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Forests, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2011), Pages 814-1048

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Sustainable Biofuels from Forests: Woody Biomass
Forests 2011, 2(4), 983; doi:10.3390/f2040983
Received: 14 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (18 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of woody biomass feedstocks for bioenergy and bioproducts involves multiple sources of material that together create year round supplies. The main sources of woody biomass include residues from wood manufacturing industries, low value trees including logging slash in forests that [...] Read more.
The use of woody biomass feedstocks for bioenergy and bioproducts involves multiple sources of material that together create year round supplies. The main sources of woody biomass include residues from wood manufacturing industries, low value trees including logging slash in forests that are currently underutilized and dedicated short-rotation woody crops. Conceptually a ton of woody biomass feedstocks can replace a barrel of oil as the wood is processed (refined) through a biorefinery. As oil is refined only part of the barrel is used for liquid fuel, e.g., gasoline, while much of the carbon in oil is refined into higher value chemical products-carbon in woody biomass can be refined into the same value-added products. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Biofuels From Forests: Woody Biomass)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Regional Models of Diameter as a Function of Individual Tree Attributes, Climate and Site Characteristics for Six Major Tree Species in Alberta, Canada
Forests 2011, 2(4), 814-831; doi:10.3390/f2040814
Received: 12 July 2011 / Revised: 16 August 2011 / Accepted: 22 September 2011 / Published: 29 September 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the relationship of stem diameter to tree, site and stand characteristics for six major tree species (trembling aspen, white birch, balsam fir, lodgepole pine, black spruce, and white spruce) in Alberta (Canada) with data from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development Permanent [...] Read more.
We investigated the relationship of stem diameter to tree, site and stand characteristics for six major tree species (trembling aspen, white birch, balsam fir, lodgepole pine, black spruce, and white spruce) in Alberta (Canada) with data from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development Permanent Sample Plots. Using non-linear mixed effects modeling techniques, we developed models to estimate diameter at breast height using height, crown and stand attributes. Mixed effects models (with plot as subject) using height, crown area, and basal area of the larger trees explained on average 95% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error of 2.0 cm (13.4% of mean diameter). Fixed effects models (without plot as subject) including the Natural Sub-Region (NSR) information explained on average 90% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error equal to 2.8 cm (17.9% of mean diameter). Selected climate variables provided similar results to models with NSR information. The inclusion of nutrient regime and moisture regime did not significantly improve the predictive ability of these models. Full article
Open AccessArticle Modeling Effects of Climate Change and Fire Management on Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA
Forests 2011, 2(4), 832-860; doi:10.3390/f2040832
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 13 September 2011 / Accepted: 23 September 2011 / Published: 12 October 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Climate change is projected to profoundly influence vegetation patterns and community compositions, either directly through increased species mortality and shifts in species distributions or indirectly through disturbance dynamics such as increased wildfire activity and extent, shifting fire regimes, and pathogenesis. Mountainous landscapes [...] Read more.
Climate change is projected to profoundly influence vegetation patterns and community compositions, either directly through increased species mortality and shifts in species distributions or indirectly through disturbance dynamics such as increased wildfire activity and extent, shifting fire regimes, and pathogenesis. Mountainous landscapes have been shown to be particularly sensitive to climate changes and are likely to experience significant impacts under predicted future climate regimes. Western white pine (Pinus monticola), a five-needle pine species that forms the most diverse of the white pine forest cover types in the western United States, is vulnerable to an interacting suite of threats that includes climate change, fire suppression, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), and mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) that have already caused major changes in species distribution and abundance. We used the mechanistic simulation model FireBGCv2 to simulate effects of climate change and fire management on western white pines in a mountainous watershed in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Our results suggest that warming temperatures favor increased abundance of western white pine over existing climax and shade tolerant species in the study area, mainly because warmer conditions potentiate fire dynamics, including increased wildfire frequency and extent, which facilitates regeneration. Suppression of wildfires reduced the area dominated by western white pine, but fire suppression was less effective at limiting burned area extent and fire frequency in a warmer and drier climate. Wildfires created canopy gaps that allowed for western white pine regeneration at a high enough rate to escape local extirpation from white pine blister rust. Western white pine appears to be a resilient species even under fairly extreme warming trajectories and shifting fire regimes, and may provide a hedge against vegetation community shifts away from forest types and toward grass and shrublands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainable Biofuel Contributions to Carbon Mitigation and Energy Independence
Forests 2011, 2(4), 861-874; doi:10.3390/f2040861
Received: 17 August 2011 / Revised: 25 September 2011 / Accepted: 27 September 2011 / Published: 19 October 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The growing interest in US biofuels has been motivated by two primary national policy goals, (1) to reduce carbon emissions and (2) to achieve energy independence. However, the current low cost of fossil fuels is a key barrier to investments in woody [...] Read more.
