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Nutrients, Volume 2, Issue 3 (March 2010), Pages 230-407

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Continuous Feedings of Fortified Human Milk Lead to Nutrient Losses of Fat, Calcium and Phosphorous
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 230-240; doi:10.3390/nu2030240
Received: 4 February 2010 / Accepted: 25 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and
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Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre- and post-feeding (end-point) nutrient content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), protein, and fat. Comparisons were made between continuous, gravity bolus, and 30-minute infusion pump feeding systems, as well as human milk fortified with donor human milk-based and bovine milk-based human milk fortifier using an in vitro model. Feeding method was significantly associated with fat and Ca losses, with increased losses in continuous feeds. Fat losses in continuous feeds were substantial, with 40 ± 3 % of initial fat lost during the feeding process. After correction for feeding method, human milk fortified with donor milk-based fortifier was associated with significantly less loss of Ca (8 ± 4% vs. 28 ± 4%, p< 0.001), Phos (3 ± 4% vs. 24 ± 4%, p < 0.001), and fat (17 ± 2% vs. 25 ± 2%, p = 0.001) than human milk fortified with a bovine milk-based fortifier (Mean ± SEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessArticle 1H NMR Fingerprinting of Soybean Extracts, with Emphasis on Identification and Quantification of Isoflavones
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 280-289; doi:10.3390/nu2030280
Received: 17 December 2009 / Accepted: 24 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
1H NMR spectra were recorded of methanolic extracts of seven soybean varieties (Glycine max.), cultivated using traditional and organic farming techniques. It was possible to identify signals belonging to the groups of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and aromatic substances in
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1H NMR spectra were recorded of methanolic extracts of seven soybean varieties (Glycine max.), cultivated using traditional and organic farming techniques. It was possible to identify signals belonging to the groups of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and aromatic substances in the spectra. In the aromatic zone, the isoflavone signals were of particular interest: genistein, daidzein, genistin, daidzin, malonylgenistin, acetylgenistin, malonyldaidzin signals were assigned and these compounds were quantified, resulting in accordance with published data, and further demonstrating the potential of the NMR technique in food science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on Fatigue during Exercise: Potential Role for NAD+(H)
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 319-329; doi:10.3390/nu2030319
Received: 19 January 2010 / Revised: 9 February 2010 / Accepted: 5 March 2010 / Published: 10 March 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study compared serum pyridine levels (NAD+ /NADH) in trained (n = 6) and untrained (n = 7) subjects after continuous progressive exercise at 50%, 70% then 95% of physical work capacity until fatigue (TTF) after consuming a placebo or antioxidant (AO)
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This study compared serum pyridine levels (NAD+ /NADH) in trained (n = 6) and untrained (n = 7) subjects after continuous progressive exercise at 50%, 70% then 95% of physical work capacity until fatigue (TTF) after consuming a placebo or antioxidant (AO) cocktail (Lactaway©). An increase of 17% in TTF was observed in AO as compared to placebo (p = 0.032). This was accompanied by a significant increase in serum NAD+ levels (p = 0.037) in the AO supplemented group post exercise. The increases in NAD+ and improved endurance reflect lower oxidative stress-induced suppression of aerobic respiration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Pilot-scale Production and Viability Analysis of Freeze-Dried Probiotic Bacteria Using Different Protective Agents
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 330-339; doi:10.3390/nu2030330
Received: 23 December 2009 / Revised: 28 January 2010 / Accepted: 20 February 2010 / Published: 11 March 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (973 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The functional food industry requires an improvement of probiotic strain stability during storage, especially when they are stored at room temperature. In this study, the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® using different protective agents
[...] Read more.
The functional food industry requires an improvement of probiotic strain stability during storage, especially when they are stored at room temperature. In this study, the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® using different protective agents (i.e., glycerine, mannitol, sorbitol, inulin, dextrin, Crystalean®) was determined and compared with semi skimmed milk (SSM) control. No significant differences were observed between the tested protectants and the control (SSM) during storage at refrigerated conditions. During storage at room temperature, only glycerine was found to stabilize viability better than other tested substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Function 2009)
Figures

Open AccessCommunication Comparative Effects of R- and S-equol and Implication of Transactivation Functions (AF-1 and AF-2) in Estrogen Receptor-Induced Transcriptional Activity
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 340-354; doi:10.3390/nu2030340
Received: 4 January 2010 / Revised: 20 February 2010 / Accepted: 25 February 2010 / Published: 15 March 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Equol, one of the main metabolites of daidzein, is a chiral compound with pleiotropic effects on cellular signaling. This property may induce activation/inhibition of the estrogen receptors (ER) a or b, and therefore, explain the beneficial/deleterious effects of equol on estrogen-dependent diseases. With
[...] Read more.
Equol, one of the main metabolites of daidzein, is a chiral compound with pleiotropic effects on cellular signaling. This property may induce activation/inhibition of the estrogen receptors (ER) a or b, and therefore, explain the beneficial/deleterious effects of equol on estrogen-dependent diseases. With its asymmetric centre at position C-3, equol can exist in two enantiomeric forms (R- and S-equol). To elucidate the yet unclear mechanisms of ER activation/inhibition by equol, we performed a comprehensive analysis of ERa and ERb transactivation by racemic equol, as well as by enantiomerically pure forms. Racemic equol was prepared by catalytic hydrogenation from daidzein and separated into enantiomers by chiral HPLC. The configuration assignment was performed by optical rotatory power measurements. The ER-induced transactivation by R- and S-equol (0.1–10 µM) and 17b-estradiol (E2, 10 nM) was studied using transient transfections of ERa and ERb in CHO, HepG2 and HeLa cell lines. R- and S-equol induce ER transactivation in an opposite fashion according to the cellular context. R-equol and S-equol are more potent in inducing ERa in an AF-2 and AF-1 permissive cell line, respectively. Involvement of ERa transactivation functions (AF-1 and AF-2) in these effects has been examined. Both AF-1 and AF-2 are involved in racemic equol, R-equol and S-equol induced ERa transcriptional activity. These results could be of interest to find a specific ligand modulating ER transactivation and could contribute to explaining the diversity of equol actions in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Function 2009)

