Next Article in Journal
Potential Health-modulating Effects of Isoflavones and Metabolites via Activation of PPAR and AhR
Next Article in Special Issue
Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings
Previous Article in Journal
Do Pregnant Women and Those at Risk of Developing Post-Natal Depression Consume Lower Amounts of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 230-240; doi:10.3390/nu2030240

Continuous Feedings of Fortified Human Milk Lead to Nutrient Losses of Fat, Calcium and Phosphorous

1
Northwest Newborn Specialists 501 N, Graham Suite 265, Portland, OR 97227 USA
2
United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 1100 Bates St. Houston, Texas 77030 USA
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 USA
4
Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030 USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2010 / Accepted: 25 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [230 KB, uploaded 26 February 2010]   |  

Abstract

Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre- and post-feeding (end-point) nutrient content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), protein, and fat. Comparisons were made between continuous, gravity bolus, and 30-minute infusion pump feeding systems, as well as human milk fortified with donor human milk-based and bovine milk-based human milk fortifier using an in vitro model. Feeding method was significantly associated with fat and Ca losses, with increased losses in continuous feeds. Fat losses in continuous feeds were substantial, with 40 ± 3 % of initial fat lost during the feeding process. After correction for feeding method, human milk fortified with donor milk-based fortifier was associated with significantly less loss of Ca (8 ± 4% vs. 28 ± 4%, p< 0.001), Phos (3 ± 4% vs. 24 ± 4%, p < 0.001), and fat (17 ± 2% vs. 25 ± 2%, p = 0.001) than human milk fortified with a bovine milk-based fortifier (Mean ± SEM).
Keywords: calcium; phosphorous; neonates; enteral nutrition; lipids; protein calcium; phosphorous; neonates; enteral nutrition; lipids; protein
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rogers, S.P.; Hicks, P.D.; Hamzo, M.; Veit, L.E.; Abrams, S.A. Continuous Feedings of Fortified Human Milk Lead to Nutrient Losses of Fat, Calcium and Phosphorous. Nutrients 2010, 2, 230-240.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top