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Materials, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Cover Story The microheater is used for thermal isolation and due to the smaller thermal capacity. Its center [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Time-Dependent Density Functional Computations of the Spectrochemical Properties of Dithiolodithiole and Thiophene Electrochromic Systems
Materials 2017, 10(9), 981; doi:10.3390/ma10090981
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
The importance of organic electrochromic materials has grown considerably in recent decades due to their application in smart window, automotive, and aircraft technologies. Theoretical prediction of the optical properties should contribute to their better characterization and help the explanation of the experimental data.
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The importance of organic electrochromic materials has grown considerably in recent decades due to their application in smart window, automotive, and aircraft technologies. Theoretical prediction of the optical properties should contribute to their better characterization and help the explanation of the experimental data. By using various exchange–correlation functionals, we show how density functional theory (DFT) and the related time-dependent formulation (TDDFT) are able to correctly reproduce the spectrochemical properties of dithiolodithiole and thiophene organic electrochromic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Electrochromic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Upper and Lower Level Yield Strength in Materials
Materials 2017, 10(9), 982; doi:10.3390/ma10090982
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
This work evaluates the possibility of identifying mechanical parameters, especially upper and lower yield points, by the analytical processing of specific elements of the topography of surfaces generated with abrasive waterjet technology. We developed a new system of equations, which are connected with
[...] Read more.
This work evaluates the possibility of identifying mechanical parameters, especially upper and lower yield points, by the analytical processing of specific elements of the topography of surfaces generated with abrasive waterjet technology. We developed a new system of equations, which are connected with each other in such a way that the result of a calculation is a comprehensive mathematical–physical model, which describes numerically as well as graphically the deformation process of material cutting using an abrasive waterjet. The results of our model have been successfully checked against those obtained by means of a tensile test. The main prospect for future applications of the method presented in this article concerns the identification of mechanical parameters associated with the prediction of material behavior. The findings of this study can contribute to a more detailed understanding of the relationships: material properties—tool properties—deformation properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Effectiveness of Microspheres Based on Silk Sericin and Chlorella vulgaris or Arthrospira platensis for Wound Healing Applications
Materials 2017, 10(9), 983; doi:10.3390/ma10090983
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Some natural compounds have recently been widely employed in wound healing applications due to their biological properties. One such compound is sericin, which is produced by Bombix mori, while active polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins are synthetized by Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis
[...] Read more.
Some natural compounds have recently been widely employed in wound healing applications due to their biological properties. One such compound is sericin, which is produced by Bombix mori, while active polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins are synthetized by Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis microalgae. Our hypothesis was that sericin, as an optimal bioactive polymeric carrier for microencapsulation process, could also improve the regenerative effect of the microalgae. A solvent-free extraction method and spray drying technique were combined to obtain five formulations, based on algal extracts (C. vulgaris and A. platensis, Chl and Art, respectively) or silk sericin (Ser) or their mixtures (Chl-Ser and Art-Ser). The spray drying was a suitable method to produce microspheres with similar dimensions, characterized by collapsed morphology with a rough surface. Art and Art-Ser showed higher antioxidant properties than other formulations. All microspheres resulted in cytocompatibility on fibroblasts until 1.25 mg/mL and promoted cell migration and the complete wound closure; this positive effect was further highlighted after treatment with Art and Art-Ser. To our surprize the combination of sericin to Art did not improve the microalgae extract efficacy, at least in our experimental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical and Experimental Studies on the Explosive Welding of Tungsten Foil to Copper
Materials 2017, 10(9), 984; doi:10.3390/ma10090984
Received: 28 May 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
This work verifies that the W foil could be successfully welded on Cu through conventional explosive welding, without any cracks. The microstructure was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The W/Cu interface exhibited a wavy morphology,
[...] Read more.
This work verifies that the W foil could be successfully welded on Cu through conventional explosive welding, without any cracks. The microstructure was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The W/Cu interface exhibited a wavy morphology, and no intermetallic or transition layer was observed. The wavy interface formation, as well as the distributions of temperature, pressure and plastic strain at the interface were studied through numerical simulation with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The welding mechanism of W/Cu was analyzed according to the numerical results and experimental observation, which was in accordance with the indentation mechanism proposed by Bahrani. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Optical CAD Utilization for the Design and Testing of a LED Streetlamp
Materials 2017, 10(9), 985; doi:10.3390/ma10090985
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
The design and testing of LED lamps are vital steps toward broader use of LED lighting for outdoor illumination and traffic signalling. The characteristics of LED sources, in combination with the need to limit light pollution and power consumption, require a precise optical
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The design and testing of LED lamps are vital steps toward broader use of LED lighting for outdoor illumination and traffic signalling. The characteristics of LED sources, in combination with the need to limit light pollution and power consumption, require a precise optical design. In particular, in every step of the process, it is important to closely compare theoretical or simulated results with measured data (obtained from a prototype). This work examines the various possibilities for using an optical CAD (Lambda Research TracePro) to design and check a LED lamp for outdoor use. This analysis includes the simulations and testing on a prototype as an example; data acquired by measurement are inserted into the same simulation software, making it easy to compare theoretical and actual results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes: Materials and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Effects of Argon Plasma Treatment on Plasmon Frequency and the Chemiresistive Properties of Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Metacomposite
Materials 2017, 10(9), 986; doi:10.3390/ma10090986
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Metacomposites, composite materials exhibiting negative permittivity, represent an opportunity to create materials with depressed plasmon frequency without the need to create complex structural geometries. Although many reports exist on the synthesis and characterizations of metacomposites, very few have ventured into exploring possible applications
[...] Read more.
Metacomposites, composite materials exhibiting negative permittivity, represent an opportunity to create materials with depressed plasmon frequency without the need to create complex structural geometries. Although many reports exist on the synthesis and characterizations of metacomposites, very few have ventured into exploring possible applications that could take advantage of the unique electrical properties of these materials. In this article, we report on the chemiresistive properties of a polymer-CNT metacomposite and explore how these are affected by Argon plasma treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Approach in the Use of Plasma Spray: Preparation of Bulk Titanium for Bone Augmentations
Materials 2017, 10(9), 987; doi:10.3390/ma10090987
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Thermal plasma spray is a common, well-established technology used in various application fields. Nevertheless, in our work, this technology was employed in a completely new way; for the preparation of bulk titanium. The aim was to produce titanium with properties similar to human
[...] Read more.
Thermal plasma spray is a common, well-established technology used in various application fields. Nevertheless, in our work, this technology was employed in a completely new way; for the preparation of bulk titanium. The aim was to produce titanium with properties similar to human bone to be used for bone augmentations. Titanium rods sprayed on a thin substrate wire exerted a porosity of about 15%, which yielded a significant decrease of Young′s modulus to the bone range and provided rugged topography for enhanced biological fixation. For the first verification of the suitability of the selected approach, tests of the mechanical properties in terms of compression, bending, and impact were carried out, the surface was characterized, and its compatibility with bone cells was studied. While preserving a high enough compressive strength of 628 MPa, the elastic modulus reached 11.6 GPa, thus preventing a stress-shielding effect, a generally known problem of implantable metals. U-2 OS and Saos-2 cells derived from bone osteosarcoma grown on the plasma-sprayed surface showed good viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Cycleability of Amorphous MnO2 by Covering on α-MnO2 Needles in an Electrochemical Capacitor
Materials 2017, 10(9), 988; doi:10.3390/ma10090988
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
An allomorph MnO2@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure was developed via a two-step aqueous reaction method. The data analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms experiments indicated that this unique architecture consisted of a porous
[...] Read more.
An allomorph MnO2@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure was developed via a two-step aqueous reaction method. The data analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms experiments indicated that this unique architecture consisted of a porous layer of amorphous-MnO2 nano-sheets which were well grown onto the surface of α-MnO2 nano-needles. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed that the double-layer charging and Faradaic pseudo-capacity of the MnO2@MnO2 capacitor electrode contributed to a specific capacitance of 150.3 F·g−1 at a current density of 0.1 A·g−1. Long cycle life experiments on the as-prepared MnO2@MnO2 sample showed nearly a 99.3% retention after 5000 cycles at a current density of 2 A·g−1. This retention value was found to be significantly higher than those reported for amorphous MnO2-based capacitor electrodes. It was also found that the remarkable cycleability of the MnO2@MnO2 was due to the supporting role of α-MnO2 nano-needle core and the outer amorphous MnO2 layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation on Surface Quality Processed by Self-Excited Oscillation Pulsed Waterjet Peening
Materials 2017, 10(9), 989; doi:10.3390/ma10090989
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
High-speed waterjet peening technology has attracted a lot of interest and is now being widely studied due to its great ability to strengthen metal surfaces. In order to further improve the mechanical properties of metals, self-excited oscillation pulsed waterjets (SOPWs) were used for
[...] Read more.
High-speed waterjet peening technology has attracted a lot of interest and is now being widely studied due to its great ability to strengthen metal surfaces. In order to further improve the mechanical properties of metals, self-excited oscillation pulsed waterjets (SOPWs) were used for surface peening with an experimental investigation focused on the surface topography and properties. By impinging the aluminum alloy (5052) specimens with SOPWs issuing from an organ-pipe oscillation nozzle, the hardness and roughness at various inlet pressures and stand-off distances were measured and analyzed, as well as the residual stress. Under the condition of optimum stand-off distances, the microscopic appearances of peened specimens obtained by SEM were displayed and analyzed. Results show that self-excited oscillation pulsed waterjet peening (SOPWP) is capable of improving the surface quality. More specifically, compared with an untreated surface, the hardness and residual stress of the peened surfaces were increased by 61.69% and 148%, respectively. There exists an optimal stand-off distance and operating pressure for creating the highest surface quality. SOPWP can produce almost the same enhancement effect as shot peening and lead to a lower surface roughness. Although such an approach is empirical and qualitative in nature, this procedure also generated information of value in guiding future theoretical and experimental work on the application of SOPWP in the industry practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wear-Corrosion Synergy, Nanocoating and Control of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of Interaction in a Composite Structure by Using a Sol-Gel Functional Coating on Carbon Fibers
Materials 2017, 10(9), 990; doi:10.3390/ma10090990
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
The modification of carbon fibers for improving adhesion between fibers and an epoxy resin in composite materials has become the focus of attention. In this work the carbon fiber coating process has been devised in a way preventing the stiffening and clumping of
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The modification of carbon fibers for improving adhesion between fibers and an epoxy resin in composite materials has become the focus of attention. In this work the carbon fiber coating process has been devised in a way preventing the stiffening and clumping of fibers. To improve interactions between coated fibers and a resin in composites, four types of silica coatings with different organic functional groups (3-aminopropyl–coating 1, 3-mercaptopropyl–coating 2, 2-(3,4-epoxycyclohexyl) ethyl–coating 3, methyl–coating 4) were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to distinguish the changes of a carbon fibers surface after coating deposition. The thickness of the obtained coatings, including the diversity of thickness, was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The increase in surface free energy (SFE) of modified fibers, including the distinction between the polar and dispersive parts, was examined by wettability measurements using a tensometric test. The developed coating preparation process allowed to cover fibers separately with nanoscale silica layers, which changed their morphology. The introduction of organic functional groups resulted in surface free energy changes, especially an increase in specific polar surface energy components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Heat-Assisted Multiferroic Solid-State Memory
Materials 2017, 10(9), 991; doi:10.3390/ma10090991
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
A heat-assisted multiferroic solid-state memory design is proposed and analysed, based on a PbNbZrSnTiO3 antiferroelectric layer and Ni81Fe19 magnetic free layer. Information is stored as magnetisation direction in the free layer of a magnetic tunnel junction element. The bit
[...] Read more.
A heat-assisted multiferroic solid-state memory design is proposed and analysed, based on a PbNbZrSnTiO3 antiferroelectric layer and Ni81Fe19 magnetic free layer. Information is stored as magnetisation direction in the free layer of a magnetic tunnel junction element. The bit writing process is contactless and relies on triggering thermally activated magnetisation switching of the free layer towards a strain-induced anisotropy easy axis. A stress is generated using the antiferroelectric layer by voltage-induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase change, and this is transmitted to the magnetic free layer by strain-mediated coupling. The thermally activated strain-induced magnetisation switching is analysed here using a three-dimensional, temperature-dependent magnetisation dynamics model, based on simultaneous evaluation of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation and heat flow equation, together with stochastic thermal fields and magnetoelastic contributions. The magnetisation switching probability is calculated as a function of stress magnitude and maximum heat pulse temperature. An operating region is identified, where magnetisation switching always occurs, with stress values ranging from 80 to 180 MPa, and maximum temperatures normalised to the Curie temperature ranging from 0.65 to 0.99. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Luminescent Metal-Organic Framework Films by Soft-Imprinting for 2,4-Dinitrotoluene Sensing
Materials 2017, 10(9), 992; doi:10.3390/ma10090992
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
PDF Full-text (5045 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A novel technique for the creation of metal-organic framework (MOF) films based on soft-imprinting and their use as gas sensors was developed. The microporous MOF material [Zn2(bpdc)2(bpee)] (bpdc = 4,4′-biphenyldicarboxylate; bpee = 1,2-bipyridylethene) was synthesized solvothermally and activated by
[...] Read more.
A novel technique for the creation of metal-organic framework (MOF) films based on soft-imprinting and their use as gas sensors was developed. The microporous MOF material [Zn2(bpdc)2(bpee)] (bpdc = 4,4′-biphenyldicarboxylate; bpee = 1,2-bipyridylethene) was synthesized solvothermally and activated by removing the occluded solvent molecules from its inner channels. MOF particles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy, showing high crystallinity and intense photoluminescence. Scanning electron microscope images revealed that MOF crystals were mainly in the form of microneedles with a high surface-to-volume ratio, which together with the high porosity of the material enhances its interaction with gas molecules. MOF crystals were soft-imprinted into cellulose acetate (CA) films on quartz at different pressures. Atomic force microscope images of soft-imprinted films showed that MOF crystals were partially embedded into the CA. With this procedure, mechanically stable films were created, with crystals protruding from the CA surface and therefore available for incoming gas molecules. The sensing properties of the films were assessed by exposing them to saturated atmospheres of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, which resulted in a substantial quenching of the fluorescence after few seconds. The soft-imprinted MOF films on CA/quartz exhibit good sensing capabilities for the detection of nitroaromatics, which was attributed to the MOF sensitivity and to the novel and more efficient film processing method based on soft-imprinting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue Performance of Ti-6Al-4V Additively Manufactured Specimens with Integrated Capillaries of an Embedded Structural Health Monitoring System
Materials 2017, 10(9), 993; doi:10.3390/ma10090993
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals offers new possibilities for the production of complex structures. Up to now, investigations on the mechanical response of AM metallic parts show a significant spread and unexpected failures cannot be excluded. In this work, we focus on the
[...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals offers new possibilities for the production of complex structures. Up to now, investigations on the mechanical response of AM metallic parts show a significant spread and unexpected failures cannot be excluded. In this work, we focus on the detection of fatigue cracks through the integration of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system in Ti-6Al-4V specimens. The working principle of the presented system is based on the integration of small capillaries that are capable of detecting fatigue cracks. Four-point bending fatigue tests have been performed on Ti-6Al-4V specimens with integrated capillaries and compared to the reference specimenswithout capillaries. Specimens were produced by conventional subtractive manufacturing of wrought material and AM, using the laser based Directed Energy Deposition (DED) process. In this study, we investigated the effect of the presence of the capillary on the fatigue strength and fatigue initiation location. Finite element (FEM) simulations were performed to validate the experimental test results. The presence of a drilled capillary in the specimens did not alter the fatigue initiation location. However, the laser based DED production process introduced roughness on the capillary surface that altered the fatigue initiation location to the capillary surface. The fatigue performance was greatly reduced when considering a printed capillary. It is concluded that the surface quality of the integrated capillary is of primary importance in order not to influence the structural integrity of the component to be monitored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Growth Description for Vessel Wall Adaptation: A Thick-Walled Mixture Model of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Evolution
Materials 2017, 10(9), 994; doi:10.3390/ma10090994
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Vascular tissue seems to adapt towards stable homeostatic mechanical conditions, however, failure of reaching homeostasis may result in pathologies. Current vascular tissue adaptation models use many ad hoc assumptions, the implications of which are far from being fully understood; (2) Methods:
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(1) Background: Vascular tissue seems to adapt towards stable homeostatic mechanical conditions, however, failure of reaching homeostasis may result in pathologies. Current vascular tissue adaptation models use many ad hoc assumptions, the implications of which are far from being fully understood; (2) Methods: The present study investigates the plausibility of different growth kinematics in modeling Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) evolution in time. A structurally motivated constitutive description for the vessel wall is coupled to multi-constituent tissue growth descriptions; Constituent deposition preserved either the constituent’s density or its volume, and Isotropic Volume Growth (IVG), in-Plane Volume Growth (PVG), in-Thickness Volume Growth (TVG) and No Volume Growth (NVG) describe the kinematics of the growing vessel wall. The sensitivity of key modeling parameters is explored, and predictions are assessed for their plausibility; (3) Results: AAA development based on TVG and NVG kinematics provided not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively different results compared to IVG and PVG kinematics. Specifically, for IVG and PVG kinematics, increasing collagen mass production accelerated AAA expansion which seems counterintuitive. In addition, TVG and NVG kinematics showed less sensitivity to the initial constituent volume fractions, than predictions based on IVG and PVG; (4) Conclusions: The choice of tissue growth kinematics is of crucial importance when modeling AAA growth. Much more interdisciplinary experimental work is required to develop and validate vascular tissue adaption models, before such models can be of any practical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Modelling of Biological Tissues and Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on Fatigue Behaviour of Shot-Peened Open-Hole Steel Plates
Materials 2017, 10(9), 996; doi:10.3390/ma10090996
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study on the fatigue behaviour of shot-peened open-hole plates with Q345 steel. The beneficial effects induced by shot peening on the fatigue life improvement are highlighted. The characteristic fatigue crack initiation and propagation modes of open-hole details under
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an experimental study on the fatigue behaviour of shot-peened open-hole plates with Q345 steel. The beneficial effects induced by shot peening on the fatigue life improvement are highlighted. The characteristic fatigue crack initiation and propagation modes of open-hole details under fatigue loading are revealed. The surface hardening effect brought by the shot peening is analyzed from the aspects of in-depth micro-hardness and compressive residual stress. The fatigue life results are evaluated and related design suggestions are made as a comparison with codified detail categories. In particular, a fracture mechanics theory-based method is proposed and demonstrated its validity in predicting the fatigue life of studied shot-peened open-hole details. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhancing the Ignition, Hardness and Compressive Response of Magnesium by Reinforcing with Hollow Glass Microballoons
Materials 2017, 10(9), 997; doi:10.3390/ma10090997
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnesium (Mg)/glass microballoons (GMB) metal matrix syntactic foams (1.47–1.67 g/cc) were synthesized using a disintegrated melt deposition (DMD) processing route. Such syntactic foams are of great interest to the scientific community as potential candidate materials for the ever-changing demands in automotive, aerospace, and
[...] Read more.
Magnesium (Mg)/glass microballoons (GMB) metal matrix syntactic foams (1.47–1.67 g/cc) were synthesized using a disintegrated melt deposition (DMD) processing route. Such syntactic foams are of great interest to the scientific community as potential candidate materials for the ever-changing demands in automotive, aerospace, and marine sectors. The synthesized composites were evaluated for their microstructural, thermal, and compressive properties. Results showed that microhardness and the dimensional stability of pure Mg increased with increasing GMB content. The ignition response of these foams was enhanced by ~22 °C with a 25 wt % GMB addition to the Mg matrix. The authors of this work propose a new parameter, ignition factor, to quantify the superior ignition performance that the developed Mg foams exhibit. The room temperature compressive strengths of pure Mg increased with the addition of GMB particles, with Mg-25 wt % GMB exhibiting the maximum compressive yield strength (CYS) of 161 MPa and an ultimate compressive strength (UCS) of 232 MPa for a GMB addition of 5 wt % in Mg. A maximum failure strain of 37.7% was realized in Mg-25 wt % GMB foam. The addition of GMB particles significantly enhanced the energy absorption by ~200% prior to compressive failure for highest filler loading, as compared to pure Mg. Finally, microstructural changes in Mg owing to the presence of hollow GMB particles were elaborately discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Green Composites Based on Blends of Polypropylene with Liquid Wood Reinforced with Hemp Fibers: Thermomechanical Properties and the Effect of Recycling Cycles
Materials 2017, 10(9), 998; doi:10.3390/ma10090998
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 26 August 2017
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Abstract
Green composites from polypropylene and lignin-based natural material were manufactured using a melt extrusion process. The lignin-based material used was the so called “liquid wood”. The PP/“Liquid Wood” blends were extruded with “liquid wood” content varying from 20 wt % to 80 wt
[...] Read more.
Green composites from polypropylene and lignin-based natural material were manufactured using a melt extrusion process. The lignin-based material used was the so called “liquid wood”. The PP/“Liquid Wood” blends were extruded with “liquid wood” content varying from 20 wt % to 80 wt %. The blends were thoroughly characterized by flexural, impact, and dynamic mechanical testing. The addition of the Liquid Wood resulted in a great improvement in terms of both the flexural modulus and strength but, on the other hand, a reduction of the impact strength was observed. For one blend composition, the composites reinforced with hemp fibers were also studied. The addition of hemp allowed us to further improve the mechanical properties. The composite with 20 wt % of hemp, subjected to up to three recycling cycles, showed good mechanical property retention and thermal stability after recycling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Materials, Eco-design and 3D Printing)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Desirable Porous Cell Structure Polylactide/Wood Flour Composite Foams Assisted by Chain Extender
Materials 2017, 10(9), 999; doi:10.3390/ma10090999
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 26 August 2017
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Abstract
Polylactide (PLA)/wood flour composite foam were prepared through a batch foaming process. The effect of the chain extender on the crystallization behavior and dynamic rheological properties of the PLA/wood flour composites were investigated as well as the crystal structure and cell morphology of
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Polylactide (PLA)/wood flour composite foam were prepared through a batch foaming process. The effect of the chain extender on the crystallization behavior and dynamic rheological properties of the PLA/wood flour composites were investigated as well as the crystal structure and cell morphology of the composite foams. The incorporation of the chain extender enhanced the complex viscosity and storage modulus of PLA/wood flour composites, indicating the improved melt elasticity. The chain extender also led to a decreased crystallization rate and final crystallinity of PLA/wood flour composites. With an increasing chain extender content, a finer and more uniform cell structure was formed, and the expansion ratio of PLA/wood flour composite foams was much higher than without the chain extender. Compared to the unfoamed composites, the crystallinity of the foamed PLA/wood flour composites was improved and the crystal was loosely packed. However, the new crystalline form was not evident. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Heat Treatment on the Emission Color of P-Doped Ca2SiO4 Phosphor
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1000; doi:10.3390/ma10091000
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 26 August 2017
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Abstract
In a series of (Ca2–x/2–yEuyx/2)(Si1–xPx)O4 (x = 0.06, 0.02 ≤ y ≤0.5), various color-emitting phosphors were successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction. These phosphors were characterized
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In a series of (Ca2–x/2–yEuyx/2)(Si1–xPx)O4 (x = 0.06, 0.02 ≤ y ≤0.5), various color-emitting phosphors were successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction. These phosphors were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. We evaluated the effect of heat treatment on PL properties with various annealing temperatures at 1373–1773 K for 4 h before/after reduction treatment from Eu3+ to Eu2+. In the red-emitting (Ca1.95Eu3+0.020.03)(Si0.94P0.06)O4+δ phosphor, the highest PL intensity exhibited when it was annealed at 1773 K. On the other hand, in the green-emitting (Ca1.95Eu2+0.020.03)(Si0.94P0.06)O4 phosphor, the highest PL intensity was realized when it was annealed at 1473 K and consequently treated under a reductive atmosphere. With increasing annealing temperature, the emission peak wavelength steadily decreased. Furthermore, with increasing Eu2+ content, the emission peak wavelength increased, with the color of emitting light becoming yellowish. Thus, the PL properties of the phosphors were affected by both the structural change from β to α’L, which occurred by heat treatment, and the amount of doped Eu ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Azo-Dyes Degradation Performance of Fe-Si-B-P Nanoporous Architecture
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1001; doi:10.3390/ma10091001
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 27 August 2017
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Abstract
Nanoporous structures were fabricated from Fe76Si9B10P5 amorphous alloy annealed at 773 K by dealloying in 0.05 M H2SO4 solution, as a result of preferential dissolution of α-Fe grains in form of the micro-coupling
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Nanoporous structures were fabricated from Fe76Si9B10P5 amorphous alloy annealed at 773 K by dealloying in 0.05 M H2SO4 solution, as a result of preferential dissolution of α-Fe grains in form of the micro-coupling cells between α-Fe and cathodic residual phases. Nanoporous Fe-Si-B-P powders exhibit much better degradation performance to methyl orange and direct blue azo dyes compared with gas-atomized Fe76Si9B10P5 amorphous powders and commercial Fe powders. The degradation reaction rate constants of nanoporous powders are almost one order higher than those of the amorphous counterpart powders and Fe powders, accompanying with lower activation energies of 19.5 and 26.8 kJ mol−1 for the degradation reactions of methyl orange and direct blue azo dyes, respectively. The large surface area of the nanoporous structure, and the existence of metalloids as well as residual amorphous phase with high catalytic activity are responsible for the enhanced azo-dyes degradation performance of the nanoporous Fe-Si-B-P powders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid Removal of Zinc(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using a Mesoporous Activated Carbon Prepared from Agricultural Waste
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1002; doi:10.3390/ma10091002
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
A low-cost activated carbon (XSBLAC) prepared from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Bunge hull via chemical activation was investigated to determine its adsorption and desorption properties for zinc(II) ions from aqueous solutions. XSBLAC was characterized based on its N2-adsorption/desorption isotherm, EDX, XRD, SEM and
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A low-cost activated carbon (XSBLAC) prepared from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Bunge hull via chemical activation was investigated to determine its adsorption and desorption properties for zinc(II) ions from aqueous solutions. XSBLAC was characterized based on its N2-adsorption/desorption isotherm, EDX, XRD, SEM and FTIR results. An adsorption study was conducted in a series of experiments to optimize the process variables for zinc(II) removal using XSBLAC. Modeling the adsorption kinetics indicated good agreement between the experimental data and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir equilibrium isotherm fit the experimental data reasonably well. The calculated enthalpy (ΔH0), entropy (ΔS0) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG0) values revealed the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. HNO3 displayed the best desorption performance. The adsorption mechanism was investigated in detail through FTIR and SEM/EDX spectroscopic analyses. The results suggested that XSBLAC is a potential biosorbent for removing zinc(II) from aqueous solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Model of Nonlinear Stress-Strain Relation for a Strand Made of Two Materials
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1003; doi:10.3390/ma10091003
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
Unlike conventional steel strands, the smart strand supports strain-measuring function and adopts different materials for its core wire and helical wires. This study intends to analytically derive the nonlinear stress-strain model of this strand made of two materials. The effect of the bending
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Unlike conventional steel strands, the smart strand supports strain-measuring function and adopts different materials for its core wire and helical wires. This study intends to analytically derive the nonlinear stress-strain model of this strand made of two materials. The effect of the bending moment and torsional moment of the helical wires on the overall load within the range of geometric shapes shown by actually used strands is verified to be negligible and is thus ignored in order to simplify the analytical model. Moreover, the slight difference between the actual and analytic behaviors, which only appears in the slope varying part in the case of bilinear behavior, such as that of steel, is also ignored. The proposed constitutive model of the smart strand obtained by introducing the experimental stress-strain relation between the carbon fiber reinforced polymer core wire and the helical steel wires is in good agreement with the experimental data. The previous analytical models are applicable only to strands made of a unique linear material, whereas the model proposed in this study is also applicable to strands in which the core wire and the helical wires are made of two different materials, exhibiting nonlinear behavior. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Preparation of Ag Nanoparticle and Ink Used for Inkjet Printing of Paper Based Conductive Patterns
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1004; doi:10.3390/ma10091004
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 12 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
Ag nanoparticles were successfully prepared using a liquid reduction method with a suitable mixture reductant of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ethylene glycol (EG). OP-10 as a dispersing agent, was used to prepare the conductive Ag ink. Ag nanoparticles with an average particle size
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Ag nanoparticles were successfully prepared using a liquid reduction method with a suitable mixture reductant of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ethylene glycol (EG). OP-10 as a dispersing agent, was used to prepare the conductive Ag ink. Ag nanoparticles with an average particle size of 40 nm were prepared while the ratio of PEG to EG was 1:2. Meanwhile, the Ag particles had a narrow size distribution and great dispersion performance. The effects of paper substrates, sintering temperature, and sintering time on the conductivity of the printed Ag ink pattern were also studied. It was found that Lucky porous high glossy photo paper was a good candidate as the printing substrate. The resistivity of the printed pattern could reach 5.1 × 10−3 Ω·cm after heated at 100 °C for 2 h. Hence, the printed pattern showed good conductivity which led to the LED light being on. Furthermore, the Ag nanoparticle ink could be printed to form any pattern as required that still showed good electrical conductivity after being sintered under low-temperature. This could provide new possibilities for the preparation of flexible electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Simulation of Droplets Behavior of Cu-Pb Immiscible Alloys Solidifying under Magnetic Field
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1005; doi:10.3390/ma10091005
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
A model has been presented for the coarsening of the dispersed phase of liquid-liquid two-phase mixtures in Cu-Pb alloys under the effect of a high magnetic field (HMF). The numerical results show that the evolution of size distribution is the result of several
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A model has been presented for the coarsening of the dispersed phase of liquid-liquid two-phase mixtures in Cu-Pb alloys under the effect of a high magnetic field (HMF). The numerical results show that the evolution of size distribution is the result of several factors and the diffusional growth, the collision-coagulation of the Cu-rich droplets (gravity sedimentation and Marangoni migration), and melt flow also have obvious effects on the movement of droplets and coarsening process. The effect of the HMF in the coarsening process of Cu-Pb alloy is studied in this work both by simulation and experiment. The analysis shows that the HMF leads to a decrease in the melt flow velocity, and can also lead to a decrease in the moving velocity of Cu-rich droplets. The HMF significantly reduces the coarsening rate of droplets as compared by the distribution evolutions. Finally, it is shown that droplet collision and coagulation can be dramatically retarded by the HMF. The results of the simulation are compared with the experiments performed with immiscible Cu-Pb alloys, and the discrepancy between theory and experiment is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Applications of Kaolinite Robustly Grafted by an Ionic Liquid with Naphthyl Functionality
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1006; doi:10.3390/ma10091006
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
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Abstract
Functionalization of the kaolinite (K) interlayer space is challenging. In this work, a new kaolinite-based nanohybridmaterial (K-NI) was successfully synthesized by grafting on the interlayer aluminol surfaces the ionic liquid, 1-(1-methylnaphthyl)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl) imidazolium chloride (NI), using a guest displacement strategy. A substantial increase of
[...] Read more.
Functionalization of the kaolinite (K) interlayer space is challenging. In this work, a new kaolinite-based nanohybridmaterial (K-NI) was successfully synthesized by grafting on the interlayer aluminol surfaces the ionic liquid, 1-(1-methylnaphthyl)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl) imidazolium chloride (NI), using a guest displacement strategy. A substantial increase of the basal spacing (10.8 Å) was obtained. This is a grafted derivative of kaolinite possessing one of the largest d-values. Washing in water for several days and other vigorous treatments such as sonication showed a minor effect on the integrity of the material. FTIR and 13C NMR confirmed the conservation of the structure of the ionic liquid after the grafting. Thermal analysis confirmed the presence of grafted material and was used to estimate the abundance of the grafted ionic liquid (0.44 mole per mole of kaolinite structural formula, (Al2Si2O5(OH)4)). By using cyclic voltammetry, the permeability of a film of K-NI for the bulky ferricyanide ions was demonstrated. The accumulation of nitrophenolate anions was effective (maximum capacity of 190 μmol/g), but was less important than what was expected due to the steric hindrance of the bulky grafted NI. Although the presence of chloride anions reduced the adsorption capacity, the affinity of the modified kaolinite interlayer space for the nitrophenolate anions was demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids: New Materials for Sensors and Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Formation Mechanism of Spherical TiC in Ni-Ti-C System during Combustion Synthesis
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1007; doi:10.3390/ma10091007
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
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Abstract
The formation mechanism of TiC particles in a Ni-Ti-C system were revealed by using differential thermal analysis (DTA), XRD, and SEM to identify the reaction products in different temperature ranges. The results indicated that the synthesis mechanism of TiC in Ni-Ti-C system was
[...] Read more.
The formation mechanism of TiC particles in a Ni-Ti-C system were revealed by using differential thermal analysis (DTA), XRD, and SEM to identify the reaction products in different temperature ranges. The results indicated that the synthesis mechanism of TiC in Ni-Ti-C system was complex; several reactions were involved in the combustion synthesis of TiC-Ni composite. The Ni-Ti intermediate phases play important roles during the formation of TiC. Moreover, the influence of heating rate on the size range of TiC was also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle How Stress Treatments Influence the Performance of Biodegradable Poly(Butylene Succinate)-Based Copolymers with Thioether Linkages for Food Packaging Applications
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1009; doi:10.3390/ma10091009
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 26 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)-based random copolymers containing thioether linkages (P(BSxTDGSy)) of various compositions have been investigated and characterized from the gas barrier, thermal, and mechanical point of view, after food contact simulants or thermal and photoaging processes. Each stress treatment was performed on
[...] Read more.
Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)-based random copolymers containing thioether linkages (P(BSxTDGSy)) of various compositions have been investigated and characterized from the gas barrier, thermal, and mechanical point of view, after food contact simulants or thermal and photoaging processes. Each stress treatment was performed on thin films and the results obtained have been compared to the same untreated film, used as a standard. Barrier properties with different gases (O2 and CO2) were evaluated, showing that the polymer chemical composition strongly influenced the permeability behavior. The relationships between the diffusion coefficients (D) and solubility (S) with polymer composition were also investigated. The results highlighted a correlation between polymer chemical structure and treatment. Gas transmission rate (GTR) mainly depending on the performed treatment, as GTR increased with the increase of TDGS co-unit amount. Thermal and mechanical tests allowed for the recording of variations in the degree of crystallinity and in the tensile properties. An increase in the crystallinity degree was recorded after contact with simulant liquids and aging treatments, together with a molecular weight decrease, a slight enhancement of the elastic modulus and a decrement of the elongation at break, proportional to the TDGS co-unit content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biobased Polymers for Packaging Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Dynamic Analysis in Semi-Analytical Finite Element Method
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1010; doi:10.3390/ma10091010
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
Analyses of dynamic responses are significantly important for the design, maintenance and rehabilitation of asphalt pavement. In order to evaluate the dynamic responses of asphalt pavement under moving loads, a specific computational program, SAFEM, was developed based on a semi-analytical finite element method.
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Analyses of dynamic responses are significantly important for the design, maintenance and rehabilitation of asphalt pavement. In order to evaluate the dynamic responses of asphalt pavement under moving loads, a specific computational program, SAFEM, was developed based on a semi-analytical finite element method. This method is three-dimensional and only requires a two-dimensional FE discretization by incorporating Fourier series in the third dimension. In this paper, the algorithm to apply the dynamic analysis to SAFEM was introduced in detail. Asphalt pavement models under moving loads were built in the SAFEM and commercial finite element software ABAQUS to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the SAFEM. The verification shows that the computational accuracy of SAFEM is high enough and its computational time is much shorter than ABAQUS. Moreover, experimental verification was carried out and the prediction derived from SAFEM is consistent with the measurement. Therefore, the SAFEM is feasible to reliably predict the dynamic response of asphalt pavement under moving loads, thus proving beneficial to road administration in assessing the pavement’s state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Theory, Experiment and Modelling of the Dynamic Response of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Coiling Temperature on Microstructure, Properties and Resistance to Fish-Scaling of Hot Rolled Enamel Steel
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1012; doi:10.3390/ma10091012
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
The microstructure, mechanical properties, and hydrogen permeation behavior of hot rolled enamel steel were investigated. Three coiling temperatures were adopted to gain different sizes of ferrite grain and TiC precipitates. The results show that a large number of interphase precipitates of nano-sized TiC
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The microstructure, mechanical properties, and hydrogen permeation behavior of hot rolled enamel steel were investigated. Three coiling temperatures were adopted to gain different sizes of ferrite grain and TiC precipitates. The results show that a large number of interphase precipitates of nano-sized TiC can be obtained at coiling temperatures of 650 and 700 °C, while a few precipitates are found in experimental steel when coiling temperature is 600 °C. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decrease with increasing coiling temperature, while elongation increases. The experimental steel has the best resistance to fish-scaling at coiling temperature of 700 °C, due to the large quantities of nano-sized interphase precipitates of TiC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Force Transmission Modes of Non-Cohesive and Cohesive Materials at the Critical State
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1014; doi:10.3390/ma10091014
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 26 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper investigates the force transmission modes, mainly described by probability density distributions, in non-cohesive dry and cohesive wet granular materials by discrete element modeling. The critical state force transmission patterns are focused on with the contact model effect being analyzed. By shearing
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This paper investigates the force transmission modes, mainly described by probability density distributions, in non-cohesive dry and cohesive wet granular materials by discrete element modeling. The critical state force transmission patterns are focused on with the contact model effect being analyzed. By shearing relatively dense and loose dry specimens to the critical state in the conventional triaxial loading path, it is observed that there is a unique critical state force transmission mode. There is a universe critical state force distribution pattern for both the normal contact forces and tangential contact forces. Furthermore, it is found that using either the linear Hooke or the non-linear Hertz model does not affect the universe force transmission mode, and it is only related to the grain size distribution. Wet granular materials are also simulated by incorporating a water bridge model. Dense and loose wet granular materials are tested, and the critical state behavior for the wet material is also observed. The critical state strength and void ratio of wet granular materials are higher than those of a non-cohesive material. The critical state inter-particle distribution is altered from that of a non-cohesive material with higher probability in relatively weak forces. Grains in non-cohesive materials are under compressive stresses, and their principal directions are mainly in the axial loading direction. However, for cohesive wet granular materials, some particles are in tension, and the tensile stresses are in the horizontal direction on which the confinement is applied. The additional confinement by the tensile stress explains the macro strength and dilatancy increase in wet samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Granular Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Research on the Mechanism of In-Plane Vibration on Friction Reduction
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1015; doi:10.3390/ma10091015
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
A modified model for predicting the friction force between drill-string and borehole wall under in-plane vibrations was developed. It was found that the frictional coefficient in sliding direction decreased significantly after applying in-plane vibration on the bottom specimen. The friction reduction is due
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A modified model for predicting the friction force between drill-string and borehole wall under in-plane vibrations was developed. It was found that the frictional coefficient in sliding direction decreased significantly after applying in-plane vibration on the bottom specimen. The friction reduction is due to the direction change of friction force, elastic deformation of surface asperities and the change of frictional coefficient. Normal load, surface topography, vibration direction, velocity ratio and interfacial shear factor are the main influence factors of friction force in sliding direction. Lower driving force can be realized for a pair of determinate rubbing surfaces under constant normal load by setting the driving direction along the minimum arithmetic average attack angle direction, and applying intense longitudinal vibration on the rubbing pair. The modified model can significantly improve the accuracy in predicting frictional coefficient under vibrating conditions, especially under the condition of lower velocity ratio. The results provide a theoretical gist for friction reduction technology by vibrating drill-string, and provide a reference for determination of frictional coefficient during petroleum drilling process, which has great significance for realizing digitized and intelligent drilling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In situ Observation of Phase Transformation in MnAl(C) Magnetic Materials
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1016; doi:10.3390/ma10091016
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
The phase transformation in two modes, including both displacive and massive growth of τ-phase from ε-MnAl(C), was observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy. The exact temperature range for different phase transformation modes was determined by magnetic measurements. The displacive growth of ε→τ
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The phase transformation in two modes, including both displacive and massive growth of τ-phase from ε-MnAl(C), was observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy. The exact temperature range for different phase transformation modes was determined by magnetic measurements. The displacive growth of ε→τ in Mn54Al46 (or Mn54Al46C2.44) occurs at temperatures below 650 K (or 766 K), above which both modes coexist. One-third or less of the ε-phase can be transformed into τ-phase via displacive mode while the remaining two-thirds or more via massive mode. In bulk τ-phase, most τ-nanocrystals formed via displacive mode are distributed in the matrix of large τ-grains that formed via massive mode. The typical massive growth rate of the τ-phase is 8–60 nm/s, while the displacive growth rate is low. A more complete understanding of the ε→τ phase transformations in the MnAl-based magnets was provided in this work, based on which the annealing process for ε→τ was optimized and thus high purity τ-phase with high saturation magnetization was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Precipitate Evolution on Austenite Grain Growth in RAFM Steel
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1017; doi:10.3390/ma10091017
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
To study the effects of various types of precipitates and precipitate evolution behavior on austenite (size and phase fraction) in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, RAFM steel was heated to various austenitizing temperatures. The microstructures of specimens were observed using optical microscopy (OM)
[...] Read more.
To study the effects of various types of precipitates and precipitate evolution behavior on austenite (size and phase fraction) in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, RAFM steel was heated to various austenitizing temperatures. The microstructures of specimens were observed using optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the M23C6 and MX precipitates gradually coarsen and dissolve into the matrix as the austenitizing temperatures increase. The M23C6 precipitates dissolve completely at 1100 °C, while the MX precipitates dissolve completely at 1200 °C. The evolution of two types of precipitate has a significant effect on the size of austenite. Based on the Zener pinning model, the effect of precipitate evolution on austenite grain size is quantified. It was found that the coarsening and dissolution of M23C6 and MX precipitates leads to a decrease in pinning pressure on grain boundaries, facilitating the rapid growth of austenite grains. The austenite phase fraction is also affected by the coarsening and dissolution of precipitates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energetic Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle The Efficacy of Electron Beam Irradiated Bacterial Cellulose Membranes as Compared with Collagen Membranes on Guided Bone Regeneration in Peri-Implant Bone Defects
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1018; doi:10.3390/ma10091018
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural polysaccharide produced by some bacteria, and consists of a linear polymer linked by β-(1,4) glycosidic bonds. BC has been developed as a material for tissue regeneration purposes. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of resorbable
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Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural polysaccharide produced by some bacteria, and consists of a linear polymer linked by β-(1,4) glycosidic bonds. BC has been developed as a material for tissue regeneration purposes. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of resorbable electron beam irradiated BC membranes (EI-BCMs) for guided bone regeneration (GBR). The electron beam irradiation (EI) was introduced to control the biodegradability of BC for dental applications. EI-BCMs had higher porosity than collagen membranes (CMs), and had similar wet tensile strengths to CMs. NIH3T3 cell adhesion and proliferation on EI-BCMs were not significantly different from those on CMs (p > 0.05). Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histometric analysis in peri-implant dehiscence defects of beagle dogs showed that EI-BCMs were non-significantly different from CMs in terms of new bone area (NBA; %), remaining bone substitute volume (RBA; %) and bone-to-implant contact (BIC; %) (p > 0.05). These results suggest resorbable EI-BCMs can be used as an alternative biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Biomaterials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Quantifying the Performance of P-Type Transparent Conducting Oxides by Experimental Methods
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1019; doi:10.3390/ma10091019
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Screening for potential new materials with experimental and theoretical methods has led to the discovery of many promising candidate materials for p-type transparent conducting oxides. It is difficult to reliably assess a good p-type transparent conducting oxide (TCO) from limited information available at
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Screening for potential new materials with experimental and theoretical methods has led to the discovery of many promising candidate materials for p-type transparent conducting oxides. It is difficult to reliably assess a good p-type transparent conducting oxide (TCO) from limited information available at an early experimental stage. In this paper we discuss the influence of sample thickness on simple transmission measurements and how the sample thickness can skew the commonly used figure of merit of TCOs and their estimated band gap. We discuss this using copper-deficient CuCrO 2 as an example, as it was already shown to be a good p-type TCO grown at low temperatures. We outline a modified figure of merit reducing thickness-dependent errors, as well as how modern ab initio screening methods can be used to augment experimental methods to assess new materials for potential applications as p-type TCOs, p-channel transparent thin film transistors, and selective contacts in solar cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Transparent Conducting Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Sol-Gel Derived Active Material for Yb Thin-Disk Lasers
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1020; doi:10.3390/ma10091020
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
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Abstract
A ytterbium doped active material for thin-disk laser was developed based on aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate glass matrices containing up to 30 mol% YbO1.5. Thick films and bulk samples were prepared by sol-gel processing. The structural nature of the base material was
[...] Read more.
A ytterbium doped active material for thin-disk laser was developed based on aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate glass matrices containing up to 30 mol% YbO1.5. Thick films and bulk samples were prepared by sol-gel processing. The structural nature of the base material was assessed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy and the film morphology was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of different compositions, including emission spectra and lifetimes, were also studied. Er3+ was used as an internal reference to compare the intensities of the Yb3+ PL peaks at ~ 1020 nm. The Yb3+ PL lifetimes were found to vary between 1.0 and 0.5 ms when the Yb concentration increased from 3 to 30 mol%. Based on a figure of merit, the best active material selected was the aluminosilicate glass composition 71 SiO2-14 AlO1.5-15 YbO1.5 (in mol%). An active disk, ~ 36 μm thick, consisting of a Bragg mirror, an aluminosilicate layer doped with 15 mol% Yb and an anti-reflective coating, was fabricated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sol-Gel Chemistry Applied to Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Photoswitchable Fluorescent Diarylethene Derivatives with Thiophene 1,1-Dioxide Groups: Effect of Alkyl Substituents at the Reactive Carbons
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1021; doi:10.3390/ma10091021
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 26 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
PDF Full-text (2369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Photoswitching and fluorescent properties of sulfone derivatives of 1,2-bis(2-alkyl-4-methyl-5-phenyl-3-thienyl)perfluorocyclopentene, 15, having methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, and i-butyl substituents at the reactive carbons (2- and 2′-positions) of the thiophene 1,1-dioxide rings were studied. Diarylethenes 15 underwent
[...] Read more.
Photoswitching and fluorescent properties of sulfone derivatives of 1,2-bis(2-alkyl-4-methyl-5-phenyl-3-thienyl)perfluorocyclopentene, 15, having methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, and i-butyl substituents at the reactive carbons (2- and 2′-positions) of the thiophene 1,1-dioxide rings were studied. Diarylethenes 15 underwent isomerization reactions between open-ring and closed-ring forms upon alternate irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) and visible light and showed fluorescence in the closed-ring forms. The alkyl substitution at the reactive carbons affects the fluorescent property of the closed-ring isomers. The closed-ring isomers 2b5b with ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, and i-butyl substituents show higher fluorescence quantum yields than 1b with methyl substituents. In polar solvents, the fluorescence quantum yield of 1b markedly decreases, while 2b5b maintain the relatively high fluorescence quantum yields. Although the cycloreversion quantum yields of the derivatives with methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and i-propyl substituents are quite low and in the order of 10−5, introduction of i-butyl substituents was found to increase the yield up to the order of 10−3. These results indicate that appropriate alkyl substitution at the reactive carbons is indispensable for properly controlling the photoswitching and fluorescent properties of the photoswitchable fluorescent diarylethenes, which are potentially applicable to super-resolution fluorescence microscopies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photoswitchable Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Relationship between Degree of Deformation in Quartz and Silica Dissolution for the Development of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1022; doi:10.3390/ma10091022
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents research on the influence of quartz deformation in aggregates for the development of the alkali-silica reaction in concrete and its relationship with silica dissolution. The study also compares these characteristics with the field behavior of such rocks in concrete. The
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This paper presents research on the influence of quartz deformation in aggregates for the development of the alkali-silica reaction in concrete and its relationship with silica dissolution. The study also compares these characteristics with the field behavior of such rocks in concrete. The paper proposes parameters to classify the different degrees of deformation of quartz. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of walls even in slightly deformed quartz, which indicate the presence of the internal paths available to react with the alkaline concrete pore solutions and point to the potential development of an alkali-silica reaction. The presence of the deformation bands in the quartz grains leads to the alkali aggregate reaction occurring more rapidly. The visible spectrophotometer test was performed to evaluate the dissolution potential of the different samples of deformed quartz, which confirmed that the reactivity of the quartz increases as the deformation of the crystalline structure increases. The parameters established in the present study could be verified by analyzing the behavior of reactive and innocuous aggregates from the buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle The Application of a Novel Ceramic Liner Improves Bonding between Zirconia and Veneering Porcelain
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1023; doi:10.3390/ma10091023
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
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Abstract
The adhesion of porcelain to zirconia is a key factor in the success of bilayered restorations. In this study, the efficacy of a novel experimental liner (EL) containing zirconia for improved bonding between zirconia and veneering porcelain was tested. Four ELs containing various
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The adhesion of porcelain to zirconia is a key factor in the success of bilayered restorations. In this study, the efficacy of a novel experimental liner (EL) containing zirconia for improved bonding between zirconia and veneering porcelain was tested. Four ELs containing various concentrations (0, 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 wt %) of zirconia were prepared. Testing determined the most effective EL (EL3 containing 3.0 wt % zirconia) in terms of shear bond strength value (n = 15). Three different bar-shaped zirconia/porcelain bilayer specimens were prepared for a three-point flexural strength (TPFS) test (n = 15): no-liner (NL), commercial liner (CL), and EL3. Specimens were tested for TPFS with the porcelain under tension and the maximum load was measured at the first sign of fracture. The strength data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05) as well as Weibull distribution. When compared to NL, the CL application had no effect, while the EL3 application had a significant positive effect (p < 0.001) on the flexural strength. Weibull analysis also revealed the highest shape and scale parameters for group EL3. Within the limitations of this study, the novel ceramic liner containing 3.0 wt % zirconia (EL3) significantly enhanced the zirconia/porcelain interfacial bonding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Scale Low-Entropy Method for Optimizing the Processing Parameters during Automated Fiber Placement
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1024; doi:10.3390/ma10091024
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 3 September 2017
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Abstract
Automated fiber placement (AFP) process includes a variety of energy forms and multi-scale effects. This contribution proposes a novel multi-scale low-entropy method aiming at optimizing processing parameters in an AFP process, where multi-scale effect, energy consumption, energy utilization efficiency and mechanical properties of
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Automated fiber placement (AFP) process includes a variety of energy forms and multi-scale effects. This contribution proposes a novel multi-scale low-entropy method aiming at optimizing processing parameters in an AFP process, where multi-scale effect, energy consumption, energy utilization efficiency and mechanical properties of micro-system could be taken into account synthetically. Taking a carbon fiber/epoxy prepreg as an example, mechanical properties of macro–meso–scale are obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM). A multi-scale energy transfer model is then established to input the macroscopic results into the microscopic system as its boundary condition, which can communicate with different scales. Furthermore, microscopic characteristics, mainly micro-scale adsorption energy, diffusion coefficient entropy–enthalpy values, are calculated under different processing parameters based on molecular dynamics method. Low-entropy region is then obtained in terms of the interrelation among entropy–enthalpy values, microscopic mechanical properties (interface adsorbability and matrix fluidity) and processing parameters to guarantee better fluidity, stronger adsorption, lower energy consumption and higher energy quality collaboratively. Finally, nine groups of experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the simulation results. The results show that the low-entropy optimization method can reduce void content effectively, and further improve the mechanical properties of laminates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulation of Advanced Composite Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Level of Theory and Solvent Effects on DASA Absorption Properties Prediction: Comparing TD-DFT, CASPT2 and NEVPT2
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1025; doi:10.3390/ma10091025
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 26 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 3 September 2017
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Abstract
Donor–acceptor Stenhouse adducts (DASAs) are a very recent class of organic photoswitches that combine excellent properties, such as color and polarity change, a large structural modification, and excellent fatigue resistance. Despite their potential applications in different fields, very few studies have focused on
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Donor–acceptor Stenhouse adducts (DASAs) are a very recent class of organic photoswitches that combine excellent properties, such as color and polarity change, a large structural modification, and excellent fatigue resistance. Despite their potential applications in different fields, very few studies have focused on rationalizing their electronic structure properties. Here, by means of different state-of-the-art theoretical methods, including solvent and vibrational effects, we show that while time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) can qualitatively describe DASAs’ excited states, multiconfigurational quantum chemistry methods along with dynamic electron correlation (CASPT2, NEVPT2) are required for a quantitative agreement with the experiment. This finding is reasoned based on the different charge transfer characteristics observed. Moreover, the TD-DFT computed two-photon absorption properties are reported and suggested to red-shift the absorption band, as required for biological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photoswitchable Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Eco-Friendly and Biodegradable Biopolymer Chitosan/Y2O3 Composite Materials in Flexible Organic Thin-Film Transistors
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1026; doi:10.3390/ma10091026
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 3 September 2017
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Abstract
The waste from semiconductor manufacturing processes causes serious pollution to the environment. In this work, a non-toxic material was developed under room temperature conditions for the fabrication of green electronics. Flexible organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) on plastic substrates are increasingly in demand due
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The waste from semiconductor manufacturing processes causes serious pollution to the environment. In this work, a non-toxic material was developed under room temperature conditions for the fabrication of green electronics. Flexible organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) on plastic substrates are increasingly in demand due to their high visible transmission and small size for use as displays and wearable devices. This work investigates and analyzes the structured formation of aqueous solutions of the non-toxic and biodegradable biopolymer, chitosan, blended with high-k-value, non-toxic, and biocompatible Y2O3 nanoparticles. Chitosan thin films blended with Y2O3 nanoparticles were adopted as the gate dielectric thin film in OTFTs, and an improvement in the dielectric properties and pinholes was observed. Meanwhile, the on/off current ratio was increased by 100 times, and a low leakage current was observed. In general, the blended chitosan/Y2O3 thin films used as the gate dielectric of OTFTs are non-toxic, environmentally friendly, and operate at low voltages. These OTFTs can be used on surfaces with different curvature radii because of their flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stretchable and Flexible Electronic Materials & Devices)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Design of Waveguide Bars for Transmitting a Pure Shear Horizontal Wave to Monitor High Temperature Components
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1027; doi:10.3390/ma10091027
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 6 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
Guided wave technique could be a possible method for monitoring components working in high temperature above 350 °C. However, this would require the design of an appropriate waveguide bar to transmit the wave, so that its sensing part is not influenced by the
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Guided wave technique could be a possible method for monitoring components working in high temperature above 350 °C. However, this would require the design of an appropriate waveguide bar to transmit the wave, so that its sensing part is not influenced by the high temperature. In the present study, the shape of waveguide bars is designed based on the analysis of wave source characteristics. The critical frequency-width and frequency-thickness products of waveguide bars are analyzed theoretically and numerically to transmit the zeroth shear horizontal wave SH0* in bars. The results show that waveguide bars can cut off all the other wave modes when their frequency-thickness products are smaller than the critical value fd*, and frequency-width products are not smaller than the critical value fw*. Six waveguide bars are designed and fabricated based on the design criteria, and an experiment system is set up to check their work performance. The testing results indicate that the wave signals of the SH0* mode propagate clearly in waveguide bars, and cut off all the other modes when the frequency-thickness products and frequency-width products of the bars meet the design criteria. It is also demonstrated that the dependency of the experimental group velocity of each waveguide bar on frequency is in good agreement with the numerical result. High-temperature experiments also validate the reliability of the designed waveguide bars. Therefore, the critical frequency-thickness product and frequency-width product can be the basis for the design of the waveguide bars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Poly(Neopentyl Glycol Furanoate): A Member of the Furan-Based Polyester Family with Smart Barrier Performances for Sustainable Food Packaging Applications
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1028; doi:10.3390/ma10091028
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of bioplastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In the present work, we
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In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of bioplastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In the present work, we focus on a new furan-based polyester, poly(neopentyl glycol 2,5-furanoate) (PNF) to be used for sustainable food packaging applications. The aromatic polyester was successfully synthesized with high molecular weight, through a solvent-free process, starting directly from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid. PNF was revealed to be a material with good thermal stability, characterized by a higher Tg and Tm and a lower RAF fraction compared to poly(propylene 2,5-furanoate) (PPF), ascribable to the two methyl side groups present in PNF glycol-sub-unit. PNF’s mechanical characteristics, i.e., very high elastic modulus and brittle fracture, were found to be similar to those of PPF and PEF. Barrier properties to different gases, temperatures and relative humidity were evaluated. From the results obtained, PNF was showed to be a material with very smart barrier performances, significantly superior with respect to PEF’s ones. Lastly, PNF’s permeability behavior did not appreciably change after contact with food simulants, whereas it got worse with increasing RH, due to the polar nature of furan ring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biobased Polymers for Packaging Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Abrasive Machining of Difficult-to-Cut Materials for Ultra-High-Speed Machining of AISI 304 Bars
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1029; doi:10.3390/ma10091029
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
This research proposes an optimized magnetic abrasive machining process that uses an ultra-high-speed system to perform precision machining on a workpiece. The system can process several microns of material, either for machining surface roughness or for machining a workpiece for a precise micro-diameter.
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This research proposes an optimized magnetic abrasive machining process that uses an ultra-high-speed system to perform precision machining on a workpiece. The system can process several microns of material, either for machining surface roughness or for machining a workpiece for a precise micro-diameter. The stainless steel workpieces have been machined using an ultra-high-speed magnetic abrasive machining (UHSMAM) process. The experiments were performed analyzing the accuracy of the machined workpiece diameter, using response surface methodology. The results obtained after machining have been analyzed to determine the effect of different process parameters such as machining speed, machining time, machining frequencies, inert gas in/out, magnetic pole types, and magnetic abrasive mesh size for the individual workpiece, as well as to study various interaction effects that may significantly affect the machining performance of the process. The obtained outcomes of the analysis for different workpieces have been critically compared to understand the effect of the considered process parameters based on the resulting mechanical properties. Regression analysis was used to confirm the stability of the micro-diameter and the processing efficiency. Atomic force microscope (AFM) micrographs were also obtained to study the surface morphology of the precision-machined workpiece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanoparticles for Oxygen Reduction Prepared via a Crushing Method Involving a High Shear Mixer
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1030; doi:10.3390/ma10091030
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
The disposal of agricultural wastes such as fresh banana peels (BPs) is an environmental issue. In this work, fresh BPs were successfully transformed into nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (N-CNPs) by using a high shear mixer facilitated crushing method (HSM-FCM) followed by carbonization under Ar
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The disposal of agricultural wastes such as fresh banana peels (BPs) is an environmental issue. In this work, fresh BPs were successfully transformed into nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (N-CNPs) by using a high shear mixer facilitated crushing method (HSM-FCM) followed by carbonization under Ar atmosphere. Ammonia-activated N-CNPs (N-CNPs-NH3) were prepared via subsequent ammonia activation treatments at a high temperature. The as-prepared N-CNPs and N-CNPs-NH3 materials both exhibited high surface areas (above 700 m2/g) and mean particle size of 50 nm. N-CNPs-NH3 showed a relatively higher content of pyridinic and graphitic N compared to N-CNPs. In alkaline media, N-CNPs-NH3 showed superior performances as an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst (E0 = −0.033 V, J = 2.4 mA/cm2) compared to N-CNPs (E0 = 0.07 V, J = 1.8 mA/cm2). In addition, N-CNPs-NH3 showed greater oxygen reduction stability and superior methanol crossover avoidance than a conventional Pt/C catalyst. This study provides a novel, simple, and scalable approach to valorize biomass wastes by synthesizing highly efficient electrochemical ORR catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Activated Carbons)
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Open AccessArticle Study of Gravity Effects on Titanium Laser Welding in the Vertical Position
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1031; doi:10.3390/ma10091031
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
To obtain satisfactory welds in positional laser beam welding, it is necessary to know how process parameters will influence the quality of welds in different welding positions. In this study, the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V sheets were laser welded in two vertical welding positions
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To obtain satisfactory welds in positional laser beam welding, it is necessary to know how process parameters will influence the quality of welds in different welding positions. In this study, the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V sheets were laser welded in two vertical welding positions (vertical up and vertical down), and the appearance, porosity, strength, and ductility of the laser joints were evaluated. Results show that undercuts of the vertical up welds were greater than that of vertical down welds, while the porosity contents were much higher in vertical down welds than that in vertical up welds. When welding with a higher heat input, the vertical up welding position resulted in poor weld profiles (undercuts and burn-through holes), whereas the vertical down welding position led to excessive porosity contents in welds. Both severe undercut and excessive porosity were detrimental to the tensile properties of the welds. Weld appearance was improved and porosity contents were reduced by using a lower heat input, achieving better weld quality. Therefore, it is suggested that process parameter settings with relatively high laser powers and welding speeds, which can result in lower heat inputs, are used when laser welding the Ti6Al4V titanium alloys vertically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Piezoresponse Force Microscopy Study of CaxBa1−xNb2O6 Single Crystals
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1032; doi:10.3390/ma10091032
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
Polar structures of CaxBa1−xNb2O6 (CBN100x) single crystals were investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy. Increasing Ca content results in decreasing domain size and enhancement of the polar disorder. For the composition with x =
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Polar structures of CaxBa1−xNb2O6 (CBN100x) single crystals were investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy. Increasing Ca content results in decreasing domain size and enhancement of the polar disorder. For the composition with x = 0.32 the characteristic domain size is similar to that reported for relaxor Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 (SBN61). However, decay of an artificial macroscopic domain in CBN32 takes place below the macroscopic transition temperature, contrary to SBN61, where random fields stabilize it above the transition temperature. We can conclude that CBN with 0.26 ≤ x ≤ 0.32 does not display classical relaxor behavior and might be considered as a disordered ferroelectric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scanning Probe Microscopy of Ferroics)
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Open AccessArticle Electron Beam Welding of IN792 DS: Effects of Pass Speed and PWHT on Microstructure and Hardness
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1033; doi:10.3390/ma10091033
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
Electron Beam (EB) welding has been used to realize seams on 2 mm-thick plates of directionally solidified (DS) IN792 superalloy. The first part of this work evidenced the importance of pre-heating the workpiece to avoid the formation of long cracks in the seam.
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Electron Beam (EB) welding has been used to realize seams on 2 mm-thick plates of directionally solidified (DS) IN792 superalloy. The first part of this work evidenced the importance of pre-heating the workpiece to avoid the formation of long cracks in the seam. The comparison of different pre-heating temperatures (PHT) and pass speeds (v) allowed the identification of optimal process parameters, namely PHT = 300 °C and v = 2.5 m/min. The microstructural features of the melted zone (MZ); the heat affected zone (HAZ), and base material (BM) were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-hardness tests. In the as-welded condition; the structure of directionally oriented grains was completely lost in MZ. The γ’ phase in MZ consisted of small (20–40 nm) round shaped particles and its total amount depended on both PHT and welding pass speed, whereas in HAZ, it was the same BM. Even if the amount of γ’ phase in MZ was lower than that of the as-received material, the nanometric size of the particles induced an increase in hardness. EDS examinations did not show relevant composition changes in the γ’ and γ phases. Post-welding heat treatments (PWHT) at 700 and 750 °C for two hours were performed on the best samples. After PWHTs, the amount of the ordered phase increased, and the effect was more pronounced at 750 °C, while the size of γ’ particles in MZ remained almost the same. The hardness profiles measured across the joints showed an upward shift, but peak-valley height was a little lower, indicating more homogeneous features in the different zones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Force Microscopy of Nanostructured Co/Pt Multilayer Films with Perpendicular Magnetization
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1034; doi:10.3390/ma10091034
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
We present the results of magnetic force microscopy investigations of domain structures in multilayer [Co (0.5 nm)/Pt (1 nm)]5 thin film structures (denoted hereafter as Co/Pt) modified by additional Co capping layers and by ion irradiation. It is demonstrated that a Co
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We present the results of magnetic force microscopy investigations of domain structures in multilayer [Co (0.5 nm)/Pt (1 nm)]5 thin film structures (denoted hereafter as Co/Pt) modified by additional Co capping layers and by ion irradiation. It is demonstrated that a Co capping layer essentially changes the domain structure and decreases the threshold of magnetization reversal, due to the formation of noncollinear magnetization in Co/Pt. It is shown that local irradiation with a focused He+ ion beam enables the formation of regions with decreased easy-axis anisotropy (magnetic bubbles) that have the inverse magnetization direction in the demagnetized state of Co/Pt. The experimental results demonstrate that the magnetic bubbles can be switched using a probe of a magnetic force microscope. The possible application of these effects for the development of magnetic logic and data storage systems is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scanning Probe Microscopy of Ferroics)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Humidity-Sensitive Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Inverse Opal Micropatterns Using Colloidal Lithography
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1035; doi:10.3390/ma10091035
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
Humidity-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) inverse opals with micropatterns of 2 μm wide anti-swell-broken grooves were prepared using polystyrene (PS) colloidal crystals as templates and colloidal lithography. Monodisperse PS colloids were deposited in an ordered manner onto glass slides using a double-substrate vertical deposition
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Humidity-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) inverse opals with micropatterns of 2 μm wide anti-swell-broken grooves were prepared using polystyrene (PS) colloidal crystals as templates and colloidal lithography. Monodisperse PS colloids were deposited in an ordered manner onto glass slides using a double-substrate vertical deposition method to form colloidal crystal templates. Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) with photoinitiator was infiltrated into the interspaces of the colloidal crystals and photo-crosslinked by UV irradiation through a photomask. After removal the PS templates and unexposed PEGDA by tetrahydrofuran (THF), PEG hydrogel micropatterns with three-dimensional ordered porous structures were obtained. The band gaps of the PS colloidal crystals and corresponding PEG hydrogel inverse opals were measured by UV-VIS reflection spectrometer, calculated by Bragg law and simulated by Band SOLVE. The obtained PEG hydrogel inverse opal micropatterns can be used as sensors for humidity sensing due to absorption and desorption of moisture in the band gap structures. The sensor had a very reliable performance after repeated humidity sensing, and could be mass produced facilely with very low cost. The photopatterned anti-swell-broken grooves play an important role in the reliability of the sensors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improving the Mechanical Properties of Cu-15Ni-8Sn Alloys by Addition of Titanium
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1038; doi:10.3390/ma10091038
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
The effect of Ti addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloys was investigated. Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to determine grain size and distribution of the second phases in the alloys.
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The effect of Ti addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloys was investigated. Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to determine grain size and distribution of the second phases in the alloys. The results indicate that the tensile properties of Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloys are improved significantly with Ti addition. Tensile elongation increased from 2.7% for the alloy without Ti to 17.9% for the alloy with 0.3% Ti, while tensile strength was maintained and even increased from 935 MPa to 1024 MPa. The improvement of the mechanical properties of Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloys by the addition of Ti is attributed to the grain refinement and suppression of discontinuous precipitation during heat treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Compression Fracture of CFRP Laminates Containing Stress Intensifications
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1039; doi:10.3390/ma10091039
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
For brittle fracture behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) under compression, several approaches exist, which describe different mechanisms during failure, especially at stress intensifications. The failure process is not only initiated by the buckling fibres, but a shear driven fibre compressive failure
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For brittle fracture behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) under compression, several approaches exist, which describe different mechanisms during failure, especially at stress intensifications. The failure process is not only initiated by the buckling fibres, but a shear driven fibre compressive failure beneficiaries or initiates the formation of fibres into a kink-band. Starting from this kink-band further damage can be detected, which leads to the final failure. The subject of this work is an experimental investigation on the influence of ply thickness and stacking sequence in quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates containing stress intensifications under compression loading. Different effects that influence the compression failure and the role the stacking sequence has on damage development and the resulting compressive strength are identified and discussed. The influence of stress intensifications is investigated in detail at a hole in open hole compression (OHC) tests. A proposed interrupted test approach allows identifying the mechanisms of damage initiation and propagation from the free edge of the hole by causing a distinct damage state and examine it at a precise instant of time during fracture process. Compression after impact (CAI) tests are executed in order to compare the OHC results to a different type of stress intensifications. Unnotched compression tests are carried out for comparison as a reference. With this approach, a more detailed description of the failure mechanisms during the sudden compression failure of CFRP is achieved. By microscopic examination of single plies from various specimens, the different effects that influence the compression failure are identified. First damage of fibres occurs always in 0°-ply. Fibre shear failure leads to local microbuckling and the formation and growth of a kink-band as final failure mechanisms. The formation of a kink-band and finally steady state kinking is shifted to higher compressive strains with decreasing ply thickness. Final failure mode in laminates with stress intensification depends on ply thickness. In thick or inner plies, damage initiates as shear failure and fibre buckling into the drilled hole. The kink-band orientation angle is changing with increasing strain. In outer or thin plies shear failure of single fibres is observed as first damage and the kink-band orientation angle is constant until final failure. Decreasing ply thickness increases the unnotched compressive strength. When stress intensifications are present, the position of the 0°-layer is critical for stability under compression and is thus more important than the ply thickness. Central 0°-layers show best results for OHC and CAI strength due to higher bending stiffness and better supporting effect of the adjacent layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Brittle Failure of Different Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Silane Coupling Agent on Tribological Properties of Hemp Fiber-Reinforced Plant-Derived Polyamide 1010 Biomass Composites
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1040; doi:10.3390/ma10091040
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
We have studied the effects of silane coupling agents used for the surface treatment of fiber on the tribological properties of hemp fiber (HF) reinforced plant-derived polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two surface treatment methods: (a) alkali treatment
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We have studied the effects of silane coupling agents used for the surface treatment of fiber on the tribological properties of hemp fiber (HF) reinforced plant-derived polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two surface treatment methods: (a) alkali treatment by sodium hydroxide solution and (b) surface treatment by silane coupling agents. Three types of silane coupling agents, namely aminosilane, epoxysilane and ureidosilane were used. These HF/PA1010 biomass composites were extruded using a twin extruder, and injection-molded. The mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated by the ring-on-plate type sliding wear test. It was found that tribological properties of HF/PA1010 biomass composites improved with the surface treatment by the silane coupling agent. This may be attributed to the change in the mode of friction and wear mechanism by the interfacial adhesion between fiber and matrix polymer according to the type of silane coupling agent used. In particular, the ureidosilane coupling agent showed the best improvement effect for the tribological properties of these biomass composites in this study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring Ion Track Formation Using In Situ RBS/c, ToF-ERDA, and HR-PIXE
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1041; doi:10.3390/ma10091041
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of ion beam analysis techniques for monitoring swift heavy ion track formation. First, the use of the in situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode to observe damage build-up in quartz SiO2
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The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of ion beam analysis techniques for monitoring swift heavy ion track formation. First, the use of the in situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode to observe damage build-up in quartz SiO2 after MeV heavy ion irradiation is demonstrated. Second, new results of the in situ grazing incidence time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis used for monitoring the surface elemental composition during ion tracks formation in various materials are presented. Ion tracks were found on SrTiO3, quartz SiO2, a-SiO2, and muscovite mica surfaces by atomic force microscopy, but in contrast to our previous studies on GaN and TiO2, surface stoichiometry remained unchanged. Third, the usability of high resolution particle induced X-ray spectroscopy for observation of electronic dynamics during early stages of ion track formation is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Beam Analysis, Modification, and Irradiation of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Biological Evaluation of Flexible Polyurethane/Poly l-Lactic Acid Composite Scaffold as a Potential Filler for Bone Regeneration
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1042; doi:10.3390/ma10091042
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Degradable bone graft substitute for large-volume bone defects is a continuously developing field in orthopedics. With the advance in biomaterial in past decades, a wide range of new materials has been investigated for their potential in this application. When compared to common biopolymers
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Degradable bone graft substitute for large-volume bone defects is a continuously developing field in orthopedics. With the advance in biomaterial in past decades, a wide range of new materials has been investigated for their potential in this application. When compared to common biopolymers within the field such as PLA or PCL, elastomers such as polyurethane offer some unique advantages in terms of flexibility. In cases of bone defect treatments, a flexible soft filler can help to establish an intimate contact with surrounding bones to provide a stable bone-material interface for cell proliferation and ingrowth of tissue. In this study, a porous filler based on segmented polyurethane incorporated with poly l-lactic acid was synthesized by a phase inverse salt leaching method. The filler was put through in vitro and in vivo tests to evaluate its potential in acting as a bone graft substitute for critical-sized bone defects. In vitro results indicated there was a major improvement in biological response, including cell attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression for osteoblast-like cells when seeded on the composite material compared to unmodified polyurethane. In vivo evaluation on a critical-sized defect model of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit indicated there was bone ingrowth along the defect area with the introduction of the new filler. A tight interface formed between bone and filler, with osteogenic cells proliferating on the surface. The result suggested polyurethane/poly l-lactic acid composite is a material with the potential to act as a bone graft substitute for orthopedics application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Medical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Simplified Models for the Material Characterization of Cold-Formed RHS
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1043; doi:10.3390/ma10091043
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
It is well known that the cold-forming process used to manufacture tubes causes an increase in both the yielding stress and the ultimate strength of the corner material in rectangular steel hollow sections. This may have a significant effect on the resistance of
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It is well known that the cold-forming process used to manufacture tubes causes an increase in both the yielding stress and the ultimate strength of the corner material in rectangular steel hollow sections. This may have a significant effect on the resistance of any structure built with those profiles. However, the mentioned material hardening can be difficult to take into account in the calculations for member design or to evaluate the connection resistance through the design formulation or when using numerical simulation models. As an attempt to face the above-mentioned problem, the present paper presents a comparison among simplified approaches that consider homogeneous material properties for the whole section. It has been carried out by comparing the results obtained from the finite element modelling of stub column tests in which the material properties based on the flat faces were considered for the whole profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Composite Fibers from Recycled Plastics Using Melt Centrifugal Spinning
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1044; doi:10.3390/ma10091044
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
New methods are being developed to enable the production of value-added materials from high-volume, low-cost feedstocks arising from domestic recycling streams. In this work, recycled bottle-grade polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, and polypropylene were spun into fibers from the melt using a centrifugal spinning technique.
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New methods are being developed to enable the production of value-added materials from high-volume, low-cost feedstocks arising from domestic recycling streams. In this work, recycled bottle-grade polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, and polypropylene were spun into fibers from the melt using a centrifugal spinning technique. Mono-component fibers and 50/50 blends of each polymer and a 33/33/33 blend of all three polymers were evaluated. Fiber morphology, chemistry, thermal, and mechanical properties were probed. Fiber diameters ranged from ca. 1 to over 12 µm, with polypropylene fibers having the smallest fiber diameters. Mono-component fibers were generally defect-free, while composite fibers containing polypropylene were beady. Fibers made from polyethylene terephthalate had the highest tensile strength, and the addition of polyethylene terephthalate to the other polymers improved the mechanical properties of the blends. Nano- and micro-fibers from both pure and mixed waste streams are expected to have applications in myriad areas such as ultra/micro-filtration, composites, and insulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tribological Properties of AlSi12-Al2O3 Interpenetrating Composite Layers in Comparison with Unreinforced Matrix Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1045; doi:10.3390/ma10091045
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Alumina–Aluminum composites with interpenetrating network structures are a new class of advanced materials with potentially better properties than composites reinforced by particles or fibers. Local casting reinforcement was proposed to take into account problems with the machinability of this type of materials and
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Alumina–Aluminum composites with interpenetrating network structures are a new class of advanced materials with potentially better properties than composites reinforced by particles or fibers. Local casting reinforcement was proposed to take into account problems with the machinability of this type of materials and the shaping of the finished products. The centrifugal infiltration process fabricated composite castings in the form of locally reinforced shafts. The main objective of the research presented in this work was to compare the tribological properties (friction coefficient, wear resistance) of AlSi12/Al2O3 interpenetrating composite layers with unreinforced AlSi12 matrix areas. Profilometric tests enabled both quantitative and qualitative analyses of the wear trace that formed on investigated surfaces. It has been shown that interpenetrating composite layers are characterized by lower and more stable coefficients of friction (μ), as well as higher wear resistance than unreinforced matrix areas. At the present stage, the study confirmed that the tribological properties of the composite layers depend on the spatial structure of the ceramic reinforcement, and primarily the volume and size of alumina foam cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Mo on Microstructures and Wear Properties of In Situ Synthesized Ti(C,N)/Ni-Based Composite Coatings by Laser Cladding
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1047; doi:10.3390/ma10091047
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Using Ni60 alloy, C, TiN and Mo mixed powders as the precursor materials, in situ synthesized Ti(C,N) particles reinforcing Ni-based composite coatings are produced on Ti6Al4V alloys by laser cladding. Phase constituents, microstructures and wear properties of the composite coatings with 0 wt
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Using Ni60 alloy, C, TiN and Mo mixed powders as the precursor materials, in situ synthesized Ti(C,N) particles reinforcing Ni-based composite coatings are produced on Ti6Al4V alloys by laser cladding. Phase constituents, microstructures and wear properties of the composite coatings with 0 wt % Mo, 4 wt % Mo and 8 wt % Mo additions are studied comparatively. Results indicate that Ti(C,N) is formed by the in situ metallurgical reaction, the (Ti,Mo)(C,N) rim phase surrounding the Ti(C,N) ceramic particle is synthesized with the addition of Mo, and the increase of Mo content is beneficial to improve the wear properties of the cladding coatings. Because of the effect of Mo, the grains are remarkably refined and a unique core-rim structure that is uniformly dispersed in the matrix appears; meanwhile, the composite coatings with Mo addition exhibit high hardness and excellent wear resistance due to the comprehensive action of dispersion strengthening, fine grain strengthening and solid solution strengthening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Study on Topology Optimization Design, Manufacturability, and Performance Evaluation of Ti-6Al-4V Porous Structures Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting (SLM)
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1048; doi:10.3390/ma10091048
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
The combination of topology optimization (TOP) and selective laser melting (SLM) provides the possibility of fabricating the complex, lightweight and high performance geometries overcoming the traditional manufacturing “bottleneck”. This paper evaluates the biomechanical properties of porous structures with porosity from 40% to 80%
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The combination of topology optimization (TOP) and selective laser melting (SLM) provides the possibility of fabricating the complex, lightweight and high performance geometries overcoming the traditional manufacturing “bottleneck”. This paper evaluates the biomechanical properties of porous structures with porosity from 40% to 80% and unit cell size from 2 to 8 mm, which are designed by TOP and manufactured by SLM. During manufacturability exploration, three typical structures including spiral structure, arched bridge structure and structures with thin walls and small holes are abstracted and investigated, analyzing their manufacturing limits and forming reason. The property tests show that dynamic elastic modulus and compressive strength of porous structures decreases with increases of porosity (constant unit cell size) or unit cell size (constant porosity). Based on the Gibson-Ashby model, three failure models are proposed to describe their compressive behavior, and the structural parameter λ is used to evaluate the stability of the porous structure. Finally, a numerical model for the correlation between porous structural parameters (unit cell size and porosity) and elastic modulus is established, which provides a theoretical reference for matching the elastic modulus of human bones from different age, gender and skeletal sites during innovative medical implant design and manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Healing Potential of Demineralized Dentin Matrix Fixed with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Bone Grafts
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1049; doi:10.3390/ma10091049
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) fixed with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) through an experimental and a clinical study. Unilateral upper second and third premolars of eight beagles were extracted. A mucoperiosteal flap was elevated around
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We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) fixed with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) through an experimental and a clinical study. Unilateral upper second and third premolars of eight beagles were extracted. A mucoperiosteal flap was elevated around the extraction socket, and a bone defect was made using a surgical drill. Each DDM was fixed with rhBMP-2, and autogenous bone was grafted at the bone defect area with a collagenous membrane. The beagles were euthanized at two, four, eight, and 12 weeks after receiving the bone graft. Block specimens involving grafted bone and surrounding natural bone were extracted. A total of 23 patients who received bone grafts using human DDM fixed with rhBMP-2 (AutoBT BMP) with implant placements (36 implants; maxilla: 14, mandible: 22) were selected. The implant stability, marginal bone loss, and clinical outcome were evaluated. Three trephine cores were harvested fourmonths after bone grafting, and histologic examination was performed. In the histological evaluation performed four weeks after the bone graft, autogenous bone showed 52% new bone formation and DDM fixed with rhBMP-2 showed 33% new bone formation. Twelve weeks after the bone graft, autogenous bone showed 75% new bone formation and DDM fixed with rhBMP-2 showed 48% new bone formation. In the clinical study, favorable osseointegration was obtained in 35 out of 36 implant sites (one case of osseointegration failure). In all cases, severe complications were not observed. Histomorphometrically, new bone formation was observed in 14.98% of the cases. The residual DDM particles were 6.22%. AutoBT BMP provides good osteoinductive and osteoconductive potential and clinical efficacy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of Early Strength of Cement Mortar Containing Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Using Industrial Byproducts
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1050; doi:10.3390/ma10091050
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
In the field of construction, securing the early strength of concrete (on the first and third days of aging) has been an important problem in deciding the mold release time (i.e., shortening the construction time period). Therefore, the problem of reduced compressive strength
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In the field of construction, securing the early strength of concrete (on the first and third days of aging) has been an important problem in deciding the mold release time (i.e., shortening the construction time period). Therefore, the problem of reduced compressive strength in the early aging stage caused by mixing granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) with concrete must certainly be resolved. In this study, we conduct experiments to explore methods for generating a concrete that develops an early strength equivalent to that of 100% OPC. The objective of this study is the development of an early-strength accelerator (ESA) made from an industrial by-product, for a GBFS-mixed cement mortar. This study also analyzes the mechanism of the early-strength generation in the concrete to evaluate the influence of the burning temperature of ESA on the optimal compressive strength of the concrete. According to the results of the experiment, GBFS, whose ESA is burnt at 800 °C, shows an activation factor of 102.6–104.7% in comparison with 100% OPC on the first and third days during early aging, thereby meeting the target compressive strength. The results of the micro-analytic experiment are as follows: ESA showed a pH of strongly alkaline. In addition, it was found that the content of SO3 was high in the chemical components, thus activating the hydration reaction of GBFS in the early age. This initial hydration reaction was thought to be due to the increase in the filling effect of the hydrate and the generation of C-S-H of the early age by the mass production of Ettringite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetoelectric Force Microscopy on Antiferromagnetic 180 Domains in Cr2O3
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1051; doi:10.3390/ma10091051
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Magnetoelectric force microscopy (MeFM) is characterized as methodical tool for the investigation of antiferromagnetic domain states, in particular of the 180 variety. As reference compound for this investigation we use Cr2O3. Access to the antiferromagnetic order is provided
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Magnetoelectric force microscopy (MeFM) is characterized as methodical tool for the investigation of antiferromagnetic domain states, in particular of the 180 variety. As reference compound for this investigation we use Cr 2 O 3 . Access to the antiferromagnetic order is provided by the linear magnetoelectric effect. We resolve the opposite antiferromagnetic 180 domain states of Cr 2 O 3 and estimate the sensitivity of the MeFM approach, its inherent advantages in comparison to alternative techniques and its general feasibility for probing antiferromagnetic order. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scanning Probe Microscopy of Ferroics)
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Open AccessArticle Release of VEGF from Dental Implant Improves Osteogenetic Process: Preliminary In Vitro Tests
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1052; doi:10.3390/ma10091052
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: During osseointegration process, the presence of an inflammatory event could negatively influence the proper osteogenetic ability of the implant surface. In order to reduce this possibility, an implementation of angiogenetic event through the release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) can be
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Introduction: During osseointegration process, the presence of an inflammatory event could negatively influence the proper osteogenetic ability of the implant surface. In order to reduce this possibility, an implementation of angiogenetic event through the release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) can be a tool as co-factor for osteoblastic differentiation. In this paper, novel dental implant surfaces enriched with VEGF have been tested. Material and methods: The ability of VEGF-enriched titanium implants to improve the osteogenetic properties of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), also in the presence of an inflammatory environment, have been in vitro tested. Molecular biology, morphological analyses, and biochemical tests have been performed in order to confirm biological properties of these surfaces. Results: Our results confirm that the presence of VEGF onto the implant surface is able not only to protect the cells from in vitro aging and from Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) damage, but it also improves their osteogenic and endothelial differentiation, even in the presence of inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: This study establishes a biologically powerful novel tool that could enhance bone repair in dental implant integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Multi-Pass Friction Stir Processing on Mechanical Properties for AA2024/Al2O3 Nanocomposites
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1053; doi:10.3390/ma10091053
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
In the present work, an aluminum metal matrix reinforced with (Al2O3) nanoparticles was fabricated as a surface composite sheet using friction stir processing (FSP). The effects of processing parameters on mechanical properties, hardness, and microstructure grain were investigated. The
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In the present work, an aluminum metal matrix reinforced with (Al2O3) nanoparticles was fabricated as a surface composite sheet using friction stir processing (FSP). The effects of processing parameters on mechanical properties, hardness, and microstructure grain were investigated. The results revealed that multi-pass FSP causes a homogeneous distribution and good dispersion of Al2O3 in the metal matrix, and consequently an increase in the hardness of the matrix composites. A finer grain is observed in the microstructure examination in specimens subjected to second and third passes of FSP. The improvement in the grain refinement is 80% compared to base metal. The processing parameters, particularly rotational tool speed and pass number in FSP, have a major effect on strength properties and surface hardness. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the average hardness are improved by 25% and 46%, respectively, due to presence of reinforcement Al2O3 nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Performance of Nanocomposite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Porcine Bone Scaffolds Adsorb Growth Factors Secreted by MSCs and Improve Bone Tissue Repair
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1054; doi:10.3390/ma10091054
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
An ideal tissue-engineered bone graft should have both excellent pro-osteogenesis and pro-angiogenesis properties to rapidly realize the bone regeneration in vivo. To meet this goal, in this work a porcine bone scaffold was successfully used as a Trojan horse to store growth factors
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An ideal tissue-engineered bone graft should have both excellent pro-osteogenesis and pro-angiogenesis properties to rapidly realize the bone regeneration in vivo. To meet this goal, in this work a porcine bone scaffold was successfully used as a Trojan horse to store growth factors produced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This new scaffold showed a time-dependent release of bioactive growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), in vitro. The biological effect of the growth factors-adsorbed scaffold on the in vitro commitment of MSCs into osteogenic and endothelial cell phenotypes has been evaluated. In addition, we have investigated the activity of growth factor-impregnated granules in the repair of critical-size defects in rat calvaria by means of histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biology analyses. Based on the results of our work bone tissue formation and markers for bone and vascularization were significantly increased by the growth factor-enriched bone granules after implantation. This suggests that the controlled release of active growth factors from porcine bone granules can enhance and promote bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Research on High Layer Thickness Fabricated of 316L by Selective Laser Melting
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1055; doi:10.3390/ma10091055
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Selective laser melting (SLM) is a potential additive manufacturing (AM) technology. However, the application of SLM was confined due to low efficiency. To improve efficiency, SLM fabrication with a high layer thickness and fine powder was systematically researched, and the void areas and
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Selective laser melting (SLM) is a potential additive manufacturing (AM) technology. However, the application of SLM was confined due to low efficiency. To improve efficiency, SLM fabrication with a high layer thickness and fine powder was systematically researched, and the void areas and hollow powders can be reduced by using fine powder. Single-track experiments were used to narrow down process parameter windows. Multi-layer fabrication relative density can be reached 99.99% at the exposure time-point distance-hatch space of 120 μs-40 μm-240 μm. Also, the building rate can be up to 12 mm3/s, which is about 3–10 times higher than the previous studies. Three typical defects were found by studying deeply, including the un-melted defect between the molten pools, the micro-pore defect within the molten pool, and the irregular distribution of the splashing phenomenon. Moreover, the microstructure is mostly equiaxed crystals and a small amount of columnar crystals. The averages of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation are 625 MPa, 525 MPa, and 39.9%, respectively. As exposure time increased from 80 μs to 200 μs, the grain size is gradually grown up from 0.98 μm to 2.23 μm, the grain aspect ratio is close to 1, and the tensile properties are shown as a downward trend. The tensile properties of high layer thickness fabricated are not significantly different than those with a coarse-powder layer thickness of low in previous research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Self-Assembled Gold Nano-Ripple Formation by Gas Cluster Ion Beam Bombardment
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1056; doi:10.3390/ma10091056
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we used a 30 keV argon cluster ion beam bombardment to investigate the dynamic processes during nano-ripple formation on gold surfaces. Atomic force microscope analysis shows that the gold surface has maximum roughness at an incident angle of 60° from
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In this study, we used a 30 keV argon cluster ion beam bombardment to investigate the dynamic processes during nano-ripple formation on gold surfaces. Atomic force microscope analysis shows that the gold surface has maximum roughness at an incident angle of 60° from the surface normal; moreover, at this angle, and for an applied fluence of 3 × 1016 clusters/cm2, the aspect ratio of the nano-ripple pattern is in the range of ~50%. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis reveals a formation of a surface gradient due to prolonged gas cluster ion bombardment, although the surface roughness remains consistent throughout the bombarded surface area. As a result, significant mass redistribution is triggered by gas cluster ion beam bombardment at room temperature. Where mass redistribution is responsible for nano-ripple formation, the surface erosion process refines the formed nano-ripple structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Beam Analysis, Modification, and Irradiation of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue Properties of the Ultra-High Strength Steel TM210A
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1057; doi:10.3390/ma10091057
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents the results of an experiment to investigate the high cycle fatigue properties of the ultra-high strength steel TM210A. A constant amplitude rotating bending fatigue experiment was performed at room temperature at stress ratio R = −1. In order to evaluate
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This paper presents the results of an experiment to investigate the high cycle fatigue properties of the ultra-high strength steel TM210A. A constant amplitude rotating bending fatigue experiment was performed at room temperature at stress ratio R = −1. In order to evaluate the notch effect, the fatigue experiment was carried out upon two sets of specimens, smooth and notched, respectively. In the experiment, the rotating bending fatigue life was tested using the group method, and the rotating bending fatigue limit was tested using the staircase method at 1 × 107 cycles. A double weighted least square method was then used to fit the stress-life (S–N) curve. The S–N curves of the two sets of specimens were obtained and the morphologies of the fractures of the two sets of specimens were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the fatigue limit of the smooth specimen for rotating bending fatigue was 615 MPa; the ratio of the fatigue limit to tensile strength was 0.29, and the cracks initiated at the surface of the smooth specimen; while the fatigue limit of the notched specimen for rotating bending fatigue was 363 MPa, and the cracks initiated at the edge of the notch. The fatigue notch sensitivity index of the ultra-high strength maraging steel TM210A was 0.69. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Towards Understanding the Polymerization Process in Bitumen Bio-Fluxes
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1058; doi:10.3390/ma10091058
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
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Abstract
Bitumen is a commonly used material for road construction. According to environmental regulations, vegetable-based materials are applied for binder modification. Fluxed road bitumen containing a bio-flux oxidation product increases the consistency over time. The efficiency of crosslinking depends on the number of double
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Bitumen is a commonly used material for road construction. According to environmental regulations, vegetable-based materials are applied for binder modification. Fluxed road bitumen containing a bio-flux oxidation product increases the consistency over time. The efficiency of crosslinking depends on the number of double bonds and their position in the aliphatic chain of fatty acid. The main goal of this paper was to examine the structural changes taking place during hardening bitumen with bio-flux additives. Two types of road bitumens fluxed with two different oxidized methyl esters of rapeseed oil were used in this study. Various chemical and rheological tests were applied for the fluxed-bitumen at different stages of oxygen exposure. The oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl ester reduced the iodine amount by about 10%–30%. Hardening of the fluxed bitumen generally results in an increase of the resins content and a reduction of the aromatics and asphaltenes. In the temperature range of 0 °C to 40 °C, bio-flux results with a much higher increase in the phase angle than in temperatures above 40 °C in the bitumen binder. The increase in the proportion of the viscous component in the low and medium binder temperature is favorable due to the potential improvement of the fatigue resistance of the asphalt mixture with such binders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Characterization of Nano- and Microcrystals of EuPO4 Created by One-Step Synthesis of Antimony-Germanate-Silicate Glass Modified by P2O5
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1059; doi:10.3390/ma10091059
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
PDF Full-text (2204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Technology of active glass-ceramics (GC) is an important part of luminescent materials engineering. The classic method to obtain GC is based on annealing of parent glass in proper temperature and different time periods. Generally, only the bulk materials are investigated as a starting
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Technology of active glass-ceramics (GC) is an important part of luminescent materials engineering. The classic method to obtain GC is based on annealing of parent glass in proper temperature and different time periods. Generally, only the bulk materials are investigated as a starting host for further applications. However, the effect of an additional heat-treatment process on emission and structural properties during GC processing is omitted. Here, we focus on the possibility of obtaining transparent glass-ceramic doped with europium ions directly with a melt-quenching method. The influence of phosphate concentration (up to 10 mol %) on the inversion symmetry of local environment of Eu3+ ions in antimony-germanate-silicate (SGS) glass has been investigated. The Stark splitting of luminescence spectra and the local asymmetry ratio estimated by relation of (5D07F2)/(5D07F1) transitions in fabricated glass confirms higher local symmetry around Eu3+ ions. Based on XRD and SEM/EDX measurements, the EuPO4 nano- and microcrystals with monoclinic geometry were determined. Therefore, in our experiment, we confirmed possibility of one-step approach to fabricate crystalline structures (glass-ceramic) in Eu–doped SGS glass without additional annealing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Coercivity Mechanism of (Nd0.8Ce0.2)2.4Fe12Co2B Ribbons with Ferromagnetic Grain Boundary Phase
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1062; doi:10.3390/ma10091062
Received: 19 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
Understanding the coercivity mechanism has had a substantial impact on developing economically more attractive RE-based (RE = rare earth) permanent materials because of price volatility of key RE metals (i.e., Nd and Dy) in recent years. In this work, we investigated the microstructure
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Understanding the coercivity mechanism has had a substantial impact on developing economically more attractive RE-based (RE = rare earth) permanent materials because of price volatility of key RE metals (i.e., Nd and Dy) in recent years. In this work, we investigated the microstructure and magnetic properties of melt-spun (Nd0.8Ce0.2)2.4Fe12Co2B ribbons and annealed samples at 773 K for 15 min with 1 Tesla (T) magnetic field to better understand the coercivity mechanism. We found hard magnetic grains were surrounded by thin and continuous layers along the grain boundaries (GBs) with a high concentration of ferromagnetic elements (Fe + Co >74 at%). The obvious positive peak in the δM plot and the interaction domain structure observed by Lorentz magnetic microscopy indicate that there is strong exchange coupling interaction through the ferromagnetic GB phase between hard magnetic grains. The annealing in an applied magnetic field of 1 T increases the remanence by enhancing the exchange coupling interaction, leading to a maximum product energy ((BH)max) which is 16% higher than that of melt-spun ribbons. We also studied the temperature dependence of the coercivity in a temperature range of 300–500 K, and proposed that the coercivity of melt-spun (Nd0.8Ce0.2)2.4Fe12Co2B ribbons with ferromagnetic GB phase at room temperature was from the combination of strong domain-wall pinning and nucleation. The same mechanism works in the annealed ribbons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Optimal Structure of a Plasmonic Chip for Sensitive Bio-Detection with the Grating-Coupled Surface Plasmon-Field Enhanced Fluorescence (GC-SPF)
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1063; doi:10.3390/ma10091063
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence (SPF) has been one of the powerful tools for biosensors and bioimaging. A wavelength-scale periodic structure coated with a thin metal film is called a plasmonic chip, and it can provide SPF. SPF of Cy5-streptavidin (Cy5-SA) was measured on
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Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence (SPF) has been one of the powerful tools for biosensors and bioimaging. A wavelength-scale periodic structure coated with a thin metal film is called a plasmonic chip, and it can provide SPF. SPF of Cy5-streptavidin (Cy5-SA) was measured on a biotinylated plasmonic chip with a grating of 480 nm-pitch. The optimal structure of a plasmonic sensor-chip was designed for improving detection sensitivity. The silver film thickness dependence of the SPF intensity was measured under the irradiation of the top panel of a sensor chip. Furthermore, the dependence of the SPF intensity on the distance from the metal surface was also investigated. The optimal structure for the largest fluorescence enhancement factor was 150 nm-thick silver and 10 nm-thick SiO2 layers due to the enhanced electric field (excitation field), the surface plasmon coupled emission (SPCE), and the interference effect with reflected light. The largest enhancement factor was found to be 170-fold. Furthermore, not only the largest fluorescence intensity but also stable lower background noise were found to be essential for higher-sensitive detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Inverted Organic Solar Cells Based on a Fullerene Derivative-Modified Transparent Cathode
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1064; doi:10.3390/ma10091064
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a transparent conductive material which is extensively used in organic solar cells (OSCs) as electrodes. In inverted OSCs, ITO is usually employed as a cathode, which should be modified by cathode buffer layers (CBLs) to achieve better contact
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Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a transparent conductive material which is extensively used in organic solar cells (OSCs) as electrodes. In inverted OSCs, ITO is usually employed as a cathode, which should be modified by cathode buffer layers (CBLs) to achieve better contact with the active layers. In this paper, an amine group functionalized fullerene derivative (DMAPA-C60) is used as a CBL to modify the transparent cathode ITO in inverted OSCs based on PTB7 as a donor and PC71BM as an acceptor. Compared with traditional ZnO CBL, DMAPA-C60 exhibited comparable transmittance. OSCs based on DMAPA-C60 show much better device performance compared with their ZnO counterparts (power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) improved from 6.24 to 7.43%). This is mainly because a better contact between the DMAPA-C60 modified ITO and the active layer is formed, which leads to better electron transport and collection. Nanoscale morphologies also demonstrate that the surface of DMAPA-C60-modified ITO is plainer than the ZnO counterparts, which also leads to the better device performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Approach to Estimate the Plastic Anisotropy of Metallic Materials Using Cross-Sectional Indentation Applied to Extruded Magnesium Alloy AZ31B
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1065; doi:10.3390/ma10091065
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, a methodology is presented for obtaining the plastic anisotropy of bulk metallic materials using cross-sectional indentation. This method relies on spherical indentation on the free edge of a specimen, and examining the out-of-plane residual deformation contour persisting on the cross-section
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In this paper, a methodology is presented for obtaining the plastic anisotropy of bulk metallic materials using cross-sectional indentation. This method relies on spherical indentation on the free edge of a specimen, and examining the out-of-plane residual deformation contour persisting on the cross-section after unloading. Results obtained from numerical simulation revealed that some important aspects of the out-of-plane residual deformation field are only sensitive to the extent of the material plastic anisotropy, and insensitive to strain hardening, yield strain, elastic anisotropy, and the selected displacement threshold value. An explicit equation is presented to correlate the plastic anisotropy with the characteristic parameter of the bottom shape of residual deformation contour, and it is used to uniquely determine the material plastic anisotropy in cross-sectional indentation. Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by application on magnesium alloy AZ31B, and the plastic anisotropy parameter obtained from indentation and uniaxial tests show good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Time-Dependent Material Properties of Shotcrete: Experimental and Numerical Study
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1067; doi:10.3390/ma10091067
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
A new experimental program, focusing on the evolution of the Young’s modulus, uniaxial compressive strength, shrinkage and creep of shotcrete is presented. The laboratory tests are, starting at very young ages of the material, conducted on two different types of specimens sampled at
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A new experimental program, focusing on the evolution of the Young’s modulus, uniaxial compressive strength, shrinkage and creep of shotcrete is presented. The laboratory tests are, starting at very young ages of the material, conducted on two different types of specimens sampled at the site of the Brenner Basetunnel. The experimental results are evaluated and compared to other experiments from the literature. In addition, three advanced constitutive models for shotcrete, i.e., the model by Meschke, the model by Schädlich and Schweiger, and the model by Neuner et al., are validated on the basis of the test data, and the capabilities of the models to represent the observed shotcrete behavior are assessed. Hence, the gap between the the outdated experimental data on shotcrete available in the literature on the one hand and the nowadays available advanced shotcrete models, on the other hand, is closed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Graphene-Based Flexible Pressure Sensor with Applications to Plantar Pressure Measurement and Gait Analysis
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1068; doi:10.3390/ma10091068
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
In the present study, we propose and develop a flexible pressure sensor based on the piezoresistive effect of multilayer graphene films on polyester textile. The pressure response results from the deformation of graphene conductive network structure and the changes in resistance. Here, we
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In the present study, we propose and develop a flexible pressure sensor based on the piezoresistive effect of multilayer graphene films on polyester textile. The pressure response results from the deformation of graphene conductive network structure and the changes in resistance. Here, we show that the graphene pressure sensor can achieve a sensitivity value of 0.012 kPa 1 , the measurement range can be as high as 800 kPa, and the response time can reach to 50 ms. Subsequently, a stable in-shoe wireless plantar pressure measurement system is developed and dynamic pressure distribution is acquired in real-time. Overall, the graphene textile pressure sensor has the advantage of wide dynamic range, flexibility and comfort, which provides the high possibility for footwear evaluation, clinical gait analysis and pathological foot diagnosis. Full article