The growing interest in US biofuels has been motivated by two primary national policy goals, (1) to reduce carbon emissions and (2) to achieve energy independence. However, the current low cost of fossil fuels is a key barrier to investments in woody biofuel production capacity. The effectiveness of wood derived biofuels must consider not only the feedstock competition with low cost fossil fuels but also the wide range of wood products uses that displace different fossil intensive products. Alternative uses of wood result in substantially different unit processes and carbon impacts over product life cycles. We developed life cycle data for new bioprocessing and feedstock collection models in order to make life cycle comparisons of effectiveness when biofuels displace gasoline and wood products displace fossil intensive building materials. Wood products and biofuels can be joint products from the same forestland. Substantial differences in effectiveness measures are revealed as well as difficulties in valuing tradeoffs between carbon mitigation and energy independence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Biofuels From Forests: Woody Biomass)
Open AccessArticle Environmental Attitudes and Desired Social-Psychological Benefits of Off-Highway Vehicle Users
Forests 2011, 2(4), 875-893; doi:10.3390/f2040875
Received: 13 May 2011 / Revised: 6 September 2011 / Accepted: 17 October 2011 / Published: 26 October 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research analyzes the relationships between off-highway vehicle (OHV) riders’ patterns of prior experience and the social-psychological benefits they desire from the activity; it also examines the relationships between patterns of prior experience and environmental attitudes. The sample consists of 600 OHV [...] Read more.
This research analyzes the relationships between off-highway vehicle (OHV) riders’ patterns of prior experience and the social-psychological benefits they desire from the activity; it also examines the relationships between patterns of prior experience and environmental attitudes. The sample consists of 600 OHV riders in Utah drawn from the entire population of OHV owners within the state. The sample was segmented into experience use history groups based upon respondents’ number of OHV trips within the past 12 months and the total number of years they have been riding OHVs. Results show that patterns of prior experience are related to certain desired social-psychological benefits. Personal achievement benefits were significantly more important for more frequent riders when compared to those who rode less often. The analysis also reveals no relationship between patterns of prior experience and general environmental attitudes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expanding Forests’ Benefits: Forest-based Recreation and Tourism)
Open AccessArticle Potential Trade-Offs Between Nature-Based Tourism and Forestry, a Case Study in Northern Finland
Forests 2011, 2(4), 894-912; doi:10.3390/f2040894
Received: 15 September 2011 / Revised: 6 October 2011 / Accepted: 19 October 2011 / Published: 28 October 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forestry, as a large industry, has significant impacts on the quality of nature-based tourism landscapes in boreal forests. In Finland, the rapid growth of nature-based tourism has expanded outdoor recreation activities from protected areas into timber production forests; this is particularly so [...] Read more.