Review

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Open AccessReview Potential Health-modulating Effects of Isoflavones and Metabolites via Activation of PPAR and AhR
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 241-279; doi:10.3390/nu2030241
Received: 21 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Isoflavones have multiple actions on cell functions. The most prominent one is the activation of estrogen receptors. Other functions are often overlooked, but are equally important and explain the beneficial health effects of isoflavones. Isoflavones are potent dual PPARα/γ agonists and exert anti-inflammatory
[...] Read more.
Isoflavones have multiple actions on cell functions. The most prominent one is the activation of estrogen receptors. Other functions are often overlooked, but are equally important and explain the beneficial health effects of isoflavones. Isoflavones are potent dual PPARα/γ agonists and exert anti-inflammatory activity, which may contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis and various other inflammatory diseases. Some isoflavones are potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists and induce cell cycle arrest, chemoprevention and modulate xenobiotic metabolism. This review discusses effects mediated by the activation of AhR and PPARs and casts a light on the concerted action of isoflavones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isoflavones and Lignans)
Open AccessReview Streptococcus mutans, Caries and Simulation Models
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 290-298; doi:10.3390/nu2030290
Received: 24 December 2009 / Accepted: 23 February 2010 / Published: 2 March 2010
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dental caries and dental plaque are among the most common diseases worldwide, and are caused by a mixture of microorganisms and food debris. Specific types of acid-producing bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, colonize the dental surface and cause damage to the hard tooth structure
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Dental caries and dental plaque are among the most common diseases worldwide, and are caused by a mixture of microorganisms and food debris. Specific types of acid-producing bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, colonize the dental surface and cause damage to the hard tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates e.g., sucrose and fructose. This paper reviews the link between S. mutans and caries, as well as different simulation models that are available for studying caries. These models offer a valuable approach to study cariogenicity of different substrates as well as colonization of S. mutans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Function 2009)
Open AccessReview Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 299-316; doi:10.3390/nu2030299
Received: 2 February 2010 / Accepted: 1 March 2010 / Published: 5 March 2010
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production. This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B12, and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is
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Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production. This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B12, and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, mainly due to limited dietary intake of animal foods or malabsorption of the vitamin. Vegetarians are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency as are other groups with low intakes of animal foods or those with restrictive dietary patterns. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 is most commonly seen in the elderly, secondary to gastric achlorhydria. The symptoms of sub-clinical deficiency are subtle and often not recognized. The long-term consequences of sub-clinical deficiency are not fully known but may include adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, vascular, cognitive, bone and eye health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessReview Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 355-374; doi:10.3390/nu2030355
Received: 20 February 2010 / Revised: 16 March 2010 / Accepted: 16 March 2010 / Published: 18 March 2010
Cited by 115 | PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered
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Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content) results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.). Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Update)
Open AccessReview Omega-3 Index and Sudden Cardiac Death
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 375-388; doi:10.3390/nu2030375
Received: 1 March 2010 / Revised: 9 March 2010 / Accepted: 10 March 2010 / Published: 23 March 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an unresolved health issue, and responsible for 15% of all deaths in Western countries. Epidemiologic evidence, as well as evidence from clinical trials, indicates that increasing intake and high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
[...] Read more.
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an unresolved health issue, and responsible for 15% of all deaths in Western countries. Epidemiologic evidence, as well as evidence from clinical trials, indicates that increasing intake and high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protect from SCD and other major adverse cardiac events. Levels of EPA+DHA are best assessed by the Omega-3 Index, representing the red cell fatty acid content of EPA+DHA. Work is in progress that will further define the value of the Omega-3 Index as a risk factor for SCD, other cardiac events, and as target for treatment with EPA+DHA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Update)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D status during Pregnancy and Aspects of Offspring Health
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 389-407; doi:10.3390/nu2030389
Received: 18 January 2010 / Revised: 15 March 2010 / Accepted: 17 March 2010 / Published: 23 March 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy have been linked to various health outcomes in the offspring, ranging from periconceptional effects to diseases of adult onset. Maternal and infant cord 25(OH)D levels are highly correlated. Here, we review the available evidence for these
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Low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy have been linked to various health outcomes in the offspring, ranging from periconceptional effects to diseases of adult onset. Maternal and infant cord 25(OH)D levels are highly correlated. Here, we review the available evidence for these adverse health effects. Most of the evidence has arisen from observational epidemiological studies, but randomized controlled trials are now underway. The evidence to date supports that women should be monitored and treated for vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy but optimal and upper limit serum 25(OH)D levels during pregnancy are not known. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCorrection Correction: Farnfield, M.M., et al. Whey Protein Ingestion Activates mTOR-dependent Signalling after Resistance Exercise in Young Men: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2009, 1, 263-275.
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 317-318; doi:10.3390/nu2030317
Received: 8 March 2010 / Accepted: 8 March 2010 / Published: 8 March 2010
PDF Full-text (17 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract We found an error in our paper recently published in Nutrients [1]. [...] Full article

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