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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 294; doi:10.3390/nu9030294

Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
2
Ministry of Education Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
3
Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Yeast Function, Yichang 443003, China
4
Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 51805, China
5
Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
The authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract

Chromium has long been known as an enhancer of insulin action. However, the role of chromium in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in humans remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine the associations of plasma chromium levels with T2DM and pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM). We conducted a case-control study involving 1471 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, 682 individuals with newly diagnosed pre-DM, and 2290 individuals with normal glucose tolerance in a Chinese population from 2009 to 2014. Plasma chromium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma chromium levels were lower in the T2DM and pre-DM groups than in the control group (median: 3.68 μg/L, 3.61 μg/L, 3.97 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for T2DM across increasing quartiles of plasma chromium levels were 1 (referent), 0.67 (0.55–0.83), 0.64 (0.51–0.79), and 0.58 (0.46–0.73), respectively (p for trend <0.001). The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for pre-DM were 1 (referent), 0.70 (0.54–0.91), 0.67 (0.52–0.88), and 0.58 (0.43–0.78), respectively (p for trend < 0.001). Our results indicated that plasma chromium concentrations were inversely associated with T2DM and pre-DM in Chinese adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: chromium; type 2 diabetes; pre-diabetes chromium; type 2 diabetes; pre-diabetes
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Chen, S.; Jin, X.; Shan, Z.; Li, S.; Yin, J.; Sun, T.; Luo, C.; Yang, W.; Yao, P.; Yu, K.; Zhang, Y.; Cheng, Q.; Cheng, J.; Bao, W.; Liu, L. Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 294.

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