Forestry, as a large industry, has significant impacts on the quality of nature-based tourism landscapes in boreal forests. In Finland, the rapid growth of nature-based tourism has expanded outdoor recreation activities from protected areas into timber production forests; this is particularly so in northern Finland. This paper focuses on assessing balanced local net impacts of three alternative land-use scenarios, in which the level of integration between nature-based tourism (NBT) and traditional forestry is varied. The study is located in northern Finland in the area between two top-rated tourist resorts, Ylläs and Levi. The results of the case study support the idea of an eligible integration between NBT and forestry, which takes into account scenic qualities of forested landscapes by restricting traditional management practices. In our case, the increased number of tourists (due to a more attractive forest environment) offset the losses accrued in forestry (due to restricted forest management). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expanding Forests’ Benefits: Forest-based Recreation and Tourism)
Open AccessArticle Best Practices for Tourism Concessions in Protected Areas: A Review of the Field
Forests 2011, 2(4), 913-928; doi:10.3390/f2040913
Received: 11 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (76 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the importance of protected areas (PAs) worldwide to protect biodiversity, reduce poverty and promote sustainable development, throughout the world governments struggle to adequately fund PAs to meet conservation goals. Tourism is seen as a viable financial option for PAs, with tourism [...] Read more.
Despite the importance of protected areas (PAs) worldwide to protect biodiversity, reduce poverty and promote sustainable development, throughout the world governments struggle to adequately fund PAs to meet conservation goals. Tourism is seen as a viable financial option for PAs, with tourism concessions through private sector partnerships gaining momentum that allows the overarching goal of preservation and conservation to remain with the state. However, without appropriate planning or best practices in place, tourism concessions can lead to such problems as waste, habitat destruction and the displacement of local people and wildlife. We analyzed tourism concession agreements in government documents from 22 countries to provide an overview of what best practices for tourism concessions are being established and what practices might need to be better incorporated into agreements. The greatest weaknesses of best practices appear to be with concession qualifications, legal, and financial responsibilities, while the strengths included environmental and empowerment/social responsibilities. This initial assessment of contract components will provide a baseline to further develop best practices and assist protected area managers, local communities, and conservation practitioners working with tourism in PAs to ensure that tourism has a positive impact on protected area management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expanding Forests’ Benefits: Forest-based Recreation and Tourism)
Open AccessCommunication Making the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) More Responsive to the Livelihood Needs of Tree Planting Farmers, Drawing on Previous Experience in Dryland Sudan
Forests 2011, 2(4), 948-960; doi:10.3390/f2040948
Received: 21 September 2011 / Revised: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 9 November 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, tree planting has become popular under NAPA. For decades, many tree planting projects were implemented to reduce the vulnerability of ecosystems and societies. Despite all of these, tree-dependent livelihoods remain vulnerable, which leaves doubt on the benefit of tree planting to [...] Read more.
Recently, tree planting has become popular under NAPA. For decades, many tree planting projects were implemented to reduce the vulnerability of ecosystems and societies. Despite all of these, tree-dependent livelihoods remain vulnerable, which leaves doubt on the benefit of tree planting to enhance the resilience of livelihoods to climatic shocks. This suggests that much can be learned from the past to improve future tree planting adaptation projects. This paper draws on the experience of farmers involved in gum arabic agroforestry in Sudan in order to understand the needs of tree-related adaptation projects that should be addressed. Surveyed farmers appreciated the different environmental services rendered by trees. Their priority areas for an adaptation project however, remain issues tied to gum producer price, rainfall pattern, and locust attacks as well as extension services and to a lesser extent access to micro credits. Moreover, Sudan’s Gum Arabic Company (GAC) and Forests National Corporation play key roles in governance but are not yet considered as key adaptation players particularly the unsupportive role of the monopoly of gum exportation by GAC to tree planting as an adaptation activity. By focusing the design and implementation on tree related livelihood obstacles, adaptation projects are likely to be more responsive to the needs of vulnerable groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Climate Change)
Open AccessArticle Understory Light Conditions Associated with Partial Overstory Removal and Midstory/Understory Control Applications in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest
Forests 2011, 2(4), 984-992; doi:10.3390/f2040984
Received: 4 October 2011 / Revised: 5 November 2011 / Accepted: 10 November 2011 / Published: 17 November 2011
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Abstract
Changes in understory light levels following a partial overstory harvest with three retention levels, combined with midstory/understory removal of selected species were examined. Overstory retention levels were set at basal areas (ba) 16.1 (BA16), 11.6 (BA11), and 6.9 (BA6) m2 per [...] Read more.
Changes in understory light levels following a partial overstory harvest with three retention levels, combined with midstory/understory removal of selected species were examined. Overstory retention levels were set at basal areas (ba) 16.1 (BA16), 11.6 (BA11), and 6.9 (BA6) m2 per hectare (ha). Prior to mechanical overstory removal, non-oak unmerchantable midstory/understory stems ≥ 5.1 cm were injected with an aqueous herbicide solution. Hemispherical photographs were used to calculate percent canopy closure and total understory light at 1.4 m above ground. Percent canopy closure was reduced 3, 14, 24, and 30 percent for injection only (IO), BA16, BA11, and BA6, respectfully, compared to the non-harvest control (NHC) (~95 percent canopy closure). Understory light levels for NHC, IO, BA16, BA11, and BA6 were 7–9 percent, 11–14 percent, 24–28percent, 37–46 percent, and 44–52 percent of full sunlight, respectively. Post-harvest understory light of BA16 was significantly lower than BA11 and BA6, which were similar. Understanding partial harvest impacts on canopy closure and subsequent understory light conditions will aid forest managers with regeneration harvest planning to promote oak reproduction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Ecosystem Approach to Recreation Location Quotients
Forests 2011, 2(4), 993-1012; doi:10.3390/f2040993
Received: 31 August 2011 / Revised: 11 November 2011 / Accepted: 28 November 2011 / Published: 2 December 2011
PDF Full-text (1254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the widespread agreement on the importance of preserving ecological integrity in conservation and outdoor recreation decision-making processes, traditional metrics analyzing the supply of and demand for conservation and recreation resources have focused on geographical and population-centric units of measurement rather than [...] Read more.
Despite the widespread agreement on the importance of preserving ecological integrity in conservation and outdoor recreation decision-making processes, traditional metrics analyzing the supply of and demand for conservation and recreation resources have focused on geographical and population-centric units of measurement rather than ecological ones. One tool past researchers have used to inform recreation resource planning is the recreation location quotient (RLQ). While simple park-to-population ratios or acres-per-capita metrics provide a base measure of carrying capacity and are often useful to set broad recreation supply standards, the RLQ offers a more nuanced snapshot of supply and demand by comparing regional ratios to a standardized reference region. The RLQ is thus able to provide a statistic or quotient that highlights regions where recreation resources are particularly abundant and/or scarce relative to a reference area. This project expands the past RLQ analyses by investigating the distribution of recreation resources across the 10 ecological sections found within the US state of Minnesota. RLQs were calculated using recreation trail mileage, natural resource and recreation area acreage data, and recreation facility data from federal, state, and local agencies. Results found notable differences in supply of recreation resources across ecological sections. Some sections were considerably underrepresented in recreation resources-per area (e.g., Red River Valley and North Central Glaciated Plains) while others were underrepresented in recreation resources-per capita (e.g., Minnesota and Northeast Iowa Morainal). The RLQ statistics and resulting maps illustrating relative surplus or deficiencies can inform future land acquisition decisions and highlight the need for cross-jurisdictional planning in order to ensure outdoor recreation systems are ecologically representative. Possible implications and recommendations for future planning decisions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expanding Forests’ Benefits: Forest-based Recreation and Tourism)
Open AccessArticle Structure and Regeneration Patterns of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii Natural Forests: A Basic Knowledge for Adaptive Management in a Changing Climate
Forests 2011, 2(4), 1013-1030; doi:10.3390/f2041013
Received: 12 September 2011 / Revised: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 2 December 2011 / Published: 9 December 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since climate change projections contain many uncertainties and are normally unable to predict the direction and magnitude of change at the small scale needed by forest managers, some understanding about the functioning of the target forest should be obtained before a robust [...] Read more.
Since climate change projections contain many uncertainties and are normally unable to predict the direction and magnitude of change at the small scale needed by forest managers, some understanding about the functioning of the target forest should be obtained before a robust management strategy can be applied. Structure and regeneration patterns are related to key ecosystem processes which, on the other hand, can be modified by silvicultural treatments. In this research, the structure and recruitment dynamics of two stands with different histories of management were investigated in the southern limit of the range of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii (Southeast Spain). We described forest structure and facilitation effects by forest canopies and nurse shrubs, and quantified the processes affecting each stage of regeneration (dispersed seed, first year seedling and second year seedling) in different microhabitats. Forest structure was more complex in the stand scarcely influenced by human activities. Juniperus communis shrubs seemed to facilitate the establishment of tree saplings. Most seedlings died of desiccation during their first summer. At best, 190 out of 10,000 emerged seedlings survived the first summer. In light of these results, the possibilities of applying close-to-nature forestry in the study forests and other aspects of silviculture under a frame of adaptive forest management are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle Road Expansion and Its Influence on Trail Sustainability in Bhutan
Forests 2011, 2(4), 1031-1048; doi:10.3390/f2041031
Received: 7 October 2011 / Revised: 24 November 2011 / Accepted: 28 November 2011 / Published: 9 December 2011
PDF Full-text (2653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bhutan was an inhabited wilderness until 1961, when road construction started after the closure of the Tibetan border. Since then, the road network has expanded from the Indian boarder, often tracing traditional trails. This has accelerated commerce as well as movement of [...] Read more.
Bhutan was an inhabited wilderness until 1961, when road construction started after the closure of the Tibetan border. Since then, the road network has expanded from the Indian boarder, often tracing traditional trails. This has accelerated commerce as well as movement of people from India, benefitting both the Bhutanese and foreign tourists. At the same time, dependence on imported automobiles and fossil fuel has risen, and roadless areas have begun to shrink. This brought an inevitable loss of traditional environmental knowledge, such as the care of mules for packing, and reduction in physical and mental health among the Bhutanese. People who lost jobs as horsemen moved into towns to find jobs. Road extension is also a double-edged sword for visitors. It has resulted in shrinking trekking areas and loss of traditional culture, both of which have been sacrificed for easy access. Protected areas often function as fortifications against mechanical civilization. However, protected-area status or its zoning does not guarantee that an area will remain roadless where there is considerable resident population. An analysis in Jigme Dorji National Park showed the gradual retreat of trailheads and increasing dependence on automobiles among residents and trekkers. B. MacKaye, a regional planner in the Eastern United States, proposed using trails as a tool to control such mechanical civilization. His philosophy of regional planning suggests two measures; one is consolidated trailheads as dams, and the other is confinement of roads by levees, consisting of new trails and wilderness belts. According to case studies, the author proposed six options for coexistence of trails with roads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expanding Forests’ Benefits: Forest-based Recreation and Tourism)

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Commercializing Biorefinery Technology: A Case for the Multi-Product Pathway to a Viable Biorefinery
Forests 2011, 2(4), 929-947; doi:10.3390/f2040929
Received: 20 July 2011 / Revised: 30 September 2011 / Accepted: 1 November 2011 / Published: 9 November 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (824 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While there may be many reasons why very interesting science ideas never reach commercial practice, one of the more prevalent is that the reaction or process, which is scientifically possible, cannot be made efficient enough to achieve economic viability. One pathway to [...] Read more.
While there may be many reasons why very interesting science ideas never reach commercial practice, one of the more prevalent is that the reaction or process, which is scientifically possible, cannot be made efficient enough to achieve economic viability. One pathway to economic viability for many business sectors is the multi-product portfolio. Research, development, and deployment of viable biorefinery technology must meld sound science with engineering and business economics. It is virtually axiomatic that increased value can be generated by isolating relatively pure substances from heterogeneous raw materials. Woody biomass is a heterogeneous raw material consisting of the major structural components, cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses, as well as minor components, such as extractives and ash. Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of D-glucopyrano-units with β-D(1®4) connections and is the wood component most resistant to chemical and biological degradation. Lignin is a macromolecule of phenylpropanoid units, second to cellulose in bio-resistance, and is the key component that is sought for removal from woody biomass in chemical pulping. Hemicelluloses are a collection of heteropolysaccharides, comprised mainly of 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Extractives, some of which have high commercial value, are a collection of low molecular weight organic and inorganic woody materials that can be removed, to some extent, under mild conditions. Applied Biorefinery Sciences, LLC (a private, New York, USA based company) is commercializing a value-optimization pathway (the ABS Process™) for generating a multi-product portfolio by isolating and recovering homogeneous substances from each of the above mentioned major and minor woody biomass components. The ABS Process™ incorporates the patent pending, core biorefinery technology, “hot water extraction”, as developed at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF). Hot water extraction in the absence of mineral acids and bases is preferred because of its ability to generate multiple high value output products without chemical input, recovery, or disposal costs. Instead of added chemicals in the cooking phase, the ABS Process™ relies upon an autocatalytic reaction in which acetyl groups, bound through an ester linkage to hemicellulose chains, are hydrolyzed at high temperature in water. The resulting acidic conditions (final pH ~3.5) and temperatures of 160–170 °C permit further solubilization and diffusion of oligomeric 5- and 6-carbon sugars, acetic acid, aromatic substances, monomeric sugars, and other trace compounds into the extract solution. These conditions also avoid extensive degradation of monosaccharides, enabling membrane fractionation and other chemical separation techniques to be used in the following separations. A range of separation techniques are applied on the extract solution to isolate and purify fermentable sugars, acetic acid, lignin, furfural, formic acid, other hemicellulose related compounds, lignin, lignin degradation products, and phenolic extractives for commercial sale. The extracted lignocellulosic biomass, with reduced hemicellulose content and is thus less heterogeneous, carries the value-added advantages of: (1) enhanced product characteristics, and (2) reduced energy and chemical manufacturing costs. Thus, by fractionating woody biomass into more homogeneous substances, the ABS Process™ holds potential as an economically viable pathway for capturing sustainable, renewable value not currently realized from lignocellulosic biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Biofuels From Forests: Woody Biomass)
Open AccessReview Reviewing the Science and Implementation of Climate Change Adaptation Measures in European Forestry
Forests 2011, 2(4), 961-982; doi:10.3390/f2040961
Received: 5 July 2011 / Revised: 29 August 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 11 November 2011
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Developing adaptation measures in forestry is an urgent task because the forests regenerated today will have to cope with climate conditions that may drastically change during the life of the trees in the stand. This paper presents a comprehensive review of potential [...] Read more.
Developing adaptation measures in forestry is an urgent task because the forests regenerated today will have to cope with climate conditions that may drastically change during the life of the trees in the stand. This paper presents a comprehensive review of potential adaptation options in forestry in Europe based on three pillars: a review of the scientific literature, an analysis of current national response strategies, and an expert assessment based on a database compiled in the COST Action ECHOES (Expected Climate Change and Options for European Silviculture). The adaptation measures include responses to both risks and opportunities created by climate change and address all stages of forestry operations. Measures targeted to reduce vulnerability to climate change may either aim to reduce forest sensitivity to adverse climate change impacts or increase adaptive capacity to cope with the changing environmental conditions. Adaptation measures mitigating drought and fire risk such as selection of more drought resistant species and genotypes are crucial. For adaptation to be successful it is of the utmost importance to disseminate the knowledge of suitable adaptation measures to all decision makers from the practice to the policy level. The analysis of the ECHOES database demonstrates that this challenge is well recognized in many European countries. Uncertainty about the full extent of climate change impacts and the suitability of adaptation measures creates a need for monitoring and further research. A better understanding of how to increase adaptive capacity is also needed, as well as regional vulnerability assessments which are crucial for targeting planned adaptation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Climate Change)

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