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Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 86; doi:10.3390/nu10010086

A Longitudinal Study of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Status throughout Pregnancy and Exclusive Lactation in New Zealand Mothers and Their Infants at 45° S

1
Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2
Paediatric Endocrinology, Southern District Health Board, Dunedin 9010, New Zealand
3
Department Preventative and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
4
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Abstract

Vitamin D status and associated metabolism during pregnancy and lactation have been assessed in only a limited number of longitudinal studies, all from the northern hemisphere, with no infant data concurrently reported. Therefore, we aimed to describe longitudinal maternal and infant 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) status during pregnancy and up to 5 months postnatal age, in New Zealand women and their infants living at 45° S latitude. Between September 2011 and June 2013, 126 pregnant women intending to exclusively breastfeed for at least 20 weeks were recruited. Longitudinal data were collected at three time-points spanning pregnancy, and following birth and at 20 weeks postpartum. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 50 nmol/L) was common, found at one or more time-points in 65% and 76% of mothers and their infants, respectively. Mean cord 25OHD was 41 nmol/L, and three infants exhibited secondary hyperparathyroidism by postnatal week 20. Maternal late pregnancy 25OHD (gestation 32–38 weeks) was closely correlated with infant cord 25OHD, r2 = 0.87 (95% CI (Confidence interval) 0.8–0.91), while no correlation was seen between early pregnancy (<20 weeks gestation) maternal and cord 25OHD, r2 = 0.06 (95% CI −0.16–0.28). Among other variables, pregnancy 25OHD status, and therefore infant status at birth, were influenced by season of conception. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency in women and their infants is very common during pregnancy and lactation in New Zealand at 45° S. These data raise questions regarding the applicability of current pregnancy and lactation policy at this latitude, particularly recommendations relating to first trimester maternal vitamin D screening and targeted supplementation for those “at risk”. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; parathyroid hormone; pregnancy; breastfeeding; lactation; infant vitamin D; parathyroid hormone; pregnancy; breastfeeding; lactation; infant
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Wheeler, B.J.; Taylor, B.J.; de Lange, M.; Harper, M.J.; Jones, S.; Mekhail, A.; Houghton, L.A. A Longitudinal Study of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Status throughout Pregnancy and Exclusive Lactation in New Zealand Mothers and Their Infants at 45° S. Nutrients 2018, 10, 86.

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