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Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2502-2521; doi:10.3390/nu5072502
Review

Vitamin D and Immune Function

,
,
 and
*
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, A 8036 Graz, Austria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
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Abstract

Vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptors are present in many cell types including various immune cells such as antigen-presenting-cells, T cells, B cells and monocytes. In vitro data show that, in addition to modulating innate immune cells, vitamin D also promotes a more tolerogenic immunological status. In vivo data from animals and from human vitamin D supplementation studies have shown beneficial effects of vitamin D on immune function, in particular in the context of autoimmunity. In this review, currently available data are summarized to give an overview of the effects of vitamin D on the immune system in general and on the regulation of inflammatory responses, as well as regulatory mechanisms connected to autoimmune diseases particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: vitamin D; autoimmunity; immune cells; adaptive immunity; innate immunity; cholecalciferol; calcitriol; 25(OH)D vitamin D; autoimmunity; immune cells; adaptive immunity; innate immunity; cholecalciferol; calcitriol; 25(OH)D
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Prietl, B.; Treiber, G.; Pieber, T.R.; Amrein, K. Vitamin D and Immune Function. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2502-2521.

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