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Materials 2017, 10(7), 813; doi:10.3390/ma10070813

Ion-Beam-Induced Atomic Mixing in Ge, Si, and SiGe, Studied by Means of Isotope Multilayer Structures

1
Institute of Materials Physics, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
2
Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden, Germany
3
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
4
Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Beam Analysis, Modification, and Irradiation of Materials)

Abstract

Crystalline and preamorphized isotope multilayers are utilized to investigate the dependence of ion beam mixing in silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), and silicon germanium (SiGe) on the atomic structure of the sample, temperature, ion flux, and electrical doping by the implanted ions. The magnitude of mixing is determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling geometry, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy provide information about the structural state after ion irradiation. Different temperature regimes with characteristic mixing properties are identified. A disparity in atomic mixing of Si and Ge becomes evident while SiGe shows an intermediate behavior. Overall, atomic mixing increases with temperature, and it is stronger in the amorphous than in the crystalline state. Ion-beam-induced mixing in Ge shows no dependence on doping by the implanted ions. In contrast, a doping effect is found in Si at higher temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations clearly show that ion beam mixing in Ge is mainly determined by the thermal spike mechanism. In the case of Si thermal spike, mixing prevails at low temperature whereas ion beam-induced enhanced self-diffusion dominates the atomic mixing at high temperature. The latter process is attributed to highly mobile Si di-interstitials formed under irradiation and during damage annealing. View Full-Text
Keywords: silicon; germanium; ion beam; atomic mixing; thermal spike; radiation enhanced diffusion; amorphization; recrystallization; molecular dynamics silicon; germanium; ion beam; atomic mixing; thermal spike; radiation enhanced diffusion; amorphization; recrystallization; molecular dynamics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Radek, M.; Liedke, B.; Schmidt, B.; Voelskow, M.; Bischoff, L.; Hansen, J.L.; Larsen, A.N.; Bougeard, D.; Böttger, R.; Prucnal, S.; Posselt, M.; Bracht, H. Ion-Beam-Induced Atomic Mixing in Ge, Si, and SiGe, Studied by Means of Isotope Multilayer Structures. Materials 2017, 10, 813.

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