evaluation of these effects requires models that quantitatively describe the effects of fine particle losses on the stress-strain relationships of sandy gravels. In this work, we propose an experimental scheme for studying these types of models, and then perform triaxial and confined compression tests to determine the effects of particle losses on the stress-strain relationships. Considering the Duncan-Chang E-B model, quantitative expressions describing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the particle losses were derived. The results show that particle losses did not alter the qualitative stress-strain characteristics of the soils; however, the soil strength and deformation moduli were degraded. By establishing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the losses, the same model can then be used to describe the relationship between sandy gravels and erosion levels that vary in both time and space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Cl-Assisted Large Scale Synthesis of Cm-Scale Buckypapers of Fe3C-Filled Carbon Nanotubes with Pseudo-Capacitor Properties: The Key Role of SBA-16 Catalyst Support as Synthesis Promoter
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101216
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
PDF Full-text (4149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We show a novel chemical vapour deposition (CVD) approach, in which the large-scale fabrication of ferromagnetically-filled cm-scale buckypapers is achieved through the deposition of a mesoporous supported catalyst (SBA-16) on a silicon substrate. We demonstrate that SBA-16 has the crucial role of promoting
[...] Read more.
We show a novel chemical vapour deposition (CVD) approach, in which the large-scale fabrication of ferromagnetically-filled cm-scale buckypapers is achieved through the deposition of a mesoporous supported catalyst (SBA-16) on a silicon substrate. We demonstrate that SBA-16 has the crucial role of promoting the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on a horizontal plane with random orientation rather than in a vertical direction, therefore allowing a facile fabrication of cm-scale CNTs buckypapers free from the onion-crust by-product observed on the buckypaper-surface in previous reports. The morphology and composition of the obtained CNTs-buckypapers are analyzed in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), while structural analysis is performed by Rietveld Refinement of XRD data. The room temperature magnetic properties of the produced buckypapers are also investigated and reveal the presence of a high coercivity of 650 Oe. Additionally, the electrochemical performances of these buckypapers are demonstrated and reveal a behavior that is compatible with that of a pseudo-capacitor (resistive-capacitor) with better performances than those presented in other previously studied layered-buckypapers of Fe-filled CNTs, obtained by pyrolysis of dichlorobenzene-ferrocene mixtures. These measurements indicate that these materials show promise for applications in energy storage systems as flexible electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Nano-CuO on Engineering and Microstructure Properties of Fibre-Reinforced Mortars Incorporating Metakaolin: Experimental and Numerical Studies
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101215
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6087 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the effects of nano-CuO (NC) on engineering properties of fibre-reinforced mortars incorporating metakaolin (MK) were investigated. The effects of polypropylene fibre (PP) were also examined. A total of twenty-six mixtures were prepared. The experimental results were compared with numerical results
[...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of nano-CuO (NC) on engineering properties of fibre-reinforced mortars incorporating metakaolin (MK) were investigated. The effects of polypropylene fibre (PP) were also examined. A total of twenty-six mixtures were prepared. The experimental results were compared with numerical results obtained by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and Primal Estimated sub-GrAdient Solver for SVM (Pegasos) algorithm. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was also employed to investigate the microstructure of the cement matrix. The mechanical test results showed that both compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortars decreased with the increase of MK content, however the strength values increased significantly with increasing NC content in the mixture. The water absorption of samples decreased remarkably with increasing NC particles in the mixture. When PP fibres were added, the strengths of cement mortars were further enhanced accompanied with lower water absorption values. The addition of 2 wt % and 3 wt % nanoparticles in cement mortar led to a positive contribution to strength and resistance to water absorption. Mixture of PP-MK10NC3 indicated the best results for both compressive and flexural strengths at 28 and 90 days. SEM images illustrated that the morphology of cement matrix became more porous with increasing MK content, but the porosity reduced with the inclusion of NC. In addition, it is evident from the SEM images that more cement hydration products adhered onto the surface of fibres, which would improve the fibre–matrix interface. The numerical results obtained by ANFIS and Pegasos were close to the experimental results. The value of R2 obtained for each data set (validate, test and train) was higher than 0.90 and the values of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the relative root mean squared error (PRMSE) were near zero. The ANFIS and Pegasos models can be used to predict the mechanical properties and water absorptions of fibre-reinforced mortars with MK and NC. Full article
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Open AccessReview Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101214
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use
[...] Read more.
In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessCase Report Treatment of Severely Resorbed Maxilla Due to Peri-Implantitis by Guided Bone Regeneration Using a Customized Allogenic Bone Block: A Case Report
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101213
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this case report is to introduce a customized CAD/CAM freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) block for its use in Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) procedures for severely deficient maxillary bones. Additionally, a special newly developed remote incision technique is presented to avoid
[...] Read more.
The objective of this case report is to introduce a customized CAD/CAM freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) block for its use in Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) procedures for severely deficient maxillary bones. Additionally, a special newly developed remote incision technique is presented to avoid wound dehiscence. The results show optimal integration behavior of the FDBA block after six months and the formation of new vital bone. Thus, the results of the present case report confirm the use of the customized CAD/CAM bone block for augmentation of complex defects in the maxillary aesthetic zone as a successful treatment concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Assembly of 1D Granular Structures from Sulfonated Polystyrene Microparticles
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101212
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
PDF Full-text (2304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Being able to systematically modify the electric properties of nano- and microparticles opens up new possibilities for the bottom-up fabrication of advanced materials such as the fabrication of one-dimensional (1D) colloidal and granular materials. Fabricating 1D structures from individual particles offers plenty of
[...] Read more.
Being able to systematically modify the electric properties of nano- and microparticles opens up new possibilities for the bottom-up fabrication of advanced materials such as the fabrication of one-dimensional (1D) colloidal and granular materials. Fabricating 1D structures from individual particles offers plenty of applications ranging from electronic sensors and photovoltaics to artificial flagella for hydrodynamic propulsion. In this work, we demonstrate the assembly of 1D structures composed of individual microparticles with modified electric properties, pulled out of a liquid environment into air. Polystyrene particles were modified by sulfonation for different reaction times and characterized by dielectric spectroscopy and dipolar force measurements. We found that by increasing the sulfonation time, the values of both electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of the particles increase, and that the relaxation frequency of particle electric polarization changes, causing the measured dielectric loss of the particles to shift towards higher frequencies. We attributed these results to water adsorbed at the surface of the particles. With sulfonated polystyrene particles exhibiting a range of electric properties, we showed how the electric properties of individual particles influence the formation of 1D structures. By tuning applied voltage and frequency, we were able to control the formation and dynamics of 1D structures, including chain bending and oscillation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Designed Colloidal Self-Assembly)
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Open AccessArticle Time-Variant Reliability Analysis for Rubber O-Ring Seal Considering Both Material Degradation and Random Load
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101211
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4840 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the increase in working hours, the reliability of rubber O-ring seals used in hydraulic systems of transfer machines will change. While traditional methods can only analyze one of the material properties or seal properties, the failure of the O-ring is caused
[...] Read more.
Due to the increase in working hours, the reliability of rubber O-ring seals used in hydraulic systems of transfer machines will change. While traditional methods can only analyze one of the material properties or seal properties, the failure of the O-ring is caused by these two factors together. In this paper, two factors are mainly analyzed: the degradation of material properties and load randomization by processing technology. Firstly, the two factors are defined in terms of material failure and seal failure, before the experimental methods of rubber materials are studied. Following this, the time-variant material properties through experiments and load distribution by monitoring the processing can be obtained. Thirdly, compressive stress and contact stress have been calculated, which was combined with the reliability model to acquire the time-variant reliability for the O-ring. Finally, the life prediction and effect of oil pressure were discussed, then compared with the actual situation. The results show a lifetime of 12 months for the O-ring calculated in this paper, and compared with the replacement records from the maintenance workshop, the result is credible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contact Mechanics and Elastomer Friction of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Ternary Antimicrobial Films of β-Cyclodextrin/Allyl Isothiocyanate/Polylactic Acid for the Enhancement of Long-Term Controlled Release
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101210
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) are natural essential oil components that have outstanding antimicrobial activities. However, low water solubility, high volatility, and easy degradation by heat, restricting their application in food packing industry. Development of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin/AITC (β-CD/AITC) is a promising solution.
[...] Read more.
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) are natural essential oil components that have outstanding antimicrobial activities. However, low water solubility, high volatility, and easy degradation by heat, restricting their application in food packing industry. Development of the inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin/AITC (β-CD/AITC) is a promising solution. Furthermore, the incorporation of β-CD/AITC complex into polylactic acid (PLA) films would be an attractive method to develop food antimicrobial materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enhancement in physicochemical properties, antimicrobial activities, and controlled release of β-CD/AITC from such films. The addition of β-CD/AITC significantly increased the flexibility and thermal stability of films. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results revealed that the interactions between β-CD/AITC and PLA films occurred. The controlled release of AITC encapsulated in β-CD was significantly affected by relative humidity and temperature. The PLA films containing β-CD/AITC can be applied as an effective antimicrobial packing material for food and non-food applications. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Magnetic Properties of Fibonacci-Modulated Fe-Au Multilayer Metamaterials
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101209
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herein we experimentally study magnetic multilayer metamaterials with broken translational symmetry. Epitaxially-grown iron-gold (Fe-Au) multilayers modulated using Fibonacci sequence—referred to as magnetic inverse Fibonacci-modulated multilayers (IFMs)—are prepared using ultra-high-vacuum vapor deposition. Experimental results of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, magnetization curves, and ferromagnetic
[...] Read more.
Herein we experimentally study magnetic multilayer metamaterials with broken translational symmetry. Epitaxially-grown iron-gold (Fe-Au) multilayers modulated using Fibonacci sequence—referred to as magnetic inverse Fibonacci-modulated multilayers (IFMs)—are prepared using ultra-high-vacuum vapor deposition. Experimental results of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, magnetization curves, and ferromagnetic resonance demonstrate that the epitaxially-grown Fe-Au IFMs have quasi-isotropic magnetization, in contrast to the in-plane magnetization easy axis in the periodic multilayers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Nanoparticles for the Reduction of Water Pollutants
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10101208
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of this manuscript was the optimization of the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) with conditions that could be easily reproducible at the industrial level. Several procedures were tested and those with C12H28O4Ti
[...] Read more.
The aim of this manuscript was the optimization of the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) with conditions that could be easily reproducible at the industrial level. Several procedures were tested and those with C12H28O4Ti and CO(NH2)2 as precursors seemed the most promising and, consequently, were improved with different molar ratios, lower temperatures and the addition of NH4Cl as a secondary dopant of nitrogen. The obtained samples were studied with analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). To complete the study, dye degradation and bacteriological tests were also performed. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain TiO2 NPs at lower temperatures with respect to those used in the literature; the best candidate that could satisfy all the requirements was a sample with a molar ratio of C12H28O4Ti:CO(NH2)2 at 2:1 and obtained at 50 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhancing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Photocatalysts)